human metabolism

Happy National Techies Day!

October 3 is National Techies Day…and here at NASA we have quite a few people who get REALLY excited about technology. Without techies and the technology they develop, we wouldn’t be able to do the amazing things we do at NASA, or on Earth and in space.

Our Techies

We love our techies! The passionate engineers, researchers and scientists who work on our technology efforts enable us to make a difference in the world around us. They are responsible for developing the pioneering, new technologies and capabilities needed to achieve our current and future missions.

Research and technology development take place within our centers, in academia and industry, and leverage partnerships with other government agencies and international partners. We work to engage and inspire thousands of technologists and innovators creating a community of our best and brightest working on the nation’s toughest challenges.

Technology Drives Exploration

Our investments in technology development enable and advance space exploration. We are continually seeking to improve our ability to access and travel through space, land more mass in more locations, enable humans to live and explore in space and accelerate the pace of discovery.

Techie Technology

Advanced Manufacturing Technologies

When traveling to other planetary bodies, each and every pound of cargo matters. If we can reduce the weight by building tools once we arrive, that’s less weight we need to launch from Earth and carry through space.

Additive manufacturing is a way of printing three-dimensional (3-D) components from a digital model. If you think of a common office printer, it uses a 2-D file to print images and text on a sheet of paper. A 3-D printer uses a 3D file to deposit thin layers of material on top of each other, creating a 3-D product.

Thanks to techies, we’re already using this technology on the International Space Station to print wrenches and other tools. Our Additive Construction for Mobile Emplacement (ACME) project is investigating ways to build structures on planetary surfaces using resources available at a given site.

Discover more about how our techies are working with advanced manufacturing HERE.

Technology Demonstrations

Our techies are always innovating and developing new cutting-edge ideas. We test these ideas in extreme environments both here on Earth and in space.  

Science missions in space require spacecraft propulsion systems that are high-performance, lightweight, compact and have a short development time. The Deep Space Engine project is looking to meet those needs. Our techies are currently testing a 100lbf (pound-force) thruster to see if this compact, lightweight, low-cost chemical propulsion system can operate at very low temperatures, which allows long duration storage capabilities.

Another technology in development is PUFFER, or the Pop-Up Flat Folding Explorer Robot…and it was inspired by origami! This robot’s lightweight design is capable of flattening itself, tucking in its wheels and crawling into places rovers can’t fit. PUFFER has been tested in a range of rugged terrains to explore areas that might be too risky for a full-fledged rover to go.

With our partners at Ball Aerospace & Technologies Corp., we’ve also collaborated on the Green Propellant Infusion Mission (GPIM), which will flight test a “green” alternative to the toxic propellant, hydrazine, in 2018. GPIM is the nation’s premier spacecraft demonstration of a new high-performance power and propulsion system — a more environmentally friendly fuel. This technology promises improved performance for future satellites and other space missions by providing for longer mission durations, increased payload mass and simplified pre-launch spacecraft processing, including safer handling and transfer of propellants.  

Find out more about our technology demonstrations HERE.

Aircraft Technology

What if you could travel from London to New York in less than 3.5 hours? Our techies’ research into supersonic flight could make that a reality! 

Currently, supersonic flight creates a disruptive, loud BOOM, but our goal is to instead create a soft “thump” so that flying at supersonic speeds could be permitted over land in the United States.

We’re conducting a series of flight tests to validate tools and models that will be used for the development of future quiet supersonic aircraft.

Did you know that with the ability to observe the location of an aircraft’s sonic booms, pilots can better keep the loud percussive sounds from disturbing communities on the ground? This display allows research pilots the ability to physically see their sonic footprint on a map as the boom occurs.

Learn more about our aircraft technology HERE.

Technology Spinoffs 

Did you know that some of the technology used in the commercial world was originally developed for NASA? For example, when we were testing parachutes for our Orion spacecraft (which will carry humans into deep space), we needed to capture every millisecond in extreme detail. This would ensure engineers saw and could fix any issues. The problem was,there didn’t exist a camera in the world that could shoot at a high enough frame rate – and store it in the camera’s memory – all while adjusting instantly from complete darkness to full daylight and withstanding the space vacuum, space radiation and water immersion after landing.

Oh…and it had to be small, lightweight, and run on low power. Luckily, techies built exactly what we needed. All these improvements have now been incorporated into the camera which is being used in a variety of non-space industries…including car crash tests, where high resolution camera memory help engineers get the most out of testing to make the cars we drive safer.

Learn about more of our spinoff technologies HERE.

Join Our Techie Team

We’re always looking for passionate and innovative techies to join the NASA team. From student opportunities to open technology competitions, see below for a list of ways to get involved:

NASA Solve is a gateway for everyone to participate in our mission through challenges, prize competition, citizen science and more! Here are a few opportunities:

Vascular Tissue Challenge 

The Vascular Tissue Challenge, a NASA Centennial Challenges competition, offers a $500,000 prize to be divided among the first three teams that successfully create thick, metabolically-functional human vascularized organ tissue in a controlled laboratory environment. More information HERE.

For open job opportunities at NASA, visit:

For open internship opportunities at NASA, visit:

Stay tuned in to the latest NASA techie news, by following  @NASA_Technology on Twitter, NASA Technology on Facebook and visiting

Happy National Techies Day!

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anonymous asked:

Why are larger animals so slow moving? Elephants, whales, even giants in shows like Game of Thrones. They all have slow, exaggerated movements. Would it be possible for a mythical creature to be extremely large but also quick (compared to humans)?

Metabolism is linked to body surface area to volume ratio. Smaller animals have a larger surface area to volume ratio. They lose heat quicker, they require more calories per kg of body weight, and their growth and reproductive cycles are faster.

Also, it takes physically more time to move a larger body. If a creature has a single step that moves 1 meter, it will take longer to move that limb than if the creature’s step is only 1cm.

By the same token, if you consider a heart beat, it takes longer for a heart to pump a large volume of blood from one chamber to the next than if it was a tiny heart.

It’d defy what we currently know about biology to have a massive creature that still had the speed and metabolism of, say, a hummingbird or a mouse.

Quick fact. Ready?
Nitric Oxide is a compound produced in the body that helps to increase blood flow.

How? By causing a relaxation response in blood vessels, allowing for more to pass through.

However, Nitric Oxide really only exists in the body for about five seconds before it breaks down into Nitrogen and Oxygen.


All My Friends Are Heathens, Pt.6

Summary: In an alternate universe where monsters roam freely among humans, eight of these creatures group together under one roof. Their newest member, a dark vampire, comes to meet their reoccurring house guest who may be more than what she seems.

Pairing: Bucky x Reader
Word Count: 4199
Genre: AU
Warnings: Mild language, sexual tension.
A/N: HEY IT’S BEEN MONTHS I KNOW BUT HERE WE ARE!! So remember how I lost the original 2000+ words I had written for Pt.5 before the file got corrupted? Well in this rewrite, I somehow doubled it so get comfy! Also, as a show of gratitude for your patience with me, I’ve been working really hard and I’ll be posting Pt.6 tomorrow and Pt.7 the day after! Three parts in three days, look at you! Just a heads up, Pt.8 will be the final update and then that’s it for this monster of a fic! I love you all so much and thank you for sticking around with me. ❤

P.S. I am such a little shit for extending the slow burn and I’m not even sorry about it…okay I’m really sorry, please don’t lynch me ILYOKAYBYE!

Click HERE for more character information

| Part 1 | Part 2 | Part 3 | Part 4 | Part 5 | Part 6 | Part 7 | Part 8 | Part 9

Originally posted by taliesyne

Originally posted by hoaxvault

[ previously ]

“I’ll see you tomorrow, James,” you said, blushing at the way he smiled back. You paused to admire the way his lips still looked full and plump as he grinned and the way his long lashes fluttered against his cheeks.

Bucky passed his tongue over his fangs as he watched you walk away. Just one more day and he would have you again.

“I made a promise, didn’t I?”

[ The day of the full moon ]

You woke up in good spirits and the first thing you wanted to do was find Bucky. After showering and dressing yourself in a flattering, and somewhat revealing summer dress, you made your way towards Steve’s room to see the vampire. Since they switched rooms yesterday you wouldn’t actually be seeing the blonde man just yet but you reminded yourself to go check up on him later on. Today his migraines would be in full swing.

When you reached ‘Bucky’s’ door, you stopped to take a deep breath before knocking. As eager as you were, you were still a bit nervous. Several seconds passed and there was still no answer so you decided to open the door and walk slowly into the cold room. All monster’s burned a little hotter than humans so every bedroom was a few degrees lower than the rest of the household. Being that you always felt a little warmer yourself, you really didn’t mind the sudden temperature drop. You actually found that it soothed you just as much as it did the others. Maybe that was why you felt so exhilarated by Bucky’s touch.

That or his charm and pure sexual magnetism that pulled at you and left you wanting and aching for more. Who knew.

Your search went on for a few more minutes until you came to the disheartening conclusion that Bucky was definitely not in here. It wasn’t just that the bed was made and looked like it hadn’t been slept in at all, but the light as well. The early morning sun was shining so brightly that even you thought it was headache inducing. There was no way Bucky would stick around and be exposed to this so he must have gone.

You didn’t bother to hide your disappointment, jutting out your bottom lip and pouting as you shut the door and left. As you were walking back to your room, you bumped into something hard that caused you to lose your balance. You shrieked as you awkwardly tumbled down, hearing only a disgruntled “oof” and landing a few inches off of the floor.

“Y/N…” The strained voice of Clint Barton cut through the air. “Sweetie…for the love of God…move your knee,” he groaned before materializing beneath you with a pained expression on his face. You looked down the length of your bodies to see that your knee was pressing hard against his groin.

“Oh my God!” you exclaimed and pushed yourself off of him, moving to his side. “Holy shit, Clint I’m so sorry! Are you okay?”

He rolled to his side, cupping himself and stuttering, “Mhm, uh-huh, ‘m fine. Just…just gimme a minute here, kiddo.” His voice was a little higher than usual.

Trying your best not to laugh, you rubbed his arm to comfort him. “To be fair here, you bumped into me. I can’t really avoid something I can’t see.” Still, you felt just a little bit guilty.

He continued to mumble and groan, waiting for the pain to pass and trying not to let tears fall. Then you noticed that the bags under his eyes were a little more pronounced than usual.

“Sweetie, when was the last time you slept?” you asked, knowing that your friend turned into a bit of a night owl during this time. He muttered an answer that you were less than happy with and sighed. “How many times do I have to tell you,” you started to nag him. “You can’t survive on just coffee and pizza. Even creatures need to sleep.”

“Y/N, we-”

“Don’t give me any of that “monster/human metabolisms are different” crap,” you cut him off. “I know all about it and there’s still a limit, Barton.”

The invisible man with the not-so-invisible pain finally laughed and moved to sit up, letting you help him. “Can’t get anything past you, huh Y/N?”

“You’re damn right,” you reaffirmed and helped him get to his feet. “Alright then, let’s get you to your room so you can sleep for the rest of the day. You’re going out tonight, yeah?” you asked and he replied with a nod, huffing out a harsh breath as he came to his feet.

He was still sore but his voice sounded a little more normal again. “There’s no point in arguing with you, is there?” he asked, knowing the answer even before you shook your head. “And you’re gonna lock me in there, aren’t you?” He smiled when you nodded this time.

“You’re a flight risk, Barton. If I don’t latch the cage, my little birdie will fly away,” you joked with him, wrapping his arm around your shoulders.

As you helped him hobble towards his bedroom, you felt a rush of cold air pass by, strong enough to lift your dress up. Startled by the sudden exposure, you turned abruptly to look for the source, forgetting that you were supporting most of Clint’s weight. But you remembered as soon as you heard him fall to the ground and curse in surprise.

“Shit! Sorry Clint!”

As the afternoon approached, you still hadn’t been able to find Bucky. You settled for the fact that it was still early in the day and he would show up eventually. For almost an hour you stayed with Clint to make sure that he actually fell asleep and then locked his door when you left. The elusive man couldn’t pass through walls so he was trapped in there until you set him free. Which is why it was a little unsettling that wherever you went, you felt as though you weren’t alone. That something unseen was following you around. Catching a glimpse only through your peripheral vision but as soon as you turned to look, there was nothing there. Thinking it would be best to tell Steve about it, you made your way down the first floor corridors to reach Bucky’s basement bedroom where Steve was resting. That’s when you heard two very distinct voices. It was Sam and Tony and they were arguing. Again. About something stupid…again. Being in no mood to deal with them, especially today, you tried to sneak past them.

“Hey Y/N!” Sam’s voice called out to you. “Come and settle this for us.”

You slumped your shoulders down in defeat and turned back to face them. You gave them both a hard look and raised your hands in surrender, hoping they would see how sincere you were with your inability to deal with their crap.

“Fellas, not today. I really don’t want to deal with your whining and complaining,” you said sternly before pointing at Tony. “I don’t want to hear about how you’re going to pluck out Sam’s feathers one by one or how you’re going to clip his wings because he’s annoying you and never shuts up. Just suck it up like the rest of us do!” Then you turned to Sam. “And I definitely don’t want to hear about how we should neuter Tony because the last thing you want is a pack of little Stark’s running around. Yeah, I know, even the thought of that terrifies me too.” You took turns looking them both in the eyes. “Please boys, let it go. And enough with the animal jokes, damn.”

Both men looked at each other then you and then back to each other, taking a moment before nodding in unison and silently agreeing to let it go. For now, at least. You swore that in that moment, the heavens parted and you could hear angels singing.

“Fine. So then where were you heading off to, babygirl?” Sam asked with a grin. The two of them started walking closer to you.

“I was just gonna go check on Stevie. See if he needs anything.”

“Is that why you were sneaking towards Barnes’ room?” Tony asked, staring you down suspiciously.

You rolled your eyes and simply answered, “That’s because Steve spent the night in there.”

Sam crossed his arms over his chest. “What, are the two old-timers having some kind of “best friends forever” sleepover or something?” You could practically hear the scoff that was itching to push through his throat. As much as he wouldn’t admit it, Sam was a little jealous now that Steve’s old chum had moved in.

Tony chimed in again, “Upset you weren’t invited, Wilson?”

“You’re the one that would never get invited, Stark,” Sam retaliated immediately.

Tony snorted derisively, trying to hide his own jealousy. “Who says I would want to join your super-secret boy band? Cause I don’t. I’m a lone wolf!”

Again, you rolled your eyes. That truce lasted all of two minutes but to be fair, it was a new record. You interjected before things could get too out of hand. “No, guys. Bucky was nice enough to switch rooms with Steve until his headaches pass. He’s actually really sweet and he cares about Stevie so give him a chance, okay?” you defended the absent vampire.

You could see that Tony still wasn’t buying it. “Yeah, cause that’s what you’d expect from the spawn of Dracula,” he chided, raising his hands to imitate air quotations as he repeated, “Sweet and caring.”

Holding back your annoyance towards the wolfman, you turned to address the birdman instead. “Sam, could you actually go check on Steve for me? There’s something I need to talk to Tony about. Tell him I’ll come around later to see him.”

“Yeah, I can do that,” he said, ruffling your hair affectionately and smiling when you pouted. Sam stuck his thumb out towards Tony as he backed away. “But you might wanna put a shock collar on Stark tonight, Y/N. Just in case he gets a little too close to your undead boytoy.” He mimicked being electrocuted and laughed wholeheartedly before continuing to walk away.

“Go lay an egg, Wilson!” Tony bellowed after him.

“Bad dog! Don’t make me get the spray bottle!” Sam’s laugh echoed down the hall.

“Smartass,” Tony grumbled before turning his full attention on you. “Seriously Y/N. I warned that pale bastard before you got here to keep his creepy hands off of you.” He held your chin between his thumb and index finger, turning your head from side to side. “I’ll rip his head off if he puts his mark on you.” Content to see that your skin was clear, Tony dropped his hand and sighed in relief.

Your cheeks flushed as you thought back to Bucky’s teeth breaking through your skin. Drinking from you from the exact spot that Tony had just inspected and found nothing. Bucky’s words from yesterday started to echo in your ears. Our little secret indeed.

Waving off the thoughts, you remembered what you wanted to talk to Tony about. “First of all, Bucky is not creepy so stop that. Second, you have other things to worry about.”

“What’re you talking about, kid?” he asked, clearly confused.

“You know damn well what I’m talking about, Tony. You better not come home tomorrow morning dragging back another devoured animal carcass that I’m left to clean up. I swear, I’ll shave you bald this time,” you warned, poking him hard on the chest.

Tony choked back incredulously. “Oh come on, Y/N! You know I can’t promise anything here. I have no control over it!” He tried to defend himself.

Thinking back to the last time you were home during the full moon, he remembered he had done exactly that. Managing to get blood and entrails all around the mansion but more specifically, right in front of your bedroom door. You were sure that your screams and curses could be heard from three towns over after you stepped in what you could only assume was a half-eaten sheep’s stomach. It ended up taking you a couple of hours to clean everything, mostly because you were trying not to get sick and add to the mess. When you eventually found Tony, he was rolling around on the lawn in the back still trying to recover from his feast. Vision was already scolding him for making his clean kitchen tiles all filthy too. Once Tony was lucid enough to remember what he did, he started to use his trademark charm on you. Trying to convince you that it was his lycanthrope way of giving you a gift because he cares about you so much. Sweet concept but you were adamant that you wanted it returned and exchanged for a soul-cleansing shower and new pair of bunny slippers.

Tony nudged your shoulder affectionately with his after replaying the memory. “Hey, you forgave me for that remember. Besides, you said you’re enjoying this vegan lifestyle, right? You have me to thank for that!” He raised his eyebrows, clapped his hands together, and gave you a big smile.

You pursed your lips to keep from smiling back. “That’s not the point, mister.” You looked at him, pleading softly with your best impression of puppy-dog eyes that you knew he couldn’t resist. “Please Tony, just try. For me?”

He groaned and his head fall back. “You’re killing me here, kiddo. Alright alright, I’ll try.” He looked to you again. “But will you still love me if I accidentally bring back some leftovers?” he asked hopefully, raising one eyebrow and nipping at his bottom lip.

You looked into his big brown eyes and nodded. “Of course I’ll still love you, Tony.” You leaned forward and kissed his cheek softly before turning to leave. “But if you do end up bringing back a treat…” you grinned over your shoulder as you walked away. “…you’re going to spend an entire day with Bucky and you have to be nice to him.”

“No way in hell!” he exclaimed in the distance. “I’ll take my chances with the shock collar!”

Your laughter was cut short when you gasped in surprise. There was a strange stinging sensation on your backside, like someone had just spanked you. You spun on your heels to see if maybe Tony had followed and was messing around but you were completely alone in the corridor. You turned again when you felt something else on your thigh, just under the hem of your dress. A kiss?

Hours later, the sun was hanging lower in the sky and you were really starting to feel frustrated. There was still no sign of Bucky and the increase of weird incidents was not helping with putting your mind at ease. Full moons were always a little more strange now that you were usually surrounded by creatures but this was unprecedented, and a little inappropriate. Like your dress straps slipping off your shoulders repeatedly and almost exposing your chest or the fleeting touches that would leave a trail of goosebumps in their wake. Jolts of pleasure that felt like they were tightening a coil in your stomach just a little more each time but then it would go away unfulfilled. You suspected Bucky but whenever you would call out to him, you were met with only silence. If it was him, he was doing his best to tease and torment you, and annoying as it was, it was working.

In an attempt to distract yourself from your sexual frustration, you stayed in the library and tried to immerse your mind in a good book. Of course, it was completely futile. After reading the same paragraph for the fourth time, a thought crossed your mind that made you jump from your seat. The time had just passed for when Bucky would be down in the kitchen so he could take his supplements. When you got there, you saw that only Vision was in the room standing by the stove and stirring a small pot. Feeling slightly dejected, you walked in and leaned against the counter top, resting your head in your hands.

“Y/N, is everything alright?” Vision asked looking up from his task and at you. “I sense that your mood has decreased dramatically since entering the room. Are you in need of comfort? Have I upset you in any way?” He didn’t have eyebrows but you were sure they would be knitted curiously right about now if he did.

Faking a smile as best you could, you tried to reassure him. “No no, it’s not you, Viz. Don’t worry about it, I’m fine.”

He turned his attention back to the stove. “I can sense that you are not being honest with me,” he paused and thought for a moment. “But you also have no desire to discuss it further so I shall let it pass.”

This time, your smile was genuine. Out of all of your monster friends, Vision was the least protective and yet, somehow, the most understanding. He didn’t necessarily experience emotions but he was still programmed to be kind and caring. The synthetic man was the newest member of the household before Bucky came along. Tony and another monster, who had since disappeared, created Vision by accident almost a year ago. He was still very much in his infancy but he possessed a staggering intellect and in order to maintain his software, he would power down during the full moon and update his systems. Knowing that he still couldn’t comprehend the dynamics of human/creature relationships, you didn’t have to worry about him being upfront with him.

“Hey Vision, have you seen Bucky at all today?” you asked hopefully.

“No, I haven’t. It would appear as though Mr. Barnes has been absent for the majority of the day. Or has at least managed to elude my attention.” He continued to stir the pot and read from his European Cuisine cookbook. “I had taken the liberty to deliver his supplements to his bed chambers but instead found only a highly discontent Steve Rogers.”

You pinched the bridge of your nose, feeling your frustration build again. “Yeah, they switched rooms. Steve’s headaches and all.”

“I know, that is why I offered to prepare a soup for Mr. Rogers that will aid in his recovery.” He removed the pot from the stove and poured it into a bowl. “Will you be needing anything before I rest for the night, Y/N?”

You shook your head and helped him prepare a tray. “No thanks, Viz. And I can take this to Steve for you, I wanted to go check on him anyways.” You were hoping to ask him if he knew where his best friend was or if maybe a frisky ghost had moved while you were gone.

Vision bowed his head in thanks and said, “Have a good night, Y/N,” before leaving you alone in the kitchen.

Just as you were about to pick up the prepared tray, you started to feel warm. Really warm. An intense heat started to build inside of you, burning hot in your belly and making you gasp for air. Your hands reached out to grip the edge of the counter top when it passed through your lower half, almost making your knees buckle. The desire to rub your thighs together to alleviate the aching need for friction made your cheeks flush. And then it faded away just as suddenly as it started. The only reminder being the heavy beating of your heart and the wetness gathering between your legs. If this was Bucky, you swore he was going to be in so much trouble when you found him.

Nightfall. The clouds parted to reveal the stunningly bright and full orb that triggered a change in every monster. You could hear Tony howling in the distance; the beast within was in full control now as he ran wildly through the forests to hunt down his prey. Sam had changed at the same time, mutating into the form of his giant-feathered counterpart. He was probably somewhere over the Atlantic by now; his majestic and enormous wings could carry him to Europe and back before daybreak. Vision went into hibernation mode long before the sun had set and was now out of commission for the rest of the night. Clint was freed from his room hours ago and now he was…well, who the hell knew where he was, the man was invisible after all.

Steve assured you that he would stay barricaded in the dark sanctity of Bucky’s bedroom since the harsh effects of his migraines were still causing him grief. When you brought him his meal earlier, you casually asked if Bucky had come to see him, careful not to mention that you noticed his absence all day. That’s when he told you that his friend left earlier that day to feed on whoever took his fancy. That he struggled more to maintain his appetite during the full moon and he needed to find a mate to relieve his desires. At first you didn’t believe a word he said. Bucky wasn’t like that. This had to just be Steve’s typical over-protectiveness trying to keep you away from the ‘vampire threat’ and you were not amused. But then you thought that Steve had never lied to you before so who knows what to believe. By the end of your visit, you became so disenchanted from his words that you forgot to mention anything about the strange things that happened to you throughout the day and if Bucky was really behind it all.

“Y/N, are you sure you don’t want to come out tonight?” Natasha’s voice cut through your neurotic thoughts, forcing you to shake your head clear.

“Yeah, I’m positive. I’m just not feeling it tonight. But you guys go and have a good time for me.”

You turned to see her donning her tight-fitted, black leather jacket over her slender shoulders, just as Wanda did the same. The two women always went out together during the full moon, claiming to see what kind of trouble they could stir up but you knew that their true intentions were far more virtuous. They would go out to bars and clubs so they could keep an eye on other creatures and make sure they didn’t prey on innocent humans. Just as she protected you and came to your aid all those years ago, Natasha continued to do the same for others, and Wanda was more than happy to join in the mission.

“Did you want us to stay with you, sweetie?” Wanda asked in her soft accented voice and took your hands in hers. “You’ve been home for a week and we’ve barely had a chance to hang out.”

You felt a tingling warmth in the palms of your hands and you knew she was trying to connect with you. Trying to read your mind and see if you were hiding anything from them. Thankfully you were aware of Wanda’s little tricks, the faint red wisps of her magic being a major clue, and you managed to focus your thoughts away from a certain vampire long enough for her to feel reassured. “Ladies, I’ll be fine. Besides, I’m not planning on leaving anytime soon so we still have plenty of time to hang out,” you said, trying to convince them as much as yourself. This whole ordeal with Bucky left you somewhat less than inclined to stick around but you didn’t want to think about that now.

“I still don’t like the idea of leaving you alone, Y/N,” Natasha admitted. A scowl pulled her features taut. “What about Barnes? Where’s he gone off to? I don’t trust that Fang.”

“Nat, don’t be rude,” you scolded her for using that term against him. “And you don’t need to worry about Bucky, he’s been gone all day and he probably won’t be coming back soon either.” Hiding the slight harshness in your voice was difficult but you pulled it off.

“He better not be draining the neighbors or any locals. If we have to move because of that bloodsucker, I’m going to tear his throat out. And I won’t be nice about it either.”

The venom in her tone made a shiver crawl up your spine. Natasha was less fond of relocating than she was of vampires and she absolutely hated them. Sirens and vampires were always butting heads, they were the two most effective predators after all. Whereas sirens were more strategic and stealthy when hunting, vampires showed more cunning and charm with their prey. Each one thought their kind was superior to the other and they often fought for dominance when they were forced to keep company.

Clint suddenly appeared beside the red-haired seductress, laughing nervously. “Alright, Nat, easy there. Let’s get going, yeah?” He usually tagged along with the ladies on these nights. As they would watch over others, he would be watching over them. Mostly Natasha though, just to make sure she didn’t tear anyone’s limbs off in public because they pissed her off…again.

After wishing them a good time and saying your goodbyes, you watched the remainder of your friends take off for the night. Leaving you alone and still thinking about where the hell Bucky could be.

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Drug Metabolism - kidneys

Drugs and their metabolites are handled in the kidneys via:

  • Glomerular filtration 
  • Reabsorption 
  • Tubule secretions 

Glomerular Filtration

  • Molecules under 20kDa in size are filtered out under positive hidrostatic pressure through pores of 7-8nm in the glomerular membrane 
  • Glomerular filtrate contains about 20% of the plasma volume delivered to glom.
  • Plasma proteins and protein-bound drugs are not filtered
  • Therefore efficiency is influenced by plasma protein binding  


  • Not all glomerular filtrate is lost - some reabsorbed
  • specific tubular uptake processes for carbohydrates, amino acids, vitamins, etc
  • as the tubule to plasma concentration gradient increases only the most polar molecules remain in the urine
  • pH partition between the urine and plasma determines the rate of excretion/absorption 

Tubular Secretion

  • Renal tubule has secretory transporters both on apical and basolateral membrane (organic anion and cation transporters (OATs 1-4 & OCTS 1-3))
  • Some drugs (eg glucuronic acid and sulphate conjugates) may undergo active carrier mediated elimination 
  • secretion rapidly lowers the plasma concentration of unbound drug
  • causing rapid dissociation of any drug-protein complexes

How Messing With Our Body Clocks Can Raise Alarms With Health

“With exquisite precision, our inner clock adapts our physiology to the dramatically different phases of the day,” the Nobel Prize committee wrote of the work of Jeffrey C. Hall, Michael Rosbash and Michael W. Young. “The clock regulates critical functions such as behavior, hormone levels, sleep, body temperature and metabolism.”

We humans are time-keeping machines. And it seems we need regular sleeping and eating schedules to keep all of our clocks in sync.

Studies show that if we mess with the body’s natural sleep-wake cycle — say, by working an overnight shift, taking a trans-Aatlantic flight or staying up all night with a new baby or puppy — we pay the price.

Either/Or: Duck 4

It didn’t happen often. It couldn’t.

But Lena felt herself getting accustomed to occasionally waking up in the same bed as the hero who had a knack for sleeping like a starfish, big and wide and very wholly. Twice, she woke up with arms wrapped around her. That was a pleasant surprise, one that she allowed herself to burrow into and close her eyes for an extra five minutes.

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professorsparklepants  asked:

Re: ghost physics, how do humans exist and interact with GZ space?

Yet more reasons I’m tempted to make Ghost Physics an AU: I think it would be really interesting if humans needed a protective suit or at least an oxygen supply to enter the Ghost Zone. Also human interaction with the GZ in the show is really dumb and inconsistent t b h, so I‘d rather worldbuild for an AU version.

In case of AU the Ghost Zone is super inhospitable to humans because all the gases in it are forms of ectoplasm, which humans cannot metabolize like O2. Ectoplasm is also prone to extreme swings of temperature and energy emission. Its default state is as an energy thief, sucking energy and heat from regular matter; but under other conditions it can release massive amounts of stored heat and energy. It’s an extremely volatile place– basically either freezing or plasma-hot.

For this AU I think I’d scratch the whole humans-are-intangible-in-the-GZ thing because it’s very inconsistently portrayed. So: because humans aren’t making a 4D hole in connection to their brain like ghosts are in OU, 4D motion isn’t possible for us. We are wherever we are taken along the 4D axis, and are stuck there until we are moved. Likewise, ghosts can’t go intangible in the GZ (which is actually consistently canon) because the 4D hole to their brains is much shorter there, and only goes in the direction of the dangerously energetic plasma soup layers of the GZ where the ectosignatures live. If they attempted 4D motion while in the GZ it would burn their bodies really bad.

Sorta related: ingesting ectoplasm is a great way to get sick. At best your body has no idea what to do with it and it passes somewhat harmlessly through your system. At worst your body mistakes it for an element/molecule of regular matter it resembles, uses it for its perceived purpose, and traps it in your body (similar to how heavy metals can accumulate in bone). It’ll then just sit there, sapping your heat and energy like an unmeltable ice cube.

Jack and Maddie absolutely have the right idea about wearing hazmat suits :s

Electron Transport Chain
  • Situated in the inner mitochondrial matrix
  • produces most eukaryotic ATP
  • a chain of proteins that move electrons from higher to lower energy levels
  • electrons are provided by FADH2 or NADH
  • terminal electron acceptor is oxygen
  • as electrons move to from high to lower energy levels, the energy is used to pump H+ against its concentration gradient out into the intermembrane space
  • this established concentration gradient drives the phosphorylation of ADP to ATP
  • oxidative phosphorylation

electrons flow from protein to protein spontaneously 

  • due to the relative electron affinities of the proteins
  • this tendency is known as redox potential

Click read more for detailed step by step

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Glycogen Metabolism
  • Glycogen is a readily accessible form of glucose. It breaks down far more rapidly than eg fat
  • It’s a long chain of glucose molecules held by a-1,4-glycosidic bonds
  • Found in high concentrations in the cytoplasm of skeletal muscle cells and hepatocytes (liver cells)
  • Glycogenesis: formation of glycogen Glycogenolysis: breakdown

In the liver

  • glycogenesis occurs when glucose is in excess
  • glycogenolysis occurs when glucose is required


  • glycogenesis is stimulated by insulin (produced when blood glucose concentration is high)
  • glycogenlysis is stimulated by glucagen (produced when BG is low) and adrenaline (fight or flight response)


Step one:

Glucose is phosphorylated by hexokinase (in muscle) or glucokinase (in liver)

  • Hexokinase has a much higher affinity for glucose than glucokinase
  • Allowing tissues to make greater use of glucose before the liver
  • Glucokinase (unlike hexokinase) is not inhibited by glucose-6-phosphate (the product)
  • This lack of feedback inhbition allows the liver to continue synthesising glycogen even when glycogen concentration is high

Step two:

Isomerisation of glucose-6-phosphate to glucose-1-phosphate, catalysed by phosphoglucomutase

  • reactions where a phosphate is moved are catalyzed by mutase enzymes

Step three:

Addition of glucose-1-phosphate to UDP (uridine diphosphate), a carrier

  • reaction is between glucose-1-phosphate and UTP (uridine triphosphate)
  • hydrolysis of the last phosphate in UTP drives the reaction
  • catalysed by UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase 

Step four:

the activated glucose-UDP is added to the non-reducing carbon-4 end of a glycogen molecule, with the release of UDP

  • catalysed by glycogen synthase
  • which is the rate limiting (slowest) step
  • cells control production of glycogen by controlling this enzyme’s activity


Step one:

Removal of a glucose residue from glycogen chain

  • catalysed by glycogen phosphorylase
  • phsphorylysis  reaction

Step two:

Isomerisation of glucose-1-phosphate to glucose-6-phosphate (backwards to above!!)

  • catalysed by the same enzyme - phosphoglucomutase
  • direction of reaction depends on the relative concentrations of -1 and -6

Step three:

Dephosphorylation of glucose-6-phosphate to form glucose

  • catalysed by glucose-6-phosphotase
  • only occurs in the liver
  • in muscle cells it’s not needed as glucose-6-phosphate is a glycolytic intermediate and can be used as is
  • as muscle glycogen is a store only for itself, it doesn’t need to export glucose (unlike the liver)
Pentose Phosphate Pathway

Pentose phosphates (including ribose-5-phosphate) are required for synthesis of

  • nucleic acids
  • ATP
  • cofactors
  • precursors to amino acids

glucose-6-phosphate is catabolised to form a pentose phosphate and CO2. NADP+ is reduced to NADPH in the oxidative stages

Stage One: Oxidative stage

3 enzyme catalysed steps

The dehydrogenases reduce NADP+ to NADPH

In the last step, 6-phospho-gluconate is decarboxylised. 

Stage Two: Non oxidative steps

Ribulose-5-phosphate is a pentose phosphate, but it’s not very useful. It can react in 2 initial reactions to produce more useful phosphates.

  • both are isomerations catalysed by phosphopentose isomerase
  • both are readily reversible
  • relative concentrations determine which way

Ribose-5-phosphate is a component of nucleotides, cofactors etc

Xylulose 5-phosphate gives excess ribulose-5-phosphate something to react with in the second stage of the PPP

-This makes molecules that can enter glycolysis from excess pentose phosphates formed in the first stage.

Only the first stage is controlled - NADP+ and NADPH compete for binding to glocose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase - therefore if there is lots of NADPH production of it, and pentose phosphates, will decrease

However not all cells require pentose phosphates and NADPH in equal amounts.

the PPP can operate in 3 modes

to supply necessary NADPH and pentose phosphates and make use of any excess materials

Equal requirement 

As above. 1 olecule of lucose-6-phosphate produces 1 molecule of ribose 5-phosphate and 2 NADPH

More ribose-5-phosphate required

eg in rapidly dividing cells - required for nucleotide synthesis

  • 1st oxidative step missed out
  • 2nd runs in opposite direction

More NADPH required

in cells conducting lots of biosynthesis eg fat cells carrying out fatty acid synthesis

  • 1st oxidative stage working full capacity
  • ribulose-5-phosphate is converted into glycolytic intermediates in the 2nd stage 
  • these then catabolised to produce ATP or used in glucogenesis to form glucose
Screaming Colors

Prompt: as requested by ANONYMOUS Hamilsquad x reader with soulmate Au where when they only see the world in black and white but when find there significant other they start to see in color but as John and Alex meet thy start to see everything in a dull washdown color and then after they meet Lafayette it got slighty less dull then the same went for Hercules. One afternoon the boys where walking along the streets of NY together when they bumped into a small girl and all of the sudden vibrant color pops up around them
Pairing: Poly!Hamilsquad X Reader
TW: mentions a bad date, color blindness???? Fluff
A/N: sorry this took so long! I’ve been fairly busy and tired, but I’m up and at them! Thank you so much for this lovely request! I struggled with it a little bit because I didn’t want to do something that had been done before. I might come back to this topic and make a mini series, but I’m focusing on the projects I’ve already started. Whatever I decide, I did enjoy this request! Thank you so much for your love and support! If you have something you’d like me to tag, please let me know! I want you to feel safe when reading my work! Please enjoy!
Word Count: 1556

Close your eyes. Imagine the sunrise. The reds, oranges, and yellows that chase away the black depth of the night. Depending on where you are, the sunrise looks different. Maybe it’s a watery, icy cold one that kisses cold cheeks coated in constellations from the consuming, craving night. Maybe it’s a hot, caressing, soft peck that takes your breath away and gently shakes you awake from your tender slumber. Whatever it means to you, there are colors it holds. Those colors kiss their sleeping beauty awake, every morning, until they don’t.
Now, what do you see? It’s probably silvery for you, dull, with a white ball of heat on the horizon. The blacks and greys trickle away until they are nothing. Not all powerful or all consuming as my roaring dawn, huh? That’s riiight…. you hadn’t met your soulmate yet. It’s okay, the day will come. You’ll find them eventually. Or you won’t. It’s whatever. It’s just a sunrise. You’re getting too into this. What? The story? Oh yeah, calm down.

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anonymous asked:

Do you have any thoughts on WolfCon? :D

Do I?

I adore this trope to death (and you should read the AMAZING GIFT that was crafted for me by the wonder that is @crossroadswrite. Go read it. It’s better than anything I could produce). I’m sorry but I’m now going to rant at you about the thing that I really love about this trope, and that I never read often enough:

Derek Hale, the werewolf.

(with woves pics, because apparently it’s a tradition when I write now)

In fics, Derek often kinda fails at being human. He’s too violent, too silent, too creepy. And sometimes it’s fun, sometimes it’s heartbreaking, sometimes it’s cute. But I don’t often read fic  acknowledging that Derek isn’t Erica or Scott or Boyd or Isaac. Derek fails at being human because he never was one.

Derek was born a werewolf, grew up with werewolf parents, werewolf brothers and sisters and uncle and grandparents. He was a baby with fangs, a kid who fell asleep to stories of little werewolves saving the world, grew up a teenager fighting with his parents when he had to fake being bad at sports. 

And why would the werewolf world have the same social rules as humans? They have different metabolisms, different hierarchy rules, a different sense of legacy and territory.

I want to read about a world where a lot of sentences are short and to the point, because half the informations is olfactory. Where you don’t have to expand on some subjects, because body language is the norm and the way you will incline your chin, lower your shoulders, raise your eyes will say more than any words.

I want a world where letting your eyes flash or your fangs drop might mean threat or sarcasm or honesty depending on your whole body language. Where jokes are so, so different from human’s because they are based on a lie obvious to your public in your heartbeat, in a ridiculous contradiction between words and body posture. Where personal space is not a polite concept, but similar to humans yelling at somebody from the other side of the room, since so much of the meaning comes with scent. Talking to someone from a few feet away forces him to sniff the air obviously like a pup and it’s rude.

I want werewolf traditions where earth is the more touching gift that can be given to a potential mate, because it represents territory and pack and safety. Where flowers are an insult because the scent is often overpowering and they remind them of wolfsbane.

In their world where bones mend in minutes, pain is a thing that can be taken away and werewolf walk around with extreme strength, violence is not frowned upon so much. Pups fight already to the blood, biting by accident with too sharp fangs. Adults arguing often shove each other roughly. Fighting is something they learn all their life, just in case, and a part of their life they are not ashamed of.

And more than all, the werewolf world would be one where touch is a whole part of communication. Touching strangers is the norm to prove you means no harm. Keeping your scent to yourself can only mean hidden agenda, and being afraid of your actions being traced back to you by scent.

And werewolves are packs before being families. So werewolf kids grow up thinking that touch is something obvious, something they should never beg or ask permission for. If you sit somewhere, other will organically accumulate around you. If you are tired, you can fall asleep on others. Hugs are the norm, kisses too. Pack will touch all the time for comfort, for love, for pack sent.

So, you know. I miss fics where Derek isn’t so much a fail!wolf as a perfect werewolf, just evolving in a world where he can’t handle social clues.

Where a few years in school only means that he learned to imitate human attitudes but doesn’t really understand it, like a second language he can only use clumsily.

Kate the hunter makes so much sense like this. She would have known everything about werewolf behavior and would have played right into it to seduce Derek. On the other hand, when we actually see Derek try to seduce a human in the show, it just so over the top that it looks like he’s trying to imitate something he saw in a TV show…

So you know. Maybe Derek is not silent, but simply surrounded by people unable to understand him. He speaks a dead language in this town now.

Stiles, Allison, Lydia are humans. Scott, Erica, Boyd, Jackson, Isaac are humans that just took on a wolf pelt.

And when Derek jokes, with a terse phrase but a playful raise of his shoulders, they only hear the terse phrase.

When he raises his eyebrows, they can’t read the meaning in his scent. He’s only raising his eyebrows.

When they fight, they only see the violence, they don’t associate with the way pups play fight.

When he sits somewhere in silence, they will not come naturally to touch and Derek will not think of asking because they are pack.

So now, let’s come back to the WolfCon trope.

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anonymous asked:

Hit me with all them thihv vampire facts~

can do, my dudes. BONUS CODEX ENTRIES:

Vampire Fact #1: Vampire sires use scent marking as a means to comfort mates and close family members. It is considered a very intimate act and requires deep trust between the sire and the one being marked, since it requires sires to expose their necks, where their scents are the strongest.

Non-sires do not have scents that are powerful enough to calm others, however all vampires can make a low sort of purring sound which, like a cat, promotes comfort and even healing both in the purring vampire and the other individual.

Vampire Fact #2: Vampires are beings ruled by instinct over all else. While they are capable of logic and emotion, in the end their instincts rule them. A truly starving vampire is one of the most dangerous creatures on earth, because they are ruled by nothing but instinct, and become more like animals – extremely intelligent, specialized, and successful predators. It is both dangerous and inadvisable for humans to let their guard down around a vampire or place their trust in one, because they may seem perfectly civil one moment and turn on you the next.

Some warning signs that vampires are losing control of themselves and may lapse into a more feral state are: inhuman dilation of pupils, fully yellow eyes, lengthening of ears and fangs, bared teeth, unsheathing of claws, and overly possessive behavior. A feral state, also referred to as “bloodlust,” can be triggered by a large amount of blood, especially if the vampire is younger or has not fed recently.

Vampire Fact #3: Although vampires have evolved to be more active at night to avoid detection by humans and take full advantage of their sensitivity to light, they are technically crepuscular, not nocturnal. Like housecats, jaguars, bears, deer, hyenas, and lemurs, vampires exhibit their highest levels of activity during the twilight hours – just before dusk and right after dawn.

Vampires tend to sleep throughout the day and remain awake throughout the night, but their circadian rhythms are more irregular and flexible than humans’. This allows them to be versatile in their sleeping habits; so many vampires may sleep after hunting at night and awake just after dawn, or sleep throughout the better part of the day but wake in late afternoon. Vampires have slower metabolisms than humans and thus require less sleep – the exact numbers are unknown since very few people are foolish enough to hang around at a vampire’s bedside with a stopwatch.