human evolution

jay z is the most overrated rapper of all time on top of being a dumb ass who cheated on the apex of human evolution. Wild.

Help me understand this, if an author or scientist is a committed atheist, who believes the universe has no intelligent creator, how do they justify using language like, “these creatures were built for living in community” or “we’re designed to crave hard work” or “this creature has rough teeth, it was meant to eat this food.”

Built, designed and meant are all words that take for granted the existence of an ultimate Builder, Designer and Intender. You can’t say the universe was planned, designed and built with specific intentions and deny the Creator.

anonymous asked:

YOUR TAGS. I feel you girl. It irritates me when people pretend Dean hasn't found his perfect match. Even in S4 when Dean barely knew him Cas was gentle and wanted to understand Dean "you don't think you deserved to be saved", the park date, etc. He sacrifices everything for Dean, makes Dean laugh (HE HADN'T HAD FUN LIKE THAT IN YEARS), always comes back to Dean. I can boldly say Castiel is the one person Dean is the happiest around. It does help that he thinks Cas is devastatingly handsome.

Some people must be watching the show like this:

Because really? Dean hasn’t found someone who loves him fully and unconditionally?

A person who would be literally everything Dean would look for in a romantic partner if he allowed it for himself? 

Someone who sees who Dean really is and loves him for it? Who would always choose Dean? Who would give up things for Dean? Who would rebel and fall for Dean? Who would always look out for Dean? Who would always care for Dean? Who would even keep away from Dean if it would protect him? Who would care for him when he’s wounded? Who would also care deeply for Sam because he loves him like a brother? 

Someone who is his equal, a BAMF, who knows the life, who brings out his soft side, who brings him up when he’s at his lowest, who challenges him, who sometimes even frustrates him because he cares so much. Someone with no preconceptions of who a person ‘should’ be, who therefore has no comprehension of why Dean would repress certain sides of himself thanks to low self esteem and cultural norms and therefore accepts and loves him for who he is as a whole, even the sides Dean might not even like himself, helping Dean to learn to embrace them. Someone who helps him be the best him that he can be, who would always choose him and would theoretically stay at his side for centuries if need be, who, when he doesn’t stay it’s because he is trying to protect him from afar and keep him safe, but someone who always comes back to Mr Dean Abandonment Issues Winchester.

Someone who would watch over him as his mother, up on her pedestal, always said Angels would, but you know, literal Angels don’t exist so he would have to settle for a metaphorical romantic partner for this, like in all the love songs and fairy tales…

WE JUST DON’T KNOW WHERE THIS UTTERLY UNREALISTIC LOVE INTEREST COULD BE HIDING.

Originally posted by stardustcas

The Science of Skin Color

When ultraviolet sunlight hits our skin, it affects each of us a little differently. Depending on skin color, it will take only minutes of exposure to turn one person beetroot-pink, while another requires hours to experience the slightest change. So what’s to account for that difference and how did our skin come to take on so many different hues to begin with? Whatever the color, our skin tells an epic tale of human intrepidness and adaptability, revealing its variance to be a function of biology. It all centers around melanin, the pigment that gives skin and hair its color.

The type and amount of melanin in your skin determines whether you’ll be more or less protected from the sun. This comes down to the skin’s response as sunlight strikes it. Over the course of generations, humans living at the Sun-saturated latitudes in Africa adapted to have a higher melanin production threshold and more eumelanin, giving skin a darker tone. This built-in sun shield helped protect them from melanoma, likely making them evolutionarily fitter and capable of passing this useful trait on to new generations. 

But soon, some of our Sun-adapted ancestors migrated northward out of the tropical zone, spreading far and wide across the Earth. The further north they traveled, the less direct sunshine they saw. This was a problem because although UV light can damage skin, it also has an important parallel benefit. UV helps our bodies produce vitamin D, an ingredient that strengthens bones and lets us absorb vital minerals, like calcium, iron, magnesium, phosphate, and zinc. Without it, humans experience serious fatigue and weakened bones that can cause a condition known as rickets. For humans whose dark skin effectively blocked whatever sunlight there was, vitamin D deficiency would have posed a serious threat in the north. But some of them happened to produce less melanin. They were exposed to small enough amounts of light that melanoma was less likely, and their lighter skin better absorbed the UV light. So they benefited from vitamin D, developed strong bones, and survived well enough to produce healthy offspring.

Over many generations of selection, skin color in those regions gradually lightened. As a result of our ancestor’s adaptability, today the planet is full of people with a vast palate of skin colors, typically, darker eumelanin-rich skin in the hot, sunny band around the Equator, and increasingly lighter pheomelanin-rich skin shades fanning outwards as the sunshine dwindles. Therefore, skin color is little more than an adaptive trait for living on a rock that orbits the Sun. It may absorb light, but it certainly does not reflect character.

From the TED-Ed Lesson The science of skin color - Angela Koine Flynn

Animation by Tomás Pichardo-Espaillat

anonymous asked:

Wouldnt asexuality be kind of a mental disorder because it doesnt benefit human evolution? Just biologically speaking, reproduction is essential for any species to keep evolving

I am not sure what post this question is in response to, but thanks for the opportunity to actually put my expensive education to use. 

Lets start by talking about what “mental illness” means. 

A mental illness is a condition that affects a person’s thinking, feeling or mood. Such conditions may affect someone’s ability to relate to others and function each day. 

- National Alliance on Mental Illness

Mental illnesses are health conditions involving changes in thinking, emotion or behavior (or a combination of these). Mental illnesses are associated with distress and/or problems functioning in social, work or family activities.

- American Psychiatric Association

What do these two definitions have in common?

1) They explain that mental illness involves thinking, emotion, and behavior. 

2) They explain that mental illnesses affect a person’s ability to function. 

You’ll notice that neither of these definitions include any mention of evolution or reproduction. That’s because procreation and contributing beneficially to evolution is not a requirement of mental health. 

A lot of people make the mistake of viewing mental health in terms of “normal” vs “abnormal”. I think that plays a lot into this unfortunately common idea that behaviors that aren’t biologically beneficial are “abnormal” and thus evidence of mental illness. 

The truth is that mental illness is about functioning vs impairment. 

The cornerstone of every psychiatric diagnosis is that it causes impairment in at least one are of a person’s life. The areas that mental health professionals usually look at are social, work, and leisure. 

Now, back in the old days psychologists used to have different ideas about what “functioning” looked like. If you didn’t fit in with the strict social norms of the time, then they would argue that you were experiencing impairment in social or work life. For example, a woman who wanted to work instead of getting married and having children might be labeled as mentally ill because her desires were “impairing” her from fitting into society’s prescribed gender roles. 

Thankfully we have (for the most part) moved on from that!

Now we look at functioning and impairment in terms of how well a person can live an enjoyable, fulfilling life. Some professionals also throw the idea of “productivity” into the mix, but that is very much a productive of America’s obsession with capitalism and that is a completely different rant!

Pick any mental illness out of a hat and I can tell you how the symptoms of that mental illness are likely to cause impairment in a person’s life. I can’t do that with asexuality, because asexuality does not have “symptoms” that impair a person’s functioning.

Like all marginalized sexual orientations and gender alignments, Asexuality does not inherently cause any distress or impairment. Any distress or impairment that asexual people experience is a result of society’s reaction to who they are. 

Being asexual might (notice I say “might” not “does”) stop someone from having romantic relationships or from having children, but romantic relationships and children are not requirements for functioning and mental health. 

You can have a rich and fulfilling social life without ever having a romantic relationship. 

You can have a full, healthy, functional life without experiencing any sexual attraction. 

Sex is not a requirement for life. 

Sex is not a requirement for health. 

Asexuality is not a mental illness because it does not cause impairment or distress. 

Evolution, natural selection, and procreation have absolutely nothing to do with defining and diagnosing mental illnesses. 

“There are very naive peoples and men who believe that the ‘good man’ is something desirable, and that the course of human evolution is directed toward the survival of the ‘good man’ only. From a superior viewpoint one desires the contrary: the ever-increasing dominion of evil, the growing emancipation of man from the narrow and fear-ridden bonds of morality, and the increase of force to press the mightiest natural powers into service.”

—F. Nietzsche, The Will to Power, §386 (edited excerpt).