i think this is the right term

evilolive2 asked:

I totally hear you about Jude showing signs of depression. What surprises me is people thinking he’s always going to be perfect after what he’s been through and Callie not being adopted and her behaviour still being a big cause of instability in his life. He’s dealing with so much! The whole point of his character is showing long-term effects of trauma, in a kid that finds it so hard to feel safe in the world that he tries to control everything and himself most of all and suffers internally.

Everything about this, okay. Read it and let it sink in.

This has been a PSA.

skeppet asked:

What do you think of the recent court decision to not allow long term Canadian expats the right to vote? I think it's bullshit. I don't live in Canada anymore, but it's still my home country with very many people that I know and care about still living in it and I want my vote to shape a better future for them.

It is bullshit.

You don’t lose your Canadian citizenship when you leave the country. You shouldn’t lose the right to vote. Expats still pay taxes and are affected by laws that effect Canada’s international community. And the 5 year limit is completely arbitrary. Its also weird that even if Canadians visit Canada, that doesn’t help. You would actually have to move back home and live permanently.

It also would directly target people like academics or those forced to move because the lack of opportunities available. Many would move back home in a second if they could make their living here.

anonymous asked:

How do you feel about President Bush and the Bush Administration (specifically Condoleezza Rice)? DO you feel that they did what was necessary in terms of Iraq and Afghanistan post-9/11? Or anything else that liberals like to attack the administration for? Sorry for the loaded question, I'm just curious. Thanks in advance!!!

This is an interesting questions, as it could be read two ways. 

First I’m not sure why you specify Condoleezza Rice as a person for me to give an opinion on. I don’t really have a strong opinion on her. I was quite young when she was a public figure and as she’s not involved in a big way in politics right now, I haven’t bothered to form one. She seems quite competent. 

The part that can be taken two ways is:

“DO you feel that they did what was necessary in terms of Iraq and Afghanistan post-9/11?”

The first way is “do you think they should have gone to war after 9/11 in these countries” in which case my answer is yes. They did what was necessary to respond after 9/11.

Now did they do what was necessary for a successful war and rebuilding effort? No. Certainly not. 

I agree with the wars in Afghanistan and Iraq in principle, but they were carried out very poorly and without a proper rebuilding or exit strategy…now Obama made that infinitely worse, but part of that blame is on Bush, his adminstration, and the intelligence community. 

As for other stupid liberal attacks on that issue. The WMD thing pisses me off to this day and I hate George W. and Jeb for continuing to agree with the media in “we didn’t find any WMDs in Iraq”. The hell we didn’t. We objectively did (yellowcake uranium) and we know that more was likely shipped over the border into Syria. 

anonymous asked:

imo trans guy sebastian makes a lot of sense to me bc of the hips thing. and the 'disgraced son' thing. or maybe i just wanna see more mentally ill trans guys in fiction that i can relate to. basically i love sebastian.

Nah don’t get me wrong I love trans/dfab sebastian wholeheartedly and agree

but as someone who’s nonbinary (which falls under trans) I’d like to see more agender, genderfluid and flux and demi hc too. Like, ye, MtF and FtM (iirc those are the right terms but someone correct me if they aren’t) hc are my jam and i don’t think it’s a case of ‘no, this chara’s hc as trans already, let me have this one’ (bc i do hc fenris as being dfab/FtM, so it’s not a thing of “well, fenris is already trans for me” or “merrill is trans for me” at all)

I like the idea of genderfluid sebastian vael who’s really happy at first when he starts to understand who he is. who’s proud of the fact he’s got curves “like a woman”, who makes friends with a servant when he’s young who makes him feel better about it and teaches him abt lore and such that makes him feel less like an abomination and more like, you know, something that’s normal and naturally occurring (as he is)

but also sebastian who’s parents don’t, like, at all understand, who keep forcing him to dress in “men’s” clothing, who keep cutting up his dresses or blouses and stuff, who keep digging through his things and destroying them because it’s “wrong”

sebastian who’s promiscuity is part of that - they want him to be a man so badly, he follows in the footsteps of the men his parents keep telling him he should. people like nathaniel howe, who’s squire to a family friend; they don’t mean to the letter, with drinking and sleeping around, but he does it anyway because if that’s the son they want that’s the son they’re getting

and who push him into the chantry because, you know, completely new reasons - the boozing is out of hand, the sleeping around has gotten out of hand, he’s presenting a danger to the line of succession - but who’s parents haven’t forgotten about the stuff he used to wear, who’s mother nervously asks if they can make him wear pants instead of a robe (as though a robe and a dress are the same thing), who’s father sneers at him as he leaves, who’s oldest brother cracks a joke about him becoming revered mother some day

sebastian who suppresses and suppresses and suppresses while he’s in kirkwall, who still wants to get justice for his family, because he thinks he’s who thy want him to be now - a boy, just a boy, not something disgusting like they used to keep calling him

and as for now i don’t see where he could return to that happy place of self understanding, where he could accept himself again, because being around elthina isn’t going to help - she’s always going to remind him of how bizarre he is, how peculiar, how strange, she’s always going to tell him that those things “aren’t natural” and keep telling him “the maker doesn’t make mistakes” and that his “natural body” is a blessing

he’d just be in a really gross spot with them all, being constantly told that he should be “happy” with his body. and to be fair, he is. he is okay with the parts he’s got. he’s not okay with the fact that no one will let him dress or express himself as he really, actually is, or wear what he’s comfortable with

*I keep using he/him pronouns bc i know from experience that fandom will get rly mad if i try to use gen. neutral ones for seb. i tried in another fandom w/ a character i was writing as genderfluid (using they/them pronouns and xe/xim ones) and someone kept making snide vagueposts about it in the character’s tag and it’s turned me off/made me uncomfortable ever since, so

thoughts on EP 19

That LaF/Perry/JP scene made my fucking heart sing. LaFerritage, anyone?

I absolutely agree with the fact that Vordie gave the Summers and the Zetas more than just ‘supernatural steroids.’ There’s definitely some kind of mind control/lack of control in terms of what the students can exert over their own bodies type shit going down.

I absolutely think that Danny could have been the one to shoot Carmilla, although it had to have been under some kind of influence like the mind control. I completely agree with the idea that Danny wouldn’t be so petty as to shoot Carmilla unless she did it unknowingly. In hindsight it could have also been Mel, considering she is kinda trigger happy. Although she never showed any specific hostility towards Carmilla, only Kirsch.

After watching the end of the episode several times, I noticed something. There is no tip on the arrow. Either the tip is in Carmilla’s chest and Mattie snapped the shaft, or there was no tip to begin with, and Carmilla was shot with a sharpened shaft. Basically a flying stake. And judging by how weak she is compared to how quickly she recovered after her time in the pit, this can’t be just a flesh wound. I highly doubt that Carmilla would be in this bad of shape unless she was hurt with something that is a specific weakness to vampires.

That is actualy something I’ve thought about before when working out details for my own fanfiction. Arrow shafts are either made of wood or carbon, and when they’re made of wood, they’re extremely light, but that doesn’t mean that if sharpened and shot from a bow with a heavy poundage, it couldn’t peirce flesh. And by the looks of the wound even though we’ve only seen the damage through Carmilla’s shirt, the hole is circular. There would have been a bigger rip if there had been an arrowhead on the arrow, unless they were using feild tips, which are usually round, but not all that sharp. My money’s on the idea that they simply sharpened the shafts.

All that aside, Carmilla being hurt does set up a nice opportunity for Hollstein to reconcile, so we’ll see what happens.

officialvarrictethras replied to your post: i went on that DW dragon age wank comm…

wait there’s a community for this i want to read it

yeah it’s called wankofthedas and it’s basically a community where pathetic ppl can circle jerk about how much they hate ppl in the da fandom on tumblr but ~anonymously~

realfenris replied to your post: i went on that DW dragon age wank comm…

what has anon comms touched that they do not spoil

tru but this is hilarious i’m laughing my ass off right now

brialas replied to your post: i went on that DW dragon age wank comm…

MONOPRIV holy shit!! also how dare u blog about what u love lmfao

i think that’s the first time that term has even been on my blog lmao also from here on out everything i like is canon and no one can argue w/ me sorry wankgate

alistairgreatlyapproves replied to your post: i went on that DW dragon age wank comm…

what is this site?

wankofthedas which is like i said mentioned above an anonymous wank community where pathetic ppl circle jerk about how much they hate ppl on tumblr

@kaza999 replied to your post: i went on that DW dragon age wank comm…

ohh boyyy i’m like….i’m speechless here

i’m laughing my ass off tbh

redraptorxayakatl replied to your post: i went on that DW dragon age wank comm…

what is this wanky hell??

the bar was already too low and the dreamwidth DA community was like “we have to set the bar even lower” and an anonymous wank community was born

anonymous asked:

This may come across as super awkward but do you think bollywood actors/actresses have sex with their bfs/gfs? For example, let's say deepika and ranveer, or ranbir and katrina.. or even Alia and Siddarth (if that pleases Kjo lol)

You’re right, it is awkward lol

I think most adults who are in long term relationships without being married, have sex. Some choose not to. But sex in a relationship is a really natural thing. I don’t want to think about the people you listed individually because….ick lol but just assume that they’re all old enough to decide what to do with their bodies and whom to do it with.

kingxxxqueen asked:

I mean all different things. They all get hate. I haven't seen gay hate on tumblr at all, but I do all over Facebook, from family, and at school. People get called names all the time. And that's just an example. On Facebook people use the term cis a lot more than it should be used. My friend gets a bunch of hate for being trans. I get hate for being athiest, and that's stupid. Why would people get hate for that. Not all hate is on tumblr. It's everywhere. So stop.

Oh god, okay. You wanna bring facebook, family, and school into this? Well, thanks to the massively incorrect information that people are spreading revolving otherkin, it has become incredibly well-known as nothing more than a joke internet-wide. And you know who goes on the internet and is affected by it? Family, schoolmates, coworkers–you name it, and the individuals involved most likely use the internet.

From what I’ve heard, online, the otherkin community on Twitter is nonredeemable. There’s too much hate. Facebook? I’ve heard it’s better than Twitter, but since so many people are misinformed, most would prefer not to use any facebook-stationed community, for fear of people they know finding out they were otherkin and misunderstanding. Or worse: being forcibly outed to their family/friends by a nasty person who specifically targets otherkin, who found their facebook and traced it back to whoever they could.

This isn’t about you. This isn’t about your friend. Yes, everyone gets hate. The issue I am speaking of and dealing with, is the unreasonable amount of hate aimed specifically at the otherkin tag and community on Tumblr, though elsewhere, especially online, otherkin are still negatively affected by obnoxious amounts of hate. 

The specifically tumblr otherkin community is what is being discussed. Not all people of differing groups everywhere. And the fact is that the tumblr otherkin community gets far more hate than is normal or typical for a community that isn’t innately harmful (*cough*shoplifting fandom*cough*).


  • CIS
  • MALE
  • (etc)”

posts bother me so much is because like?? i dont need to be reminded that its okay to be????cis or anything else on that list??

like its literally considered the social default for people?? and honestly who gives a shit if you see god forbid someone who is not what is considered the “social default” ranting or venting about their very real problems. like ???honestly you can handle it. someone saying they hate cis people over the internet is nothing compared to the struggles that oppressed people face honestly?

see idk why we still use boring old ableist insults when we can be super creative about it? like i’d rather call somebody “you rusted bolt on a wagon” than use outdated terms that imply that somebody’s mental health, intelligence or physical ability can make them lesser somehow to me? because that’s obviously not true so why would i act like it was

i just think the right creative insult at the right time can be a lot more scathing than one that ends up being degrading in the most smug, arrogant and pretentious way possible because it’s based on arbitrary characteristics that aren’t my business and ultimately shouldn’t be considered to be negative qualities

you can disagree if that’s how you feel but i guess just don’t be a wet dandelion about it


Sakamichi no Apollon Special Cast Talk

Topic: Have you ever experienced a transfer student coming to your school? (In high school)

Kimura Ryohei tells about his experience about an exchange student coming to his school and becoming close friend’s with.

Kimura Ryohei: Ahh! I just remembered!
Hosoya Yoshimasa: What? What is it?
Kimura Ryohei: There was this one girl, I think she was from America. I heard that she was very cute, this girl. Then we got on good terms and talked a lot with each other with the time being. Then after she left, we were still on good terms then… I do remember her telling me, “Umm Kimura-kun, I did like you.”
Hosoya Yoshimasa: How dramatic!!
Kimura Ryohei: Now you tell me?!
Hosoya Yoshimasa: EHHHH!!!
Kimura Ryohei: I just remembered, right now.
Hosoya Yoshimasa: Do you remember her name?
Kimura Ryohei: Mm. I do remember but it’s a secret. LOL!
Hosoya Yoshimasa: Ahh I see. Man, that’s nice.

czarrish asked:

"#all books in this series are centered around resolving one character's pivotal flaw" ooooo can you talk more about this and how you think it will be applied in trk?

Oh sure. I hope you don’t mind my posting this publicly, but it’s always good to have these things for reference in case I ultimately end up being right. 

I have noticed that at least in this series, Maggie ends up being very intentional in terms of her narration. “The Raven Boys” opens up with Blue’s thesis statement, which is that she has always been told that she will kill her true love, and how she has stayed away from kissing and boys all her life in an effort to prevent that. She’s also very prejudiced against Aglionby boys (she has her reasons, they seem to be mostly trashy privileged dudes), and she wants to be something more. She wants to be someone who is more than the amplifier of someone’s powers. 

In TRB, she sort of starts overcoming all of that, or at the very least, at the end of the book she has broadened her horizons in regards to “staying away from Aglionby boys” and she realizes that there’s a different kind of magic in her raven boys’ quest. She still wants to be “something more” and wants to recreate that feeling she gets when she looks at the stars, and sort of feels it in companionship of her friends. The book starts developing something critical in her and by the end, the road to change has started. 

“The Dream Thieves” is in all stretch of the concept, Ronan’s book. Once again, he’s the first narrator, and the thesis of the book has to do with the secrets he keeps and how he works them out. The whole book is a thesis of how Ronan comes to terms with what he’s capable of, and what his limits are, and how he slowly learns to accept his identity and everything that it entails. Kavinsky exists in the book to show him the alternatives and show him his options so that he can decide what to do with himself. What he’s going to choose. 

“Blue Lily Lily Blue” is actually Adam’s book. He doesn’t open the narration because this book is simultaneously made of plotty things, and also extension for the conclusion of the story. But the second chapter actually starts out with “Adam Parrish was lonesome”, which is the thesis statement of his book. He is lonesome because being Cabeswater’s hands and eyes has alienated him, yes, but he is also a one-man army who has to learn how to trust and that accepting help isn’t always charity. You have his struggle with his court case and how he doesn’t want to tell any of his friends but feels alone when push comes to shove, and how relieved he feels when he realizes that he actually would have liked their standing beside him at that time. The book helps him with that arc so that Chapter 51 of BLLB is actually “Adam Parrish was awake”

and… going back to your question, 

“The Raven King” is going to be Gansey’s book. 

We already saw the first line of the first chapter, and it’s from his POV, and he is the only character who hasn’t been explored yet. Gansey believes that when you have a knack for finding things you owe it to the world to look. He has built his life around this premise and he measures himself and his worth and his second chance at life as valuable depending on whether or not he finds Glendower. He’s not in it for the wish; TRB told us that much, he’s in it, in a way, because he needs to feel that having been brought back to life meant something. He needs to feel like his life is worth something, that his privilege has been used for a purpose more grandiose and bigger than himself. Which is why it’s a cruelty that this is the book where he’s going to die. I think in a sense, this book is going to explore him realizing that it’s not necessarily about assigning value to his life because of his accomplishments (Gansey had forgotten how many times he had been told he was destined for greatness”), but rather by the people that are around him. That it isn’t Glendower what makes his life worth living, but the fact that he managed to build himself a family who loves him and cares for him (”they always seem to walk away from him” imagine the Gansey who thought that seeing all his friends there when he’s about to die). Gansey still needs to work out a lot of things in his character and in terribly heartbreaking Maggie Stiefvater fashion she’s probably going to have him reach the pinnacle of his arc right before he’s dead. 

anonymous asked:

I'm 85-90% sure I'm a lesbian but I constantly doubt myself and somehow manage to keep on convincing myself that I still like boys too. It fluctuates a lot despite having no desire to be romantically or physically involved with men. I'm so confused. I know you're just a 16 yr old girl on the internet sorry to load this on you:-(

hi, i’m probably about to ramble and none of it is going to be coherent at all but.. coming to terms with being a lesbian in such a heteronormative society is so fucking scary and so daunting because all society wants is for women to have their existences intertwine with men’s at all costs and so when you begin to think you’re a lesbian, it’s always the same thoughts that creep into your mind, y’know? like, “oh, there’s probably at least one man that i could see myself with”, “i just haven’t found the right man yet” (b/c surprise, the right man is a woman) etc etc b/c compulsory heterosexuality is Pushed on everyone (especially young women) since… birth, essentially. it’s so incredibly fucking harmful, not to mention the fact that wlw relationships aren’t seen as legitimate or natural in media, they’re always fetishized or they’re always tragic or they’re always viewed as a big joke but you know what? being a lesbian is natural. loving women is natural. being a lesbian is normal. loving women is normal. it’s okay to not want to be romantically or physically involved with men. it’s okay to want absolutely nothing to do with men. your existence doesn’t have to intertwine with any man’s, ever. i know that it took me and most of the lesbians i know a very, very long time to accept this, and it’s always going to be something that i’m going to be thinking about b/c compulsory heterosexuality is a pain in the ASS but i know i’m a lesbian and i know my attraction to women is legitimate and i know that i want absolutely nothing to do with men and that’s okay. but it’s something that i’ve spent a very, very long time thinking about and talking about with fellow lesbians. i know it’s scary, i know it’s confusing, i know it’s daunting… but i know that you can overcome it, okay? everything’s going to be okay.

Ok so my searches for a decent career spread were unfruitful, I thought I’d share the one I created:

  1. career right now
  2. how to do better
  3. what not to do
  4. potential issues/complications (current or imminent)
  5. how to solve them
  6. near future of career
  7. opportunities to look out for
  8. long term of career
  9. current effect on your well-being
  10. future effect on your well-being

If you do use it let me know what you think! 

100% Chinese, 100% done with how Asian women are fetishized

happy AFAD!

I think that I’m remarkably good at staring stoically into bad phone cameras, but remarkably bad at coming to terms with my identity as an adoptee and feeling like I have a right to learn about my birth culture

I rediscovered my Chinese name recently, and even though it’s an orphanage name, I’ve still been clinging to it. Who is the girl that the name belonged to? Is she me? Am I her?

and sometimes, I look in the mirror, and chart my face like a map; it’s a game. was my nose from my father or my mother? my eyes? my mouth? I am forever changing and growing and wondering if my birth parents think of me and wish that they could see it

anonymous asked:

My friend and I are always arguing over whether or not dinosaurs could fly and swim. I tell her that the only things that are technically 'dinosaurs' are the land-only ones (brachiosaurs, raptors, etc) but she says that the ones that could fly (pterodactyls, etc) and swim (mosasaurs, pliosaurs, etc) were all dinosaurs too. I keep telling her that although they're related, they're not 'dinos' but she won't believe me :/ can I get your opinion? What's technically a dinosaurs and what's not?

Well I answered this in my FAQ page, but okay 

You’re sort of right in terms of land versus air versus ocean. I mean typically when we think of animals from this time period (the Mesozoic), we don’t think of things like crocodiles, lizards, mammals - the other land dwelling creatures that lived alongside dinosaurs. But it’s still not an accurate way of defining dinosaurs because plenty of other things lived on land… and dinosaurs eventually lived in the air (a la birds, which are dinosaurs). 

We define organisms nowadays in terms of how they’re related to one another, and not by their physical traits. I know, this is kind of confusing, but it’s really not that hard to understand when you wrap your mind around it. 

Of course, you figure out how organisms are related, evolutionarily speaking, using physical traits, but it’s very hard to define groups based on traits alone rather than relationships, because things can often be evolved multiple times in groups not even remotely related to one another - for example, both whales and sharks have the ability to swim… doesn’t make whales sharks, or vice versa. 

Dinosaurs are now defined as the group of animals that includes Iguanodon, Megalosaurus, their most recent common ancestor (MRCA,) and all of that ancestor’s descendants. Holy crap, right? How the hell are you supposed to know what those descendants are like? 

Well Iguanodon and Megalosaurus aren’t very similar at all - the only thing they have in common is that they are dinosaurs. Iguanodon is an Ornithischian, meaning a group of animals that consist of Eocursor, Triceratops, their most recent common ancestor, and all of that ancestors descendants - okay yeah now I can see you’re saying “HOLD UP, how do you KNOW all these animals are related?” 

We can track fossil forms and see how different traits evolved over time in these groups. So dinosaurs typically have their legs directly under the body - they also are at least mesothermic (somewhere between cold-blooded and warm-blooded) if not fully endothermic (warm-blooded); they ancestrally had protofeathers, a structure like fur (though it evolved from a different part of the epidermal layer - the skin - wooo convergent evolution again) that would serve as the starting point for feathers like we know them today; the common ancestor for all dinosaurs was bipedal, meaning it walked on two legs, though many types of dinosaurs re-evolved quadrupedalism; dinosaurs were all archosaurs, a type of Sauropsid (reptile) that is the group that consists of birds, crocodiles, their MRCA, and all of its descendants - archosaurs are typically characterized due to the presence of having their teeth in sockets, unlike other reptiles, as well as some skeletal features that are kind of complicated to explain; and there are a variety of skeletal features that are also complicated that are unique just to dinosaurs. 

But here’s the thing - a lot of features we think of as distinctive to dinosaurs were then lost by dinosaurs who didn’t need them anymore - for example, no living bird has teeth, but they’re all dinosaurs, meaning they’re all archosaurs, which is characterized by the tooth socket thing - see the pain of defining groups of organisms based on traits? 

Ornithischians and Saurischians are two basic groups of dinosaurs that diverged pretty much at the beginning of dinosaurian history - they had very different hip bones. Ornithischians had the pubis pointing backwards: 

And Saurischians, the pubis is pointing forwards: 

But that’s just in the common ancestor for both of those groups - the thing is, the pubis pointing backwards like in Ornithischians actually evolved three separate times in dinosaurs - in Ornithischians, in Therizinosaurs (a group of Saurischians,) and in birds (a group of Saurischians) - but the last two aren’t Ornithischians because we can see how they’re related to other dinosaurs based on the general trends of evolution in each dinosaur group and place them in the Saurischian group - do you see why we don’t define groups based on characteristics anymore? 

So basically, dinosaurs are what I said above - and every single one we know conclusively is in one of those two groups, though there are some animals that are under debate whether they’re true dinosaurs or animals closely related to the first dinosaur, but not quite the first dino themselves - if that makes sense - like, if the MRCA is the dinosaur “parent,” then these guys could also be “parents”, or they could be “aunts and uncles,” if that makes sense? 

The best way to determine if a singular animal was a dinosaur is just to… look it up. Go online, see its classification. For example, these are all dinosaurs: 

Iguanodon, Megalosaurus, Triceratops, Apatosaurus, Brachiosaurus, Stegosaurus, Protoceratops, Ankylosaurus, Bald Eagle, Edmontonia, Kentrosaurus, Kulindadromeus, Argentinosaurus, Diplodocus, Plateosaurus, Maisaura, Parasaurolophus, Massospondylus, Heterodontosaurus, Tianyulong, Coelophysis, Velociraptor, Troodon, House Sparrow, Tyrannosaurus, Allosaurus, Emu, Crow, Dilophosaurus… etc. 

Some dinosaurs evolved the ability to glide - like Microraptor. From those, some evolved the ability to fly - aka, birds (there’s some debate as to whether certain dinosaurs very closely related to birds could fly, and there’s similar debate on whether some early birds could actually fly or just glided, but the point is some dinosaurs do reside in the air.) Some other dinosaurs have evolved aquatic abilities - Spinosaurus was semi-aquatic, as are animals like penguins. All of these things are dinosaurs. 

So for other animals - like the ones your friend is confusing with dinosaurs - let’s, once again, stop with the characteristics, and start with the relationships. 

Pterodactylus, or what is typically thought of as a “flying dinosaur” (those things with the membraneous wings) was a type of Pterosaur - a group of animals defined as Anurognathus, Preondactylus, Quetzalcoatlus, their MRCA, and all organisms descended from that MRCA. Pterosaurs in general were actually very closely related to dinosaurs - they’re all part of the group Avemetatarsalia, which is a group of archosaurs. Meaning, pterosaurs weren’t dinosaurs, and birds aren’t a group of pterosaurs, but the most closely related group of animals living today to pterosaurs are birds. 

Deinosuchus was a huge type of crocodile - which is a kind of archosaur - but crocodiles aren’t Avemetatarsalians… so they’re not particularly closely related to dinosaurs, much less actual dinosaurs. 

As for the aquatic reptiles of the Mesozoic Era, they weren’t even closely related to dinosaurs. Plesiosaurus and Pliosaurus were members of the group Plesiosauria, which is a group of Pantestudines, which is part of the even bigger group Archosauromorpha. This means that plesiosaurs & pliosaurs weren’t archosaurs, but they were more closely related to modern archosaurs on the whole (so equally closely related both to crocodiles and birds) than they are to other reptiles like lizards. But you know what their closest modern relatives are? Turtles. Yup, Pantestudines includes Plesiosaria, but another branch, Testudinata, is turtles! Turtles are also a group of Pantestudines, which means they are also Archosauromorphs. We actually found this out using genetic research - turtles lost a lot of the same characteristics as not only archosaurs, but also lizards and snakes - meaning they seemed to be a very primitive type of reptile, rather than a member of one of these more derived groups. 

Lizards and snakes (and the Tuatara) are part of the other major grouping of reptiles other than archosauromorphs - the Lepidosauromorpha. You know what else is a Lepidosauromorph? That’s right, mosasaurs. Mosasaurs are a subgroup of Platynota - which are a group of lizards! Meaning Mosasaurs were lizards!! Not anywhere near closely related to dinosaurs. 

Now, Icthyosaurs - you didn’t mention them, but I’m sure your friend will ask - they were also reptiles (Sauropsids - which includes Lepidosauromorphs, Archosauromorphs, and some other closely related groups) - they were one of those closely related groups. Icthyosauromorphs diverged from the organisms that would evolve into both Leps and Archos before those two groups diverged from one another. Meaning, all modern reptiles - birds, crocodiles, snakes, lizards, turtles, and tuatara - are equally closely related to icthyosaurs. 

Here is a REALLY HANDY DIAGRAM showing all of this: 

Source: speaksforthebreeze! (Diapsida is a group of Sauropsids). 

Now - some other animals, right? Because people mix up stuff all the time. 

Dimetrodon is often mixed up with dinosaurs… but it wasn’t even a Sauropsid! In fact, Dimetrodon lived a long time before dinosaurs and even archosaurs evolved. Dimetrodon was a type of Synapsid - a group of animals that contains every Amniote (organism that lays hard-shelled eggs… or at least, the first organism that did so and all of its descendants - including mammals, yes, even the ones that no longer lay eggs) that is more closely related to mammals than to reptiles (sauropsids). Meaning, Dimetrodon was a type of animal, that looked superficially like a reptile… but wasn’t… that was on the lineage of animals that would eventually evolve into mammals. Not closely related to dinosaurs… at all

Same goes for Wooly Mammoths and Saber-Tooth Cats (like Smilodon) (they are not tigers) - they’re MAMMALS, which means they are no where near closely related to dinosaurs… meaning they’re not dinosaurs. Same for the Mastodon. Same for the Glyptodont. All mammals. 

As for Megalodon… Megalodon was a type of shark. Sharks are Chondrichthyes, or cartilaginous fish. You know what was the last group that sharks and dinosaurs had in common was? It was Gnathostomata - all jawed vertebrates - that is the last group that they’re both a part of, that they have a common ancestor in. After that, sharks go off to Chondrichthyes… The other group alive today after that is the Teleostomi, which is all bony fish. All bony fish include lobe-finned fish… which includes tetrapods (amphibians and all other land-dwelling vertebrates)… which includes amniotes, which includes mammals as well as Sauropsids. Meaning, dinosaurs are Teleostomis (and so are we,) but they’re not sharks, at all, meaning Megalodon is not a dinosaur, nor is any other type of shark

Dunkleosteus, that huge monstrous looking fish with the armored head, was a type of Gnathostomata, but wasn’t a shark OR a bony fish - it was a Placoderm, another group of Gnathostomatans which went extinct a long time ago. Meaning it, just as much as any shark, is not a dinosaur. 

As for animals that are made up by our collective imagination - such as Godzilla, Barney, and Indominus rex… well, they aren’t dinosaurs, because they aren’t part of that evolutionary group. I dunno what you would classify them as, as they aren’t part of any evolutionary group technically… but they aren’t dinosaurs. 

So… I know this was very long, and confusing, but hopefully this helps. 

TL;DR: Dinosaurs are a very specific group of animals. You can use many different definitions, here’s another one: Dinosaurs are the group of animals that includes the House Sparrow, Maiasaura, their most recent common ancestor, and all of that ancestor’s descendants. If an animal isn’t in that group, it’s not a dinosaur. Plain and simple.