human respiration

Requested by @affectos

Beer, wine, vodka and Shuckle. What does this lovable bug pokémon have in common with alcoholic beverages? Well, as the pokédex tells us–Shuckle produces them. 

Shuckle stores berries inside its shell, and when it eats them, the berries “mix with its body fluids” and ferment. Fermentation is simply a process of getting energy: much like photosynthesis, or respiration. Humans and most animals, of course, require oxygen to breathe and live, to supply energy to our muscles, and so on. But not everything does: many bacteria and fungi are classified as anaerobic, which means they don’t need oxygen to survive. At all.

Instead, anaerobic organisms, called anaerobes, rely on other processes to get energy. One of these processes is fermentation. Specifically, alcohol fermentation occurs when sugar, such as glucose, is split up into alcohol (ethanol) and carbon dioxide. This releases energy in the process, which creatures can use for their own needs.

In alcohol production, the fungus yeast is typically the creature that breaks down these sugar molecules. How does it break down? Yeasts produce enzymes called zymase. Enzymes are chemicals that creature can produce and use to activate or speed up chemical reactions. Butterflies, for example, use enzymes inside of their cocoon to break down their caterpillar form and emerge a butterfly. Carnivorous plants, like Victreebel or Carnivine, digest their prey using enzymes. In humans, the enzyme “lactase” makes it possible to digest dairy products, which is why lactose intolerant people who can’t produce lactase can’t digest milk.

So yeast use the enzyme zymase to break apart sugar molecules into alcohol and carbon dioxide, giving itself energy in the process, with alcohol as a byproduct. These enzymes, zymase, are the “body fluids” in Shuckle’s pokédex entry: the fluid that mixes with the berries it stores to ferment them.

What does this tell us about Shuckle? Well, first of all, it’s very likely that Shuckle is anaerobic, which means it doesn’t need to breathe oxygen to survive. Instead, it gets its energy from turning berries into alcohol, like yeast does through fermentation. The berries doubling as food is just an added bonus. Keep in mind, this doesn’t mean that Shuckle can’t breathe and use oxygen, only that it doesn’t need to. Respiration is an extremely efficient method of getting energy, and many yeasts use their own version or respiration when oxygen is available, too. So for Shuckle, if it’s at high altitudes, inside its shell, in space, or elsewhere where there isn’t much oxygen available, fermentation can kick in. It’s especially useful for hiding inside its shell. In a small, closed space like that oxygen could run out quickly, so by gaining energy through fermentation, it doesn’t need to breathe while hiding in its shell. 

Berries, grapes, and fruit when fermented are classified as wine. Fruits contain the sugar fructose, which is broken down into glucose to ferment. Wheat and barely contain the sugar maltose, which can also be broken down into glucose, and ferments into beer. Vodka uses potatoes, bourbon uses corn, and so on. Stronger spirits, like vodka, have to be distilled after they are fermented: essentially filtered, so that mainly alcohol remains.

Since Shuckle uses berries, it produces wine. It’s possible that Shuckle may be able to use wheat to make beer as well, but it might not want to. Shuckle might not be able to break down maltose as easily or at all like it can fructose, making wheat a less efficient energy source.

Shuckle is an anarobe, meaning it does not need oxygen to survive. When Shuckle is hiding inside its shell and oxygen is not readily available, Shuckle gets energy by fermenting berries into alcohol, using the enzyme zymase to break down sugar into energy.

Kid Icarus Uprising sentence starters pt 1

“I think they used it in that one series, “Super Bash Sisters”.“
“You mean "Super Smash Bros.”?“
"My, aren’t we manly?”
“You’re going to send me a machine-gun-robot girlfriend?”
“Looks like all that Dr. Mario is about to pay off!”
“Why are you all doom and gloom all the time?”
“You know how a chicken takes three steps and then forgets?”
“Every warrior knows that cowardice is the foundation upon which victory is built.”
“I’m part angel, part ANIMAL!”
“Nothing gets the blood pumping like things that go “BOOM!”.”
“Now all I need is another one of me, and a way to shoot lasers out of my eyes.”
“It’s like I was born to shoot stuff with a stick!”
“Here to crash my homecoming party?”
“Uh… This really doesn’t look like much of a party.”
“What better way to celebrate my return than with a festive little bloodbath?”
“Your days of darkness are numbered. Prepare to meet the light!”
“Get ready for a display of raw angel power!”
“It’s like a birthday party where everyone wants to kill me.”
“Well, I didn’t expect to see an angel here. Hope this doesn’t mean I’ve kicked the bucket.”
“Pleased to meet you. Don’t hit me, and we’ll get along just fine.”
“Humans are driven by desire. It’s convenient to know what bait they’ll chase.”
“Sorry I’m late. I had other business to attend to.”
“Everyone shut up and focus!”
“Get up, fall down. Get up, fall down. Fight in the air, fight on the ground.”
“Peaks and valleys, highs and lows. Pick your friends, not your nose.”
“It’s my patented monster pheromone! Monsters just LOVE the smell of it. And now it’s all over you!”
“Despite my winsomness and equanimity, I do have a strong streak of rascality.”
“Even though I almost died, I’ve really enjoyed our time together.”
“Do I LOOK like a strategy guide? In case you haven’t noticed, this isn’t the Ask Auntie Pandora hour.”
“You don’t see me breaking into your home and criticizing your style.”
“You’re just jealous of my knack for interior design AND my flair for spelling.”
“I thought trampolines would add a touch of whimsy to my humble abode.”
“I should’ve gone to school for goddessry.”
“Nothing works up an appetite like dodging enemy fire!”
“Maybe your faith in her isn’t quite so absolute after all.”
“Oh, no worries. I minored in branchial respiration.”
“Humans consist of equal parts hubris, envy, and deceit. Sometimes one has to put them in their place.”
“I’ll have you know that I much prefer honey to vinegar. And I prefer witty repartee to any condiment!”
“I have no such thing! None whatsoever! Honestly. HONESTLY.”
“The story doesn’t end there. See, there’s also this space-pirate ship…”
“He’s like, "Yar, I’ll make ye walk the space plank, scurvy dog!”. That’s just a loose translation.“
"A space Kraken?! Well that came out of nowhere.”
“We’re gonna rack up some serious Nintendogs trainer points together!”
“Your chances of winning are lower than your belly button! Which is really low!”
“I’ll strip you of your wings and sever you from the heavens forever.”
“Who are you calling huge, you insignificant little thing?”
“Sorry to keep you waiting. But now that I’m here, let’s get this party started.”


It’s almost as if coercive economic relations are indistinguishable from other kinds of coercive hierarchy, whether you label them state or not.

*stares at the libertarians*

“You have ownership of yourself and full bodily autonomy!”

“Oh nice”

“But we own all the land, water, and food. We also own the first few kilometres of the atmosphere, although we allow free access to the oxygen needed for normal human respiration and have a range of cost-effective plans available if you need to engage in cardiovascular exercise or hyperventilation.”

“That’s- that’s generous-”

“Anyway, you’re several million dollars in debt from prenatal and childhood expenses, but now that you’ve reached 18 years of age you can Contract yourself and we can start to pay that down. Why, in 50 to 60 years you may be a shareholder like myself with a team of Indents to do your bidding! Sign here.”


One of my favorite parts of the True Lab is how you enter it, the dramatic scene where you are in the elevator, and suddenly sirens and alarm lights start to blare as an electronic warning voice announces that the elevator is losing power, and that “EM TETHER STABILITY LOST!”  and that the altitude is dropping. Many people ignore that middle part excusing it as technobabble, but it sheds a light on how the elevators work in Undertale and answers a lot of questions.

“EM tether” means Electromagnetic tether.  Instead of using cables and one elevator per shaft, electromagnetic elevators can travel in any direction: left, right, backwards, forwards, up, and down.  They can also go farther and with multiple elevator boxes because there are no cables. How do they stay up and move you ask? Well the answer is easy: they levitate! Not with magic, but by using magnetic levitation (Maglev) by using the repelling force of the magnets in the shafts tracks and the rotatable electromagnets in the elevator, to push the elevator up, down, or any other direction the shaft goes, while the electromagnets in the shaft help push and levitate the elevator so it doesn’t touch the sides of the shaft or fall too fast. The magnetic forces are like invisible ropes holding (or tethering) the elevator in place. When the electricity that powers the elevator shafts is turned off, the stability provided by those electromagnetic tethers is lost, luckily for Frisk, the creators of this elevator were safe and made the elevator car (box) have an emergency power storage so its electromagnetics could slow the fall enough for Frisk to survive, unfortunately using up all its power slowing the fall or loss of altitude. The electronically sealed doors open so no one is trapped inside.

These types of elevators exist, and companies have already started making them and creating animations of how they work as you can see here.

This is why the elevators are not just point A to point B and how an elevator from the True Lab and an elevator from the Core can both go to New Home’s elevator, and how elevators can travel horizontally and vertically in a single trip. We learn that many monsters use the same elevator to get home, and as we can see elevators have 9 buttons, and Mettaton tells us that Alphys disabled elevators, and we only gradually gain elevator options, even when you can use any of the options from any of those elevators. This means she was unlocking the options for you so you only went the ways she had planned with Mettaton, It is entirely possible that the elevator in her lab or the left and right elevators and the elevator in the MTT Hotel all could go to the Core and New Home. How else did Alphys get to the Mettaton fight so fast? That fat little lizard was not running from her lab to the core in 2 minutes. She used the elevator from her lab to the core outside the room you fight Mettaton in. muscular endurance is not something reptiles are very good at, their muscles use up more oxygen than their lungs and heart can provide and they switch to anerobic respiration like humans, and produce lactic acid, but unlike humans they produce a lot more lactic acid and their bodies take a lot longer to detoxify the muscles. That is why crocodilians must relax for a long time after hunting and other strenuous activity, even if they didn’t catch anything to digest.

More on elevators and the True Lab and how Flowey basically tricked Alphys into revealing his origins:

Keep reading

Colours meme: Red for Sexual passion

(Red is a very emotionally intense color. It enhances human metabolism, increases respiration rate, and raises blood pressure. It is the color of sexuality and can stimulate deeper and more intimate passions in us, such as love and sex on the positive side or revenge and anger on the negative. In advertising, red is often used to evoke erotic feelings.)

Requested by asexualalfendi

On Tuesday we covered cyndaquil, another fire-type starter. Like cyndaquil and charmander, chimchar has a flame that sprouts from his body. Also like the others, this flame is tied to chimchar’s health or emotional state, as it burns vividly when enraged and sputters out when chimchar is tired. I mentioned in cyndaquil’s entry that I believe these fires are tied to the fire-starter’s respiratory systems; this is what we’re going to go into today.

Respiration is a process through which our body creates energy by taking in oxygen. Chemically, it is the exact opposite of photosynthesis.

The respiratory system is the biological set of organs and processes used in respiration. For humans, we have our lungs, nose, trachea, just to name a few. Birds have interesting air sacs, and a fish has gills. Given that chimchar appears to be a monkey, let’s assume its respiratory system is similar to ours as a starting point.

We breathe about 20,000 times a day. When we take in air, it first travels through the sinuses, which help regulate the air’s temperature and humidity. It then flows through the trachea, which branches off into each lung. The air goes into alveoli, which are small, spongy sacs where oxygen passes into the tiny blood vessels that run through them.

Chimchar has lungs and a respiratory system like this, so it can breathe and get oxygen to its organs this way. But Chimchar’s respiratory system is probably even more elaborate and expanded. The respiratory system is responsible for creating energy, and heat is a great source of energy. Chimchar likely gets energy from its fiery rear-end, which means its tail would be part of its respiratory system. As we know, fire needs oxygen in order to burn. Chimchar gets this oxygen from breathing like we do, but uses the oxygen (or at least some of it) to fuel the fire.

So chimchar breathes in air, which goes into its lungs. Some of the oxygen is diffused into it’s blood and undergoes “normal” respiration, and some of it goes into a different organ in chimchar’s belly, which uses the oxygen to fuel chimchar’s tail. 

Because the tail is fueled from an internal source and doesn’t depend on oxygen in the atmosphere to burn, rain will not smother it and it can even burn underwater (see charmander). But because the tail is a biological process part of its respiratory system, emotional stimuli cause it to flare or flicker in the same way that heart rate or blood pressure increase when you’re scared (see cyndaquil). Between the three of these pokémon, we are starting to get a complete picture of how these fire-type starters work as a whole.

Chimchar’s fiery tail is part of its respiratory system. The fire is fueled by oxygen stored in an internal organ, and chimchar likely gets energy from the flame’s heat.

Context: We’re in an underwater cave, having a fist fight with six Storm Trooper using stolen respirators. Chopper, Human Rebel Ace, tried to take off the helmet of Storm Trooper he was fighting three rounds in a row and fails each time, earning him a punch to the gut.

Chopper: *OOC* I’m going to role for Charm.

DM: Why?

Chopper: I’ll tell you if it succeeds.

Chopper: *roles* Success. I seduce the Storm Trooper.

In the end, the Storm Trooper carries him out of the lake and is promptly shot by Chopper.


[ 22/06/16 ] 3/100 days of productivity

overall today was fairly productive, i managed to complete my chinese workbook (dont tell my teacher i skipped one comprehension passage) 🙈 & did my respiration in human biology notes!

i do my biology notes in a a4 jotter book cause i lose lose-sheets of papers rlly easily & idl how bulky binders can be HAHA 😽💯

ps i cant take v aesthetically pleasing pictures HAHA oops