Anatomical diagrams from LJS 49, Tashrih-i Mansuri (Mansur’s Anatomy), an anatomy treatise in Persian and Arabic, originally written in 1396, with chapters on bones, nerves, veins, arteries and muscles, and complex organs. Ours is an early copy - a colophon indicates it was completed in the year 813 (1411 in the Gregorian Calendar) - and it is probably an autograph, that is, in the hand of the author himself, Manṣūr ibn Muḥammad ibn Aḥmad. Mansur’s work was based on the anatomical writings of Galen, which had been introduced into the Muslim world by Hunayn ibn Ishaq in the ninth century, and they remained in use until the seventeenth century.

According to the entry for LJS 49 on p. 85 in Transformation of Knowledge: Early Manuscripts from the Collection of Lawrence J. Schoenberg, the illustrations in this manuscript are some of the earliest known representations of the human body in the Islamic world. I’d always thought that Islamic law forbids the representation of the human body in art, so the inclusion of these illustrations in this book is interesting. Here is a blog post that says a bit more about that, in relation to this manuscript:

Manuscript description and digitized images:

Ebook (in epub format):

Video orientation: 

The only men at Hunayn who didn’t disobey Allah and His Messenger:

  1. Ali ibn Abi Talib
  2. Abbas ibn Abdul Muttalib
  3. Fadhl ibn Abbas
  4. Abu Sufyan ibn al-Harith ibn Abdul Muttalib
  5. Rabi'a ibn al-Harith ibn Abdul Muttalib
  6. Abdullah ibn Masud
  7. Usama ibn Zayd
  8. Ayman ibn Ubaid

Narrated Abu Qatada: We set out in the company of Allah’s Apostle on the day (of the battle) of Hunain. When we faced the enemy, the Muslims retreated and I saw a pagan throwing himself over a Muslim. I turned around and came upon him from behind and hit him on the shoulder with the sword He (i.e. the pagan) came towards me and seized me so violently that I felt as if it were death itself, but death overtook him and he released me. I followed ‘Umar bin Al Khattab and asked (him), “What is wrong with the people (fleeing)?” He replied, “This is the Will of Allah,” After the people returned, the Prophet sat and said, “Anyone who has killed an enemy and has a proof of that, will possess his spoils.” I got up and said, “Who will be a witness for me?” and then sat down. The Prophet again said, “Anyone who has killed an enemy and has proof of that, will possess his spoils.” I (again) got up and said, “Who will be a witness for me?” and sat down. Then the Prophet said the same for the third time. I again got up, and Allah’s Apostle said, “O Abu Qatada! What is your story?” Then I narrated the whole story to him. A man (got up and) said, “O Allah’s Apostle! He is speaking the truth, and the spoils of the killed man are with me. So please compensate him on my behalf.” On that Abu Bakr As-Siddiq said, “No, by Allah, he (i.e. Allah’s Apostle ) will not agree to give you the spoils gained by one of Allah’s Lions who fights on the behalf of Allah and His Apostle.” The Prophet said, “Abu Bakr has spoken the truth.” So, Allah’s Apostle gave the spoils to me. I sold that armor (i.e. the spoils) and with its price I bought a garden at Bani Salima, and this was my first property which I gained after my conversion to Islam.

“Sahih” al-Bukhari Vol. 4, Bk. 53, No, 370:

Shameful, shameful, shameful - 

Who on Earth has the audacity to disobey the Messenger of Allah after the revelation that occurred after Uhud, run away like a coward, and then have the nerve to complain about the spoils of war?