human respiration

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Red is the color of fire and blood, so it is associated with energy, war, danger, strength, power, determination as well as passion, desire, and love. Red is a very emotionally intense color. It enhances human metabolism, increases respiration rate, and raises blood pressure. It has very high visibility, which is why stop signs, stoplights, and fire equipment are usually painted red. In heraldry, red is used to indicate courage.

Requested by @affectos

Beer, wine, vodka and Shuckle. What does this lovable bug pokémon have in common with alcoholic beverages? Well, as the pokédex tells us–Shuckle produces them. 

Shuckle stores berries inside its shell, and when it eats them, the berries “mix with its body fluids” and ferment. Fermentation is simply a process of getting energy: much like photosynthesis, or respiration. Humans and most animals, of course, require oxygen to breathe and live, to supply energy to our muscles, and so on. But not everything does: many bacteria and fungi are classified as anaerobic, which means they don’t need oxygen to survive. At all.

Instead, anaerobic organisms, called anaerobes, rely on other processes to get energy. One of these processes is fermentation. Specifically, alcohol fermentation occurs when sugar, such as glucose, is split up into alcohol (ethanol) and carbon dioxide. This releases energy in the process, which creatures can use for their own needs.

In alcohol production, the fungus yeast is typically the creature that breaks down these sugar molecules. How does it break down? Yeasts produce enzymes called zymase. Enzymes are chemicals that creature can produce and use to activate or speed up chemical reactions. Butterflies, for example, use enzymes inside of their cocoon to break down their caterpillar form and emerge a butterfly. Carnivorous plants, like Victreebel or Carnivine, digest their prey using enzymes. In humans, the enzyme “lactase” makes it possible to digest dairy products, which is why lactose intolerant people who can’t produce lactase can’t digest milk.

So yeast use the enzyme zymase to break apart sugar molecules into alcohol and carbon dioxide, giving itself energy in the process, with alcohol as a byproduct. These enzymes, zymase, are the “body fluids” in Shuckle’s pokédex entry: the fluid that mixes with the berries it stores to ferment them.

What does this tell us about Shuckle? Well, first of all, it’s very likely that Shuckle is anaerobic, which means it doesn’t need to breathe oxygen to survive. Instead, it gets its energy from turning berries into alcohol, like yeast does through fermentation. The berries doubling as food is just an added bonus. Keep in mind, this doesn’t mean that Shuckle can’t breathe and use oxygen, only that it doesn’t need to. Respiration is an extremely efficient method of getting energy, and many yeasts use their own version or respiration when oxygen is available, too. So for Shuckle, if it’s at high altitudes, inside its shell, in space, or elsewhere where there isn’t much oxygen available, fermentation can kick in. It’s especially useful for hiding inside its shell. In a small, closed space like that oxygen could run out quickly, so by gaining energy through fermentation, it doesn’t need to breathe while hiding in its shell. 

Berries, grapes, and fruit when fermented are classified as wine. Fruits contain the sugar fructose, which is broken down into glucose to ferment. Wheat and barely contain the sugar maltose, which can also be broken down into glucose, and ferments into beer. Vodka uses potatoes, bourbon uses corn, and so on. Stronger spirits, like vodka, have to be distilled after they are fermented: essentially filtered, so that mainly alcohol remains.

Since Shuckle uses berries, it produces wine. It’s possible that Shuckle may be able to use wheat to make beer as well, but it might not want to. Shuckle might not be able to break down maltose as easily or at all like it can fructose, making wheat a less efficient energy source.

Shuckle is an anarobe, meaning it does not need oxygen to survive. When Shuckle is hiding inside its shell and oxygen is not readily available, Shuckle gets energy by fermenting berries into alcohol, using the enzyme zymase to break down sugar into energy.

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[ 22/06/16 ] 3/100 days of productivity

overall today was fairly productive, i managed to complete my chinese workbook (dont tell my teacher i skipped one comprehension passage) 🙈 & did my respiration in human biology notes!

i do my biology notes in a a4 jotter book cause i lose lose-sheets of papers rlly easily & idl how bulky binders can be HAHA 😽💯

ps i cant take v aesthetically pleasing pictures HAHA oops

Requested by asexualalfendi

On Tuesday we covered cyndaquil, another fire-type starter. Like cyndaquil and charmander, chimchar has a flame that sprouts from his body. Also like the others, this flame is tied to chimchar’s health or emotional state, as it burns vividly when enraged and sputters out when chimchar is tired. I mentioned in cyndaquil’s entry that I believe these fires are tied to the fire-starter’s respiratory systems; this is what we’re going to go into today.

Respiration is a process through which our body creates energy by taking in oxygen. Chemically, it is the exact opposite of photosynthesis.

The respiratory system is the biological set of organs and processes used in respiration. For humans, we have our lungs, nose, trachea, just to name a few. Birds have interesting air sacs, and a fish has gills. Given that chimchar appears to be a monkey, let’s assume its respiratory system is similar to ours as a starting point.

We breathe about 20,000 times a day. When we take in air, it first travels through the sinuses, which help regulate the air’s temperature and humidity. It then flows through the trachea, which branches off into each lung. The air goes into alveoli, which are small, spongy sacs where oxygen passes into the tiny blood vessels that run through them.

Chimchar has lungs and a respiratory system like this, so it can breathe and get oxygen to its organs this way. But Chimchar’s respiratory system is probably even more elaborate and expanded. The respiratory system is responsible for creating energy, and heat is a great source of energy. Chimchar likely gets energy from its fiery rear-end, which means its tail would be part of its respiratory system. As we know, fire needs oxygen in order to burn. Chimchar gets this oxygen from breathing like we do, but uses the oxygen (or at least some of it) to fuel the fire.

So chimchar breathes in air, which goes into its lungs. Some of the oxygen is diffused into it’s blood and undergoes “normal” respiration, and some of it goes into a different organ in chimchar’s belly, which uses the oxygen to fuel chimchar’s tail. 

Because the tail is fueled from an internal source and doesn’t depend on oxygen in the atmosphere to burn, rain will not smother it and it can even burn underwater (see charmander). But because the tail is a biological process part of its respiratory system, emotional stimuli cause it to flare or flicker in the same way that heart rate or blood pressure increase when you’re scared (see cyndaquil). Between the three of these pokémon, we are starting to get a complete picture of how these fire-type starters work as a whole.

Chimchar’s fiery tail is part of its respiratory system. The fire is fueled by oxygen stored in an internal organ, and chimchar likely gets energy from the flame’s heat.