hyperplasia

8 Herbs & Oils that Promote Hair Growth
1. Jojoba Oil

Jojoba oil is an extract of the Jojoba plant found in California, Arizona and parts of Mexico. Jojoba oil has been used for hundreds of years by American Indians to moisturize and grow hair. The molecular makeup of jojoba has similar characteristics to the natural oil the glands of the scalp produce. Jojoba oil can be purchased at herb shops and can be applied directly to your hair or you can add a few drops to your favorite conditioner to promote hair growth. Jojoba is hypoallergenic and will not harm your hair or scalp. Aloe vera is another product used by Native American Indians to promote hair growth and is also an excellent moisturizer for your hair.

2. Wheat Germ/Aloe Vera/Coconut Milk

Mix ¼ cup of wheat germ, ¼ cup of aloe vera and ¼ cup of coconut milk and use this product as a natural shampoo. Aloe vera can be purchased at drugstores and herb shops and can also be applied directly to the scalp as it will open pores on the scalp that may have previously been blocked and will allow the hair follicles to grow. The American Indians also used and continue to use several kinds of oils to promote hair growth such as emu oil, rosemary oil, and mustard oil.

3. Peppermint Oil

A few drops of any of these products can be massaged directly into the scalp to stimulate the hair follicles and promote hair growth. Peppermint oil is also a good scalp stimulator but must be diluted before application. Mix 3 drops of peppermint oilwith 3 teaspoons of water and massage into the scalp. These oils can be purchased at herb shops and all are hypoallergenic and not harmful to the hair or scalp.

4. Lavender Oil/Lavender Water

Lavender (Lavandula angustifolia or Lavandula officinalis), native to the Mediterranean, is now grown in temperate climates worldwide. For centuries, lavender has been used by herbal practitioners to prevent baldness and to encourage new hair growth. Lavender contains potent anti-bacterial agents that soothe and heal scalp infections. It is useful in treating dandruff and adds volume to the hair shaft. Place a few sprigs of lavender in a glass container and cover with extra-virgin olive oil and cover tightly. Place in a cool, dark spot and allow to age for 3 to 4 weeks. Use the lavender infused oil as a daily scalp massage. Apply and leave on overnight. In the morning, wash hair with a gentle organic shampoo and style as usual.

A daily rinse of lavender water (bring water to a boil, add a few sprigs of lavender, reduce to simmer for 20 minutes, then cool) will impart a delightful fragrance and shine to hair. Apply lavender as a daily rinse after shampooing.

5. Burdock Root Oil

Burdock (Arctium Lappa) root oil, also known as Bur oil is one of the most important herbs used to restore hair. Burdock promotes healthy hair by relieving scalp irritations and improving blood circulation to the hair follicle. Burdock root oil supplies natural phytosterols and important essential fatty acids to hair roots, and has been traditionally used to reduce and reverse hair thinning. It is a key ingredient in many hair restoration treatments.

6. Saw Palmetto

Saw Palmetto (Serenoa repens) has been used for centuries as both a food staple and as a healing medicinal herb. The herb produces a dark red berry which is dried and then pulverized into a fine powder. Saw palmetto is available in several forms including ointments, capsules, tinctures and teas. Recent scientific studies have shown that Saw Palmetto may have beneficial effects for those suffering from benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH); male pattern baldness and other conditions associated with excess DHT (male hormone) production.

7. Stinging Nettle

Stinging Nettle (Urtica Diocia), found growing naturalized across America, blocks the conversion of testosterone into DHT. Excessive DHT contributes to hair loss in both men and women. Stinging nettle can be purchased in either pill or capsule form and is said to be more effective when used in combination with saw palmetto. Nettle can be harvested in the wild (use gloves as the leaves are covered with tiny hairs that cause a stinging sensation upon contact with human skin). The fresh leaves can be submersed in olive oil in a glass jar. Seal and place in a cool, dark spot for 2 to 3 weeks. Apply the oil in an invigorating scalp massage. Stinging nettle essential oil is frequently an ingredient in organic shampoos and conditioners.

8. Rosemary

Used for centuries in cultures worldwide to promote hair growth and delay the onset of gray hair, Rosemary oil stimulates blood circulation of the scalp. A refreshing daily rinse of rosemary leaves simmered in water retains hair color. The rinse is most effective on dark hair. A few drops of rosemary oil can be added to olive oil and used as a scalp massage oil.

Article found on Black Girl Long Hair

glassslippers-and-tinywhiskers  asked:

Could you discuss delayed desexing and the alternatives like an ovary sparing procedure? It seems clear that in breeds like the GSD it benefits their health, but do we know much in regard to smaller breeds? (I know this topic can be controversial so if you'd prefer not to delve into it, or already have I understand) Also I've been loving the breed posts, thank you for taking the time to write them up!

I don’t at all mind discussing the topic when everyone remains civil about it. It’s very interesting and an aspect of veterinary medicine that’s bound to change as we gather more information. I’m happy to discuss it as long as all participants refrain from making personal insults.

It’s a long discussion folks. I’d grab a cuppa tea if that’s your thing. Also, unfortunately I can’t hide it under a ‘read more’ because it’s an answer to an ask, and Tumblr will eat the hidden part if I do. I will try to make it look pretty if you’re not interested.

Traditionally in dogs we have performed desexing (spey) by performing an ovariohysterrectomy, removing both ovaries and the uterus. Some alternatives have been suggested including tubal ligation, hysterectomy (removing only the uterus), ovariectomy (removing only the ovaries) or doing nothing. This is good. Science as a process should periodically review data, question the knowledge base and make recommendations based on new research. Otherwise it’s just dogma.

I don’t think you can claim that it is ‘clear’ that leaving the ovaries benefits the health of breeds like the GSD. The practice is still controversial at best, with some veterinarians outright labeling it at malpractice. There is some breed variability in terms of what relative benefits and risks might be expected, but I really wouldn’t call it ‘clear’.

Originally posted by wolfyoubemyvalentine

Before I talk about various cancer risks, let’s talk about relative risks of non-cancerous conditions.

With an ovariohysterectomy (traditional spey)that is properly performed, there is zero risk of pyometra. Stump pyo can occur if remnants of the uterus or ovaries are left behind. Cruciate tears are affected by multiple factors, but desexed dogs seem more prone to them than entire dogs. Weight gain and obesity is more common in desexed dogs.

The relative risk of pyometra in non-desexed dogs is about 25%. Risks typically increase with age.

With an ovary sparing spey (hysterectomy), only the uterus is removed. Pregnancy is prevented. Pyometra can still occur if any uterine or cervix tissue remains (a stump pyo). With the apparent influence of oestrogen, these dogs may be less at risk of cruciate disease and are less at risk of obesity.

With an ovariectomy, only the ovaries are removed. This renders the dog infertile and removes the influence of oestrogen. The uterus will atrophy and shrink down without stimulation from female hormones, rendering the risk of pyometra basically zero. It may still increase the risk of obesity and cruciate disease like the traditional spey.

Considering that pyometra is often lethal, while cruciate disease is painful but treatable, personally I would err on the side of preventing pyometra. Also keep in mind that obesity in dogs can be moderated with owner control of the diet, and obesity will predispose to cruciate injury. I would recommend removing at least the ovaries.

Male dogs have less surgical options. Vasectomy can be considered, but these dogs are basically entire but infertile.

An entire male dog is more at risk of perineal hernia, benign prostatic hyperplasia, perianal adenoma and inter-male aggression. A castrated male dog is relatively more at risk of, again, obesity, cruciate ligament disease, and possibly diabetes.

With the information above, and I haven’t brought cancers into the equation yet, you might wonder of preventing obesity in desexed dogs might reduce the incidence of cruciate disease and subsequently other conditions that we know are more common in obese dogs, namely cruciate ligament disease and diabetes. You might conclude that there is little benefit to leaving a dog entire if you’re able to control its weight.

I think that’s a reasonable assumption so far, though it’s clear to me that the benefits of traditional desexing are more pronounced in females.

Originally posted by heartsnmagic

Now lets talk about cancers.

There are multiple types of cancer. Some are more devastating than others. Some are more common than others. In terms of highly malignant cancers that show up relatively commonly in dogs, the ones we talk most about, and of most interest in this topic, are mammary cancer, haemangiosarcoma (HSARC), Mast Cell Tumor (MCT) and osteosarcoma (OSC).

  • Mammary cancer is extremely common in entire female dogs. In European countries where prophylactic desexing is not routinely performed mammary tumours make up 50-70% of all cancers seen. They are relatively rare in countries with a high desexing rate but extremely predictable in dogs desexed late in life or not at all. Speying earlier appears more protective compared to being left entire: speying before the first heat reduces risk to 0.05%, before second heat to 8%, and before 3rd heat to 26%. after the third heat there is negligible reduction in risk of mammary cancer compared to intact dogs.
  • Osteosarcoma may be three times (3x) more common in desexed large breed dogs.
  • Mast Cell Tumors maybe up to three times (3x) more common in desexed dogs of certain breeds. Lymphoma may be up to 10% more common in desexed dogs of certain breeds.
  • Haemangiosarcoma may be more common in neutered dogs of some breeds, but less common in neutered dogs of other breeds.

There isn’t much consensus across ALL dog breeds in ALL situations. There are numerous retrospective studies, and more coming out all the time (Science!) but more data needs to be analysed.

What is fairly clear is that there is a dramatic reduction in otherwise common mammary cancers by early desexing of females. There is probably some benefit in reducing other cancer risks to later desexng, or not desexing, dogs also.

So do you? Or don’t you?

There’s certainly more incentive to desex female dogs, as even pyometra on its own is a sneaky, life threatening condition. I recommend desexing most female dogs in their senior years if they haven’t already been done for this reason alone.

Assuming you do chose to desex, and I’m talking about procedures that involve at least removal of the gonads, it becomes a matter of when. If you don’t remove the ovaries then you have no benefits from desexing other than infertility. There’s no significant benefit in leaving the ovaries compared to leaving the dog entire.

For a small dog, OSC is incredibly rare. HSARC is rare. MCT can happen to anything. We weight up those relatively low risks compared to the very high risk of mammary cancer and pyometra, and I would advise speying before the first heat. With males timing is not as critical unless behavioural factors are involved.

For a larger dog, I personally think it’s worth delaying desexing to between the first and second heat. I would get too nervous about mammary cancers to wait beyond the second heat but there may be some benefit in preventing osteosarcoma by delaying surgery until more skeletal maturity, and same for cruciate injuries.

(I have a theory that osteosarcoma occurs in its predilection sites due to increased bio-mechanical forces in these areas, so waiting for skeletal maturity before removing the gonads might be helpful.)

On the other hand, screening for hip dysplasia and desexing if the dog definitely has it so you can perform a JPS also has benefits, because you’re addressing pathology the dog definitely has right now.

There are so many unknowns in these hypothetical scenarios. This makes it a challenge to make recommendations when clients just want the ‘right’ answer.

The best plan for the individual dog may depend on breed or breed mix (genetic testing would be ideal, but an added cost) or any known predispositions within the family or bloodlines.

So, this explanation is getting rather long, but there’s so much interesting information on this topic and it’s growing all the time.

Originally posted by mensweardog

TL:DR there is probably a benefit to delayed desexing in dogs prone to OSC, cruciate injury and HSARC. Some of the other risks may be mitigated by weight control. There is minimal if any benefit, and definitely some risk, in delaying desexing for small breeds.

But this field may change as more information is gathered. It will be worth watching over the next decade.

NB: shelters and rescues will always desex as young as possible, because their primary aim is population control. They are justified in doing this and their cases shouldn’t be considered in these scenarios.

(Majority of these statistics come from ‘The spay/neuter controversy’ presented at the OVMA by John Berg, DVM, DACVS and ‘ Long-term health effects of neutering dogs: comparison of Labrador Retrievers with Golden Retrievers‘ by Hart, Hart, et al)

Dr Ferox’s writing time is brought to you by her supporters on Patreon. You can support the blog from as little as $1 a month.

2

Myasthenia gravis is an autoimmune disease that causes chronic-progressive damage of the neuromuscular junction. In people with myasthenia gravis, the immune system inappropriately produces antibodies that bind to and block some acetylcholine receptors, thereby decreasing the number of functional acetylcholine receptors at the motor end plates of skeletal muscles. Because 75% of patients with myasthenia gravis have hyperplasia or tumors of the thymus, it is possible that thymic abnormalities cause the disorder. As the disease progresses, more acetylcholine receptors are lost. Thus, muscles become increasingly weaker, fatigue more easily, and may eventually cease to function.

Myasthenia gravis occurs in about 1 in 10,000 people and is more common in women, who typically are ages 20 to 40 at onset, than in men, who are usually ages 50 to 60 at onset. The muscles of the face and neck are most often affected. Initial symptoms include weakness of the eye muscles, which may produce double vision, and difficult in swallowing. Later, the person has difficult chewing and talking. Eventually the muscles of the limbs may become involved. Death may result from paralysis of the respiratory muscles, but often the disorder does not progress to this stage.

alphabet soup: disease edition

Here are a few commonly used medical abbreviations:

AAA - abdominal aortic aneurysm
ACS - acute coronary syndrome
ADHD - attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder
AIDS - acquired immunodeficiency syndrome
AKI - acute kidney injury
ALS - amyotrophic lateral sclerosis aka Lou Gehrig’s disease
ARDS - acute respiratory distress syndrome
ASD - atrial septal defect
AVM - arteriovenous malformation
BPH - benign prostatic hyperplasia, now known as LUTS
BV - bacterial vaginosis
CAD (s/p PCI/CABG) - coronary artery disease (status post percutaneous coronary intervention/coronary artery bypass grafting)
CHF - congestive heart failure
CKDI-IV - chronic kidney disease (stage I-IV)
COPD (on HOT) - chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (on home oxygen therapy)
CVA - cerebrovascular accident aka stroke
DDD - degenerative disc disease
DJD - degenerative joint disease
DLD - dyslipidemia aka HLD
DMD - Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy
DMI aka IDDM - Diabetes mellitus Type I aka Insulin-Dependent Diabetes mellitus, previously known as Juvenile-onset Diabetes
DMII aka NIDDM - Diabetes mellitus Type II aka Non-Insulin-Dependent Diabetes mellitus, previously known as Adult-onset Diabetes
DT - delirium tremens
DVT - deep vein thrombosis
ED - erectile dysfunction
ESRD on HD - end stage renal disease on hemodialysis
GAD - general anxiety disorder
GERD - gastroesophageal reflux disease
GIB - gastrointestinal bleed
GVHD - graft vs host disease
HIV - human immunodeficiency virus
HLD - hyperlipidemia aka DLD
HPV - human papillovirus
HTN - hypertension
HUS - hemolytic uremic syndrome
IBD - irritable bowel disease
IBS - irritable bowel syndrome
ICH - intracranial hemorrhage
IDDM - see DMI
ITP - idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura
LEMS - Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome
LGIB - lower gastrointestinal bleed
LUTS - lower urinary tract symptoms
MAC - Mycobacterium avium complex
MDD - major depressive disorder
MM - multiple myeloma
MS - multiple sclerosis
NIDDM - see DMII
NPH - normal pressure hydrocephalus
NSTEMI - non-ST segment elevation myocardial infarction
OA - osteoarthritis
OCD - obsessive compulsive disorder
OHS - obesity hypoventilation syndrome aka Pickwickian Syndrome
OSA (on BiPAP/CPAP) - obstructive sleep apnea (on bilevel positive airway pressure/continuous positive airway pressure machine)
pAF (on AC) - paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (on anticoagulation)
PBC - primary biliary cirrhosis
PE - pulmonary embolism
RA - Rheumatoid arthritis
SARS - severe acute respiratory syndrome
SLE - systemic lupus erythematosis
STEMI - ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction aka ischemic heart attack
STD - sexually transmitted disease
TB - Tuberculosis
TBI - traumatic brain injury
TIA - transient ischemic attack aka stroke symptoms that last <24 hours
TMJ - temporomandibular joint disorder
TTP - thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura
UC - ulcerative colitis
UGIB - upper gastrointestinal bleed
URI - upper respiratory tract infection
UTI - urinary tract infection
VSD - ventricular septal defect

anonymous asked:

I reading your fantasy bio posts and you said on one that it would take a lot of energy for a dog to transform into a human and vice versa. I assume you're talking about metabolism? Does that mean that if a werewolf takes medicine and then transforms, the medicine will break down and leave their system faster than it would normally?

While changing your physical structure, growing and remodeling tissues, and metabolizing drugs both fall under ‘metabolism’, they are rather different processes.

To turn into a wolf shape and a human shape and back again, many, many cells in the body would have to undergo hyperplasia (cell division), hypertrophy and/or atrophy. Cell division typically happens fairly slowly (unless you are an embryo or a cancer), so speeding it up to be fast enough to change whole tissues on a monthly/nightly/hourly basis will take up a huge amount of energy, and those cells may not be doing a whole lot else.

When people talk about drugs being metabolised, they may either being real metabolism (where one molecule is progressively turned into other molecules) or excretion (where he molecule is filtered out from the body). Most drugs undergo a little of both.

If the drug in question is mostly excreted, then the rate of that happening is probably not changed much by shapeshifting, if I assume the liver and kidneys are not doing a whole lot of morphing like the rest of the body. If the drug in question is actually being metabolised and not just excreted then it might actually be slowed down by cells of the body having so much other stuff to spend energy and protein on.

Not all parts of metabolism need to be sped up to shapeshift, but doing so will require lots of cellular energy.

anonymous asked:

How do you feel when people point out that trans people still have the same chromosomes and there bodies still produce horomones of their birth sex? I find it hard to answer because biologically speaking that is a true statement. Just wondering if you had a good way to answer it when some bigot tries to use it against trans people. Love you!

Biologically speaking, that is a true statement. However, its more nuanced than that. You see, chromosomes are not the end all, be all of gender assignment like we once assumed.

Gender was biologically defined as XY (male) and XX (female). Through further study though, we’ve found it a bit more complicated. Males can be born with XXY or XXXY chromosomes, making their male features less distinguished, and having a more feminine build. Or, they can be born with XYY, making them have overtly male characteristics. Some females can have XX chromosomes in some cells, and XY in others. 

So, while you still produce hormones related to your chromosome pairing, the amount of hormones produced and their effectiveness on shaping your appearance can vary wildly.

Even if you’re born with XX or XY chromosome pairs, things aren’t always black and white. Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia in XX chromosome pairs result in masculine features and genitalia.  Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome in XY chromosome pairs results in feminine features and sometimes genitalia. In both of these cases, the hormones you produce do not match your chromosome pairing, and effectively change your perceived biological gender.

To further complicate this, studies have shown that if hormone therapy is started early enough (before puberty) its possible that the body will adapt and begin producing the new hormones naturally instead of birth hormones. 

Gender is not a biological, set in stone construct. Gender is fluid, and is able to be changed and manipulated. 

Isn’t science great?

A warning for people looking into congenital adrenal hyperplasia: do not trust congenitaladrenalhyperplasia.org! The site is run by a dyadic father of two XY children with CAH, which has very different effects than the condition has on XX individuals (it may be possible for people with trisomy X to have it as well, but I have yet to encounter it. As for other chromosomal combinations, I have no idea so I won’t act like I do). The website erroneously claims that CAH is not a form of intersex, that homosexuality is a choice (this was in response to the observed fact that many XX individuals with CAH are queer, a higher percentage than XX individuals without it), and uses the h slur. 

About a year ago I contacted the siterunner and told him how he was wrong, but the only response I got was, as an exact quote:
Homosexual behavior is a choice. The APA was pressured into its false finding by political groups decades ago. There are literally thousands of former homosexuals living happy, well-adjusted lives that demonstrate clearly that it is indeed a choice.
Your position is dangerous in that it tricks impressionable youths into believing they are locked into a behavior they can choose to leave. The false teaching that homosexual behavior is some how genetically obligatory has been the cause of mental anguish and suicides among teens and young adults for decades. Please stop spreading such poison. Have some compassion for the kids you are coning[sic]. They deserve the truth
. “

So obviously this is not a reputable site.

-Mod C

Lipoid congenital adrenal hyperplasia.

Lipoid congenital adrenal hyperplasia is an uncommon form of CAH resulting from defects in the earliest stages of adrenal cortisol synthesis: the transport of cholesterol into the mitochondria of the cells of the adrenal cortex and the conversion to pregnenolone. Lipoid CAH causes mineralocorticoid deficiency in all affected infants and children. XY infants (genetic males) are severely undervirilized and are usually assigned and raised as girls. The adrenals are large and filled with lipid globules derived from cholesterol.

What is CAH?

Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) refers to any of several autosomal recessive diseases resulting from defects in steps of the synthesis of cortisol from cholesterol by the adrenal glands. All of the forms of CAH involve excessive or defective production of sex steroids and can pervert or impair development ofprimary or secondary sex characteristics in affected infants, children, and adults. Many also involve excessive or defective production of mineralocorticoids, which can cause hypertension or salt-wasting.

The term congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) encompasses a group of autosomal recessive disorders, each of which involves a deficiency of an enzyme involved in the synthesis of cortisol,[ aldosterone, or both. Deficiency of 21-hydroxylase, resulting from mutations or deletions of CYP21A, is the most common form of CAH, accounting for more than 90% of cases.

The most common type of CAH is due to deficiency of 21-hydroxylase. Lipoid CAH is one of the less common types of CAH due to deficiencies of other proteins and enzymes involved in cortisol synthesis.

Keep reading

Who made you the intersex police?

So lately I’ve been seeing a nasty rash of posts going round Tumblr about how intersex is, like, only a few very rare conditions where the body creates two sets of genitals. Everything else doesn’t, in their view, qualify sufficiently.

I am not down with this shit and here’s why.

People who have certain medical conditions where genitals are formed somewhat outwith the standard set, or where chromosomes are perhaps different than expected or more than hoped for, may have been diagnosed with a certain condition that very few other people have.

When you have one of these conditions, things can get a bit lonely. But if you know someone who has a similar condition to you, even if it’s not exactly the same, you can find comfort in knowing you have had similar experiences. Maybe the same surgery has been recommended to you both. Maybe you both know the awful pain of having been put through surgeries against your will when you were very young. Maybe you both understand how it feels to be a curiosity to a doctor, to be told that you’re the only person they’ve ever seen with your condition. Maybe you just want to know someone for whom things are complicated in the same way they’re complicated for you.

But how do you find these people? There are many many conditions that have some similarities, so you need some sort of name to rally behind. That’s what intersex is - a political designation as well as a physical one. After all, some people with your condition may not want to say they are intersex, may want to cling onto the gender/sex they were assigned at birth, and that’s fine. Any movement has to take into account the naysayers, and let them have their space.

Because intersex, it is a movement. It’s a push back against the medical profession that does such horrors to us. It’s a challenge to those who argue that there are only two sexes. It’s a vision of the future filled with diverse bodies, uncarved by the surgeon’s knife, unbroken by a world that insists on forcing square pegs into round holes.

Intersex is my community and my space and I will not be redefined out of it. I stand with all who want to live their lives and keep their bodies as they were made or to choose to change them as they wish, not as doctors would decree.

Autosomal Recessive Diseases List
  • Abetalipoproteinemia: decrease ApoB-48, Apo B-100; pigmentary degeneration of retina, acanthocytes, steatorrhea, cerebellar ataxia.
  • Acute Fatty Liver of Pregnancy: microvesicular steatosis in the liver, mitochondrial dysfunction in the oxidation of fatty acids leading to an accumulation in hepatocytes
  • Alkaptonuria: homogentisate oxidase deficiency, increase homogenistic acid, ochronosis, dark blue urine.
  • AcylCoA Dehydrogenase deficiency (MCAD): fasting hypoglycemia, no ketone bodies, dicarboxilic acidemia.
  • Bernard Soulier Sd: gp1b deficiency, prolonged bleeding time
  • Bloom Sd: chromosome 15, Ashkenazi Jews, BLM gene.
  • Carpenter Sd: craniosynostosis, acrocephaly, craniofacial asymmetry, increased ICP, cutaneous syndactyly, polydactily, mild-profound MR.
  • Chediak Higashi Sd: Lyst gene mutation, microtubule polymerization defect, no phagolysosome formation, albinism.
  • Chondrodystrophy: normal-sized trunk and abnormally short limbs and extremities (dwarfism)
  • Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia: 17alpha or 21beta or 11 beta hydroxylase deficiency; enlargemente od adrenal glands due to increase ACTH
  • Congenital Hepatic Fibrosis: hepatic (periporta) fibrosis, irregularly shaped proliferating bile duct, portal hypertension, renal cystic disease.
  • Cystic Fibrosis: CFTR gene, Phe508, defective Chloride channel, chromosome 7.
  • Dubin-Johnson Sd: direct hyperBbnemia, cMOAT deficiency, black liver
  • Endocardial Fibroelastosis: restrictive/infiltrative cardiomyopathy, thick fibroelastic tissue in endocardium of young children, <2yo
  • Familial Mediterranean Fever: chromosome 16, recurrent autoinflammatory disease, characterized by F°, PMN disfx, sudden attacks pain/inflammation (7 types of attacks (abdominal, joints, chest, scrotal, myalgias, erysipeloid, fever). Complication: AA-amyloidosis
  • Fanconi Anemia: genetic loss of DNA crosslink repair, often progresses to AML, short stature, ↑incidence of tumors/leukemia, aplastic anemia
  • Friedreich’s Ataxia: GAA triplet repeat, chromosome 9, neuronal degeneration, progressive gait & limb ataxia, arreflexia, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, axonal sensory neuropathy, kyphoscoliosis, dysarthria, hand clumsiness, loss of sense of position, impaired vibratory sensation.
  • Gaucher’s disease: glucocerebrosidase deficiency, glucocerebroside accumulation, femur necrosis, crumpled paper inclusions in macrophages.
  • Ganzman’s thromboasthenia: gpIIbIIIa deficiency, deficient platelet aggregation.
  • Hartnup Disease: tryptophan deficiency, leads to niacin deficiency, pellagra-like dermatosis
  • Hemochromatosis: HFE gene, C282Y MC mutation, chromosome 6, unrestricted reabsorption of Fe+ in SI, iron deposits in organs, bronze diabetes, DM1, malabsorption, cardiomyopathy, joint degeneration, increased iron, ferritin, TIBC. Complications: liver cirrhosis, hepatocelullar carcinoma
  • Homocystinuria: due to B6 deficiency (defective Cystathionine synthase) or due to B9,B12 deficiency (defective Homocysteine Methyltrasnferase), dislocated lenses (in & down), DVT, stroke, atherosclerosis, MR.
  • Krabbe's Disease: Galactocerebrosidase deficiency, galactocerebroside accumulation, gobloid cells, optic atrophy, peripheral neuropathy.
  • Leukocyte Adhesion Defect (LAD): CD-18+ deficiency, omphalitis in newborns, chronic recurrent bacterial infxs, increase WBC count, no abscess or pus formation.
  • Metachromic Leukodystrophy: Aryl-sulfatase A deficiency, sulfatides accumulation, Demyelination (central & peripheral), Ataxia, Demantia (DAD)
  • Niemann-Pick Disease: sphingomyelinase deficiency, sphingomyelin accumulation, HSM, cherry-red macula, foam cells.
  • Phenylketonuria (PKU): phenylalanine hydroxylase deficiency, Phe accumulation, MR, microcephaly, diet low in Phe!!! also in pregnancy, avoid aspartame, musty odor.
  • Polycystic Kidney Disease (children): ARPKD, rogressive & fatal renal failure, multiple enlarged cysts perpendicualr to renal capsule, association with liver cysts. Bilateral palpable mass.
  • Rotor Sd: direct hyperBbnemia, cMOAT deficiency, no black liver
  • SCID: ADA def. & rag-1, rag-2 def, bubble-boy
  • Shwaman Diamond Sd: exocrine pancreatic insufficiency (2°MCC in children after CF), bone marrow dysfunction, skeletal abnormalities, short stature.
  • Situs inversus: assoc w/ Kartagener sd
  • Sicke Cell Disease and Trait: Hb S, beta globin chain, chromosome 11, position 6, nucleotide codon change (glutamic acid --> valine), vaso-occlusive crisis (pain), autosplenectomy, acute chest pain sd, priapism, hand-foot sd, leg ulcers, aplastic crisis, drepanocytes & Howell-Jolly bodies, hemolytic anemia, jaundice, bone marrow hyperplasia
  • Tay-Sachs Disease: Hexoaminidase A deficiency, GM2 accumulation, cherry-red macula, onion skin lysosomes.
  • Thalasemia: alpha (chromosome 16, gene deletion), beta (chromosome 11, point mutation)
  • Werner Disease: adult progeria
  • Wilson’s Disease: Chromosome 13, WD gene, ATP7B gene (encondes for Copper transporting ATPase), copper accumulation in liver, brain (putamen), eyes (Descemet membrane - Kayser-Fleischer ring), decreased ceruloplasmin.
  • Xeroderma Pigmentosa: defective excision endonuclease, no repair of thymine dymers caused by UV radiation, excessive freckling, multiple skin cancers.
Endometrial Ablation

Endometrial Ablation is a non-hormonal treatment of chronic painful and heavy periods. It destroys the uterine lining (endometrium) which then scars, which then reduces or prevents uterine bleeding.

Pregnancy:

Pregnancy after the procedure is less common, but because the uterine lining cannot support the pregnancy is very high risk. It is important to use pregnancy prevention methods, especially if you are younger and getting this procedure done. A good option is long acting birth control like IUDs or options like Essure or tubal ligation. 

Procedure options:

  • Laser Thermal Ablation
  • Heat (radiofrequency, thermal balloon ablation, heated free liquid)
  • Electricity
  • Freezing
  • Microwave

What to Expect

  • can be done at your doctor’s office or other outpatient facility
  • takes up to 45 minutes
  • can use local, spinal, or general anesthesia
  • you will be asked to fast for eight hours before the procedure, generally after midnight.
  • the doctor will explain the procedure to you. Take the chance to ask any questions you have
  • You will be asked to sign a consent form that gives your permission to do the procedure. Read the form carefully and don’t be afraid to ask questions
  • Let your doctor know if you are sensitive or are allergic to any medications, iodine, latex, tape, and anesthetic agents (local and general).
  • Tell your doctor about any medications (prescribed and over-the-counter) and herbal supplements that you are taking.
  • Notify your doctor if you have a history of bleeding disorders or if you are taking any anticoagulant (blood-thinning) medications, aspirin, or other medications that affect blood clotting.
  • Your doctor may prescribe medication(s) to help thin the endometrial tissues in preparation for the ablation procedure. You may need to take the medication(s) for several weeks before the procedure.
  • You may receive a sedative to help you relax. Get someone to drive you home. Even if you aren’t on a sedative it’s probably a good idea to have someone with you.
  •  bring a menstrual pad to wear home 

Immediate Side Effects

  • cramping
  • nausea
  • bloody and increased discharge
  • frequent urination
  • It takes a few days to 2 weeks for these side effects to go away.

When to get it

  • symptoms haven’t gotten better with other treatments like birth control.
  • you do not want any more children
  • you prefer, or medical problems prevent a hysterectomy 
  • You want an option that doesn’t involve surgery or hormones.
  • all other treatments have failed or can’t be used

Severe but Rare Risks

  • puncture or perforation of the uterus
  • burns with thermal methods
  • buildup of fluid in the lungs
  • blockage of blood flow in lungs
  • cervical laceration 
  • infection
  • bleeding

Things to think about

  • You can’t have this done if you have endometrial cancer
  • In younger individuals you are more likely to continue to have periods or to need repeat procedures
  • in younger individuals gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogues may be used 1-3 months before to thin the uterine lining
  • regrowth of the lining is possible
  • you must go through a thorough examination including biopsy to rule out any possible cancer and imagining examinations like laparoscopy to make sure there are no growths or cysts.
  • Depending on the type of procedure, you may need full anesthesia which does come with risks.
  • 6-25% of patients report that the procedure does not help them with their periods, 50% of patients report an absence of periods after the procedure.

Procedure may not be right for you if you have:

  • certain disorders of the uterus or endometrium
  • endometrial hyperplasia
  • cancer of the uterus
  • recent pregnancy
  • current or recent infection of the uterus
  • would like to become pregnant
  • are post-menopausal

What to expect

  • After meeting with a nurse and all the preliminary questions you’ll undress and get in a hospital gown
  • An IV may be started in your arm or hand depending on the anesthesia
  • You will lie on the examination table, with your feet in stirrups like a pelvic examination.
  • A urinary catheter may be inserted.
  • Your doctor will insert a speculum to better see the cervix
  • Your cervix may be cleansed with an antiseptic solution.
  • Depending on the devices used, they may use a type of forceps to hold the cervix steady, sounds or rods to dilate the uterus, a scope inserted into the uterus, 
  • Electricity: a roller ball, spiked ball or wire loop — becomes hot and is used to carve furrows into the endometrium. Electrosurgery requires general anesthesia and generally takes 30 minutes or less to complete.
  • Freezing: Cryoablation uses extreme cold to create two or three ice balls that freeze and destroy the endometrium. Real-time ultrasound allows the doctor to track the progress of the ice balls. Each freeze cycle takes up to 6 minutes to complete; the number of cycles needed depends on the size and shape of your uterus.
  • Microwave: a slender wand that emits microwaves, which elevate the temperature of the endometrial tissue to 167 to 185 F (75 to 85 C). The doctor moves the wand from side to side while pulling it out of the uterus. Total treatment time is usually three to five minutes.
  • Radiofrequency: a slender wand that emits microwaves, which elevate the temperature of the endometrial tissue to 167 to 185 F (75 to 85 C). The doctor moves the wand from side to side while pulling it out of the uterus. Total treatment time is usually three to five minutes.
  • Hot fluid: Saline fluid heated to 176 to 194 F (80 to 90 C) is circulated within the uterus for about 10 minutes. This method can be more painful than other office-based methods, but it’s the method most likely to get complete coverage. The fluid will be pumped out after
  • Heated Balloon: A balloon device is inserted through your cervix and then inflated with fluid heated to 188.6 F (87 C). The balloon helps prevent fluid from escaping up the fallopian tubes, but the balloon sometimes isn’t flexible enough to contact the entire endometrium. This method takes about 10 minutes to complete.: 
  • After whatever procedure you have do not use douches, tampons, or have intercourse for 2-3 days
  • You may take a pain reliever for cramping

Talk to your doctor if you experience:

  • foul smelling discharge
  • fever/chills
  • severe stomach pain
  • bleeding longer for two days or heavy bleeding
  • difficulty urinating

Wayfaring’s Menstruation Fun Facts, pt 3: Tick Tock

- The 28 day rule is not a rule. It’s an average. Normal menstrual cycles are 21-35 days.  3-7 days is standard for a period.

- 97% of menstruating people will start having periods by age 16. If you are 16 and haven’t had a period, it’s time to see a doctor. 

- If you are within 2 years of menarche (the start of menstruation), irregular or skipped cycles are common. Many people do not ovulate monthly for several years after menarche, so periods may skip months at a time. 2/3 of y’all will develop normal monthly periods within 2 years of menarche.

- Skipped periods happen for loads of reasons: PREGNANCY, rapid weight loss or weight gain, drastic change in diet, disordered eating, increased stress, change of environment (hello dorm life!), medications, birth control, polycystic ovarian syndrome, or being peri-menopausal.

- Individual periods may vary a bit from your normal. Some may be heavy (especially during the winter) and some may be light. Periods that last longer than 6 days for at least 3 cycles should be investigated (or earlier if you have symptoms of anemia). 

- Bleeding between periods is not normal and has many causes including, but not limited to: overly thickened endometrium that has outgrown its blood supply and shed (either from endometrial hyperplasia, endometrial cancer, anovulatory cycles, or simply a hormonal birth control with too much estrogen); a thinned “raw” endometrium from recent procedure or progesterone-only contraceptives; infections; miscarriage; fibroids.

- The only normal mid-cycle spotting is that which can occur with ovulation.

anonymous asked:

I am an INTJ girl-to-boy transgender brony, jehovah's witnesses, with congenital adrenal hyperplasia, and also a lefty. how statistically improbable am I ?????

You aren’t. You are just one human among 7 billion, all but identical, your genetics all but identical to vegetable matter. You are just one more vegetable. A completely nondescript cog in the machine that is life, there to be used and abused and replaced with an identical part when you finally wear out. You are not special. Nobody is special. We live and we die and we are forgotten. Less than a blip in time. You are forgettable and unimportant, like every other organism that ever walked, crawled, lurched, swam, or laid down roots on this planet. This planet is forgettable, just a tiny, soggy satellite of a tiny, unimportant star among hundreds of billions of other equally unimportant stars, making up a galaxy just as bland and uninteresting as its hundreds of billions of neighbors. There is nothing new. There is nothing unique. There is nothing special. Just cogs turning in a big, shapeless, pointless machine, achieving nothing but mere existence.

Greeting everyone! =)

SERMs are Selective estrogen receptor modulators.
They have varied effects on estrogen receptors in different tissues and it might get confusing (especially, effects of different drugs on the endometrium!) Mnemonic to the rescue! ^__^

Tamoxifen and Raloxifene are used in breast cancer as they are antagonist of estrogen at the level of breast.

Tamoxifen and Raloxifene, like estrogen, has been shown to increase bone density and to reduce the likelihood of development of osteoporosis. (Partial agonist at bone!) Tamoxifen causes endometrial changes, including polyp formation, hyperplasia, and frank invasive carcinoma. (Remember: T is symbolic for +ve at endometrium.)

Raloxifene reduces the risk of uterine cancer. (Remember: R is symbolic for -ve at endometrium.)

That’s all!
Hope it helps. Lemme know if you have any mnemonics on SERMs.
Also, pray that I do well in my exams =)
-IkaN

Persistence: the fact of continuing in an opinion or course of action in spite of difficulty or opposition.

Height: 5’10
Before was Feb 2013 (about 300lbs)
After: Feb 2014 (213lbs)
(i am 15 lbs lighter since feb, but this photo is too fabulous for comparison)

Who would have thought 1 year could make such a difference right.

I’m gonna shape that body so hot. You are too!

Throw those negative thoughts out of the Window, it’s the only way you can pick up and start running.

My life hasn’t been exactly flowers and roses.
i have to fight and i will because i know it’s worth it. I wouldn’t be where i am if i haven’t made the decision to start in August 2013. 9 mths now, not a day i go without people telling me about my weight lost and it made me feel so good about myself.

I promise you, this is my last before and after picture. The next time i post a before and after will be on the 31st of july where you will see my tranformation after the insanity work out.

It will also mark the day i complete my medication and also!!!!!!!

my official 1 year weight lost journey!

I can’t wait to see what I’m capable of! I been on a plateau for 2 mths now no matter what i do the weight seem to be stuck but i am giving this work out my best and i think it’s going to surprise me.

Join me in my workout. It’s really lonely doing it alone. :( let’s do this!!!!!!

I’m so hype up right now i can’t wait to get my life back!

Complex atypical hyperplasia of endometrium i am going to conquer you!

Fats i am going to burn you!

Muscles and hot body i am coming for you!!!!!!!!

Even though i don’t know what tomorrow holds, i make the days i have remaining count.

*big wide smile for everyone*

xoxo

Robert Pershing Wadlow (February 22, 1918 – July 15, 1940) also known as the Alton Giant and the Giant of Illinois, is the tallest person in history for whom there is irrefutable evidence. The Alton and Illinois monikers reflect the fact that he was born and grew up in Alton, Illinois.

Wadlow reached 2.72 m in height and weighed 199 kg at his death at age 22. His great size and his continued growth in adulthood were due to hyperplasia of his pituitary gland, which results in an abnormally high level of human growth hormone. He showed no indication of an end to his growth even at the time of his death.

SOURCE

I’m always in awe of red clover (Trifolium pratense, of the Fabaceae (legume family)). It is native to northwest Africa, Asia, and Europe, but has since been naturalized and cultivated in many parts of the world, including North America. I came across this beautiful specimen while hiking in the Marshlands Conservancy in Rye, NY.

Red clover is a source of many valuable nutrients including calcium, chromium, magnesium, niacin, phosphorus, potassium, thiamine, and vitamin C. Medicinally, this plant can help us is many ways. Thanks to its isoflavones (water-soluble chemicals that act like estrogens), it is used for hot flashes/flushes, PMS, breast enhancement and breast health as well as lowering cholesterol, improving urine production and improving circulation of the blood, to help prevent osteoporosis, reduce the possibility of blood clots and arterial plaques and limiting the development of benign prostate hyperplasia. It may also block enzymes thought to contribute to prostate cancer in men.

Finally, as if all this weren’t enough, red clover has also been found to be useful in quitting smoking, and lowering cravings for alcohol. So what are you waiting for? Go make yourself a red clover infusion!