human-cells

washingtonpost.com
Henrietta Lacks’s family wants compensation for her cells
Lacks’s son says Johns Hopkins should compensate the family for mom’s cells.

“The eldest son of Henrietta Lacks wants compensation from Johns Hopkins University and possibly others for the unauthorized use of her cells in research that led to decades of medical advances.

Lawrence Lacks said that he is the executor of his mother’s estate and that an agreement that the National Institutes of Health made with other family members over the years regarding the use of the cells was not valid. That agreement did not include compensation.

The cells taken from the 31-year-old from Turners Station, Md., after she died of an aggressive form of cervical cancer in 1951 were the first to live outside the body in a glass tube. They were dubbed the HeLa cells and have become the most widely used human cells that exist in scientific research.

Vaccines, cancer treatments and in vitro fertilization are among the many medical techniques derived from her cells.

“My mother would be so proud that her cells saved lives,” Lawrence Lacks said in a statement. “She’d be horrified that Johns Hopkins profited while her family to this day has no rights.”

Karl von Frisch - The Human Body and Types of Tissue Cells, “Man and the Living World”, 1965.

Upper left, nerve cell and its fibers; below, in order, muscle cells of the arm, connective tissue surrounding muscle, tough fibrous connective tissue of a tendon. Upper right, cells of cartilage; below, in order, outer cells of skin, structure of bone, and cells of the fatty tissue.

Premiere date has just been announced, according to deadline.com. It will premiere at 8 pm on Saturday, April 22nd. Read Skloot’s book, it’s also available as an audiobook.

From HBO: Oprah Winfrey and Rose Byrne star in this adaptation of Rebecca Skloot’s critically acclaimed, bestselling nonfiction book of the same name. The film tells the story of Henrietta Lacks, an African-American woman whose cells were used without her consent to create the first immortal human cell line. Told through the eyes of her daughter, Deborah Lacks (Winfrey), the film chronicles her search, along with journalist Rebecca Skloot (Byrne), to learn about the mother she never knew and understand how the unauthorized harvesting of Lacks’ cancerous cells in 1951 led to unprecedented medical breakthroughs, changing countless lives and the face of medicine forever.

George C. Wolfe directs from his screenplay; Oprah Winfrey, Alan Ball, Peter Macdissi, Carla Gardini and Lydia Dean Pilcher executive produce. A Your Face Goes Here Entertainment, Harpo Films and Cine Mosaic production. Debuts in April.

༼ つ◕ヮ◕ ༽つ 150217 *:・゚✧・: * :・゚✧ (edit: this photo was taken on the 15th of february, also my first day of starting the 100 days of productivity trend; but it was sitting in my drafts instead - i’m sorry!) 

1/100 days of productivity 

studied for my english, as well as my human biology test coming up in two days! uguguugh i’m nervous and excited to do my first few tests of the year!

The race to map the human body — one cell at a time

The first time molecular biologist Greg Hannon flew through a tumour, he was astonished — and inspired. Using a virtual-reality model, Hannon and his colleagues at the University of Cambridge, UK, flew in and out of blood vessels, took stock of infiltrating immune cells and hatched an idea for an unprecedented tumour atlas.

“Holy crap!” he recalls thinking. “This is going to be just amazing.”

On 10 February, the London-based charity Cancer Research UK announced that Hannon’s team of molecular biologists, astronomers and game designers would receive up to £20 million (US$25 million) over the next five years to develop its interactive virtual-reality map of breast cancers. The tumour that Hannon flew through was a mock-up, but the real models will include data on the expression of thousands of genes and dozens of proteins in each cell of a tumour. The hope is that this spatial and functional detail could reveal more about the factors that influence a tumour’s response to treatment.

The project is just one of a string that aims to build a new generation of cell atlases: maps of organs or tumours that describe location and make-up of each cell in painstaking detail.

Today my professor told me every single cell in our entire body is destroyed and replaced every seven years.
How comforting it is to know that one day I will have a body you will have never touched.
2

Geometry of Creation.

In the beginning of your life in the womb, you were nothing but Geometrical forms. In fact, all life forms - trees, plants, dogs, cats, everything - have the same geometrical and structural patterns running through them that ran through you when you were microscopic. Their very life and structural support depend on the forms. In fact, all life forms are these geometrical patterns, but it is not apparent to the casual eye. These Geometrical relationships are important to perceive, not only so the left brain can realize the Unity of all Life,
but for another reason: so that we can understand these Electromagnetic structural patterns around our Body and begin to re-create them.

Every known Life form begins as a Sphere. It’s the most female form there is, so it makes perfect sense that the female would choose that shape to form the ovum. All of us begin as a Sphere. 

The ovum has a membrane around it called the zona pellucida . Inside the membrane is a liquid, and inside it, there’s another perfectly round Sphere called the female pronucleus, which contains 22 + 1 chromosomes - half the chromosomes necessary to create a Human body. Inside the zona pellucida, are two polar bodies. It is now known that the ovum must be absolutely saturated with hundreds of sperm, or conception is not even possible. Out of those hundreds, ten, eleven or twelve must come together in some kind of pattern on the surface - a pattern scientists are still trying to figure out - that allows the eleventh, twelfth or thirteenth sperm to enter the ovum. One sperm cannot get through the membrane without the other ten to twelve. It’s not possible except when a human artificially inseminates it. The little sperm gets in through the zona pellucida with the help of the other sperm and then starts swimming toward the female pronucleus. The first thing that happens is that the sperm’s tail breaks off and disappears. Next, the tiny sperm head expands and becomes a perfect Sphere, which is the male pronucleus. It becomes exactly the same size as the female pronucleus, and it contains the other half of the necessary information.

Next, they pass through each other and form a Geometrical relationship called the Vesica Piscis. It’s not possible for two Spheres to pass through each other and perfectly coincide without forming a Vesica Piscis. This means that at this exact moment literally all the information of the Reality and Light is contained in that Geometry. This could not happen unless the two pronuclei were the same size. 

The First Human Cell after the two pronuclei make a Vesica Piscis, the male pronucleus continues to permeate the female pronucleus until they are one. At this time it’s called a human zygote , the first cell of the Human body . So you began as a Sphere before you created your familiar Human body. Actually, you were a Sphere within a Sphere.

The human zygote will not change size during the first nine cell divisions. The human zygote is about 200 times bigger than the average cell in the Human body, so big you can actually see it with naked eye. When it divides into two, each of those two cells is half the original size; and when those two cells divide into four, each cell is a quarter of the original size. The cells keep dividing, getting smaller and smaller, until they’ve divided eight more times and number 512 of them. At that point, the average cell size of the Human body is reached. Mitosis continues, and the dividing cells expand beyond the boundaries of the original zona pellucida.

This is a single Cell transforming through the Flower of Life Sacred Geometry stages before becoming a fetus. This is ALL OF US at conception.

They say that the human body, on average, replaces all of its cells in 7 years. How comforting, then, to know that one day I will have a heart that never loved you.
—  TRM
Let's Talk About COX

Everyone has some kind of NSAID in their medicine cabinet whether it be Advil, Aleve, or Aspirin. These drugs are so common that they are often not even considered drugs and so people freely take more than they should or give them to their pets. Understanding how these drugs work not only helps explain why the directions for using them are so specific, but also shows how really amazing it is that we even have them. So, let’s get to the real reason you are here- COX.

Animal and human cells are sort of like water balloons. The “balloon” part of the cell is the membrane which is made up of lipid molecules. The water is actually still water but also filled with lots of different organelles, proteins, enzymes, and other things that make the cell work. Located within the cell membrane is a special lipid called arachidonic acid (AA). Usually AA just hangs out in the membrane not doing a whole lot. It takes an enzyme called phospholipase A2 (PLA2) to free the AA from the cell and let it get to work.
PLA2 is itself “turned on” by other enzymes but to make it simple, it is activated when there is an injury of some kind. It breaks the AA free of the cell membrane so that it can then be turned into other useful molecules.

Usually AA can be turned into three different types of molecules: prostanoids, leukotrienes, and epoxides. We are only going to worry about prostanoids today.
Prostanoids are a group of molecules that do lots of different things in the body including create inflammation, dilate blood vessels, activate platelets, de-activate platelets, protect the GI tract, make sure the kidneys have enough blood flow, and other important for living type things.

Here is where the COX comes in. COX-1 and COX-2 are enzymes that convert arachidonic acid into usable molecules. In very general terms COX-1 is responsible for making housekeeping type molecules, the ones that protect the gut and keep the kidneys working. COX-2 is the enzyme that makes the inflammatory molecules. In reality it isn’t that simple and box COX enzymes overlap in function but we are keeping it simple.
COX converts AA into PGH2 which is then further into five different prostanoids, Thromboxane, PGD2, PGI3, PGF2, and PGE2. The prostanoid we care about right now is prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). PGE2 is an inflammatory mediator and is responsible for the classic signs of inflammation: redness, swelling, pain, and warmth or if you wanna impress your friends using Latin: rubor, tumor, dolor, and calor.

PGE2 has four different receptors that it can bind to, each one doing something a bit different. EP4 is the receptor responsible for causing pain and inflammation.

*Head explosion* I know, it is a lot. Let’s summarize. Injury causes PLA2 to free arachidonic acid from the cell membrane. COX-1 and 2 convert AA into PGH2. PGH2 turns into PGE2. PGE2 binds to receptors on cells which then cause inflammation and pain.

Now we can discuss medications. Corticosteroids like prednisone work by blocking PLA2 way at the beginning of the pathway. This means everything downstream is stopped. There is no production of prostanoids, leukotrienes, or epoxides. Steroids are like bringing a bazooka to a knife fight, they work but there is a lot of collateral damage. We cannot use steroids for very long because of the severe side effects they cause.

NSAID’s are COX blockers. Some block both COX-1 and 2, others are more selective and mostly block COX-2. This prevents formation of PGH2 which prevents all of the prostanoids down stream from being formed. Celebrex was a popular human NAID that preferentially blocked COX-2 which sounded great. However it prevented the formation of PGI2 which was a vasodilator and anti-thrombotic, this caused many people to die of heart attacks. This doesn’t seem to be an issue in pets but blocking COX does lead to GI ulceration and renal damage in some animals. Aspirin irreversibly binds to platelets and prevents clotting which can be a problem in humans and animals in addition to causing GI ulcers.

A fairly new class of drugs called Piprants has been developed and they specifically target one of the receptors that PGE2 binds to. This leaves all of the other molecules available to do their jobs and only prevents pain and inflammation. This means the drug is safe for dogs with liver or kidney disease and shouldn’t have any GI side effects. Hopefully something similar for humans is produced as well.

So that in a very complex nutshell is how NSAID’s work and hopefully now you have a greater understanding of just how important it really is to follow all drug labels. And you now you can tell all your friends about your COX.

*Disclaimer- NEVER give OTC pain meds to your pets. Many are toxic to them and the safe ones require different doses than what humans take. Always consult with your vet first.

Electron Transport Chain
  • Situated in the inner mitochondrial matrix
  • produces most eukaryotic ATP
  • a chain of proteins that move electrons from higher to lower energy levels
  • electrons are provided by FADH2 or NADH
  • terminal electron acceptor is oxygen
  • as electrons move to from high to lower energy levels, the energy is used to pump H+ against its concentration gradient out into the intermembrane space
  • this established concentration gradient drives the phosphorylation of ADP to ATP
  • oxidative phosphorylation

electrons flow from protein to protein spontaneously 

  • due to the relative electron affinities of the proteins
  • this tendency is known as redox potential

Click read more for detailed step by step

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Discovery: Matt meets a Paladin

Matt stood up too fast, heart pounding wildly. He had to bend over quickly to prevent his head rush and hunger from making him pass out. He breathed once, twice, and rose again, making his way to the far side of the pit.

Another human in the general population cell. Another human… It had been months since his father had been taken to the infirmary, feverish and sick from the regular horrors the Druids inflicted on them, hoping for one of them to crack.

Matt was a pragmatist and hadn’t really expected to see his father alive again. He chose to listen to their guards, the other prisoners, for any scrap of information, really, hoping for something that would help him escape from this hell, and even rescue his friends.

His thoughts flickered to black hair, calm eyes, unwavering friendship. The last he had heard of Shiro was of him succeeding in the horrific games, a source of Galran pride and mockery. But then the news stopped trickling in and Matt had just thought his friend had been killed. Could he be back? His heart squeezed in his chest and he beat back any feeling of hope. This was the Galran army… Surprises were never pleasant or hopeful.

As he neared the cell door, he heard the familiar low moaning of a wounded animal. The other aliens had gathered around, bringing cloth and water to help clean the human off, just as they had done for Matt and Commander Holt when they had first been dumped here.

Matt smiled at that, some last shred of love in his heart clenching in gratitude at the goodness of his prison family. Some looked like leeches, others had tentacles, some had two heads, others nothing more than an orb of light. All victims of evil and bound together by the hope that this torture would end someday.

He edged his way through the circle and tears sprung up. A human… here… Younger than him, only a teenager. Not his dad. Not Shiro. Just a boy. How much more cruelty existed in Zarkon and his invaders?

The teen lay on his side, dressed in some strange white armor Matt had never seen before. His right leg was broken and lay stretched out oddly on the floor. He bled profusely from his mouth.

An Arusian, a new addition, shook Matt’s sleeve. “The human is leaking much from his face.. He cannot talk… We are thinking they removed some part and that is why we cannot stop it easily.”

Matt’s stomach turned at the thought of a Galra cutting out this kid’s tongue. What could he have possibly done? How could they find him? Had they begun invading Earth? His mom, his sister… Were they even alive? Matt shifted his thoughts to the kid, wondering how to help him.

The teen turned his head towards him, dark skin pale from his wounds, his blue gaze bright even in the gloom of the pit. His eyes widened as if recognizing him and, reaching for the other human, he lost his balance and fell. Matt had to stop himself from stepping back, still afraid of touch after all the pain. Instead he steadied the kid with a hand around his shoulder and told him he’d be ok (a bald-faced lie if ever one was spoken).

The boy’s hand shook as pressed his fingers to the floor and, to Matt’s disgust, started drawing letters in his own blood. P-I-D

“Pidge? What’s that? Is that your name?” Matt turned to look at the boy, who despite everything looked like he wanted to laugh, even as he groaned and tears glittered in his eyes.

He tried again, hands shaking, and wrote faster and messier, as if it hurt him. V-O-L-

“Voltron is coming? That doesn’t make any sense?” But as he spoke, he heard shocked gasps from the other prisoners, excitement in their whispers. He didn’t understand it but it was important. He tried to pull the kid away so they could treat his wounds but he jerked away, face wild.

The boy kept writing, shifting to get to a new patch of floor. He wrote until he passed out, Matt just pulling him closer, needing the human touch as never before, even as the aliens tried to staunch the blood from the kid’s mouth. And as he stared at the words written in blood, Matt felt hot tears fall for the first time in forever. Felt hope in his heart.

IM LANCE

KATIE IS OK

COMING 4 U

7

HAPPY VALENTINE’S DAY!! :D
Especially you, @jesse-the-keyblade-guardian!
Thanks for ask

I think that not all of this dorks know eactly how to charm a lady. But well, they all tried.