human-anatomy

I’ve seen this photograph very frequently on tumblr and Facebook, always with the simple caption, “Ghost Heart”. What exactly is a ghost heart?

More than 3,200 people are on the waiting list for a heart transplant in the United States. Some won’t survive the wait. Last year, 340 died before a new heart was found.

The solution: Take a pig heart, soak it in an ingredient commonly found in shampoo and wash away the cells until you’re left with a protein scaffold that is to a heart what two-by-four framing is to a house.

Then inject that ghost heart, as it’s called, with hundreds of millions of blood or bone-marrow stem cells from a person who needs a heart transplant, place it in a bioreactor - a box with artificial lungs and tubes that pump oxygen and blood into it - and wait as the ghost heart begins to mature into a new, beating human heart.

Doris Taylor, director of regenerative medicine research at the Texas Heart Institute at St. Luke’s Episcopal Hospital in Houston, has been working on this– first using rat hearts, then pig hearts and human hearts - for years.

The process is called decellularization and it is a tissue engineering technique designed to strip out the cells from a donor organ, leaving nothing but connective tissue that used to hold the cells in place. 

This scaffold of connective tissue - called a “ghost organ” for its pale and almost translucent appearance - can then be reseeded with a patient’s own cells, with the goal of regenerating an organ that can be transplanted into the patient without fear of tissue rejection.

This ghost heart is ready to be injected with a transplant recipient’s stem cells so a new heart - one that won’t be rejected - can be grown.


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Autonomic nerves of the face, neck, thorax and abdomen by Nicolas Henri Jacob from ‘Traité complet de l'anatomie de l'homme’ by Marc Jean Bourgery, 1831.

Dissection to show branches of the trigeminal nerve (cranial nerve V), glossopharyngeal nerve (cranial nerve IX), and hypoglossal nerve (cranial nerve XII). Spinal nerves and brachial plexus, vagus nerve (cranial nerve X), and laryngeal nerves, esophageal plexus, and celiac plexus also shown.

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I used to draw people according to head size (average human is anything from six to eight heads with comic book heroes around what… ten or eleven heads in height) buuut that’s too much to think about.

These days I organize all bodies into four parts that I can elongate, scale up, or scale down, keeping in rule of quarters. Cambiaso figures! It’s legit for reals.

My figs kinda suck but whatevs. UPDATE: See application of the quarters rule here for female bodies and here for male bodies.

This anatomical wax model shows the internal organs in a female torso and head, including the lungs, liver, stomach, kidneys and intestines. Complete with the veins and arteries, the heart is entirely removable. 

The figure was made by Francesco Calenzuoli (1796-1821), an Italian model maker renowned for his attention to detail. Wax models were used for teaching anatomy to medical students because they made it possible to pick out and emphasise specific features of the body, making their structure and function easier to understand. 

This made them especially useful at a time when few bodies were available for dissection. The model was donated by the Department of Human Anatomy at the University of Oxford.

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