Agnès de Courtenay was the daughter of Josselin II de Courtenay, comte d'Édesse and Béatrice de Saône. In 1144, Edessa was besieged by Imad ad-Din Zengi, the ataberg of Mosul and Aleppo and finally captured on December 24 of that year and her father was captured, blinded, and imprisoned in Aleppo. Béatrice sold what remained of their domains to the Byzantines and took Agnès and her brother, Josselin III, back to Saône. At some point, Agnès married Renaud, seigneur de Marach, but he died in battle in 1149. Afterwards, Agnès was betrothed to Hugues d'Ibelin, but he was captured in battle.

In 1157, Agnès married again to Amaury, comte de Jaffa, the younger of the two sons of Foulques V d'Anjou and Mélisende de Jérusalem. According to Lignages d'Outremer, their marriage occured after Agnès was abducted by Amaury. Either way, Agnès had two children with Amaury: a son, Baudouin and a daughter, Sibylle. Queen Mélisende died in 1161 and Amaury’s older brother, Baudouin III, he died as well in 1162. He had no children, so the throne was to pass to Amaury. Amaury and Agnès’ marriage then came under attack. With Edessa still in the hands of the Zengids, she had no political value. It is also possible that her betrothal to Hugues d'Ibelin had actually been a marriage. The chronicler Willelmus Tyrensis later implied that the reason was because Agnès was a harlot, but he was personally hostile to her. Such an explanination also ignores the fact she had no trouble remarrying to other men, which would have been unlikely if her reputation was as bad as all that. Amaury and Agnès’ marriage was annulled, though their children were declared legitimate and he remarried to Maria Komnēnē.

Afterwards, Agnès left court and had no influence in her children’s lives. She married Hugues d'Ibelin in 1163, but had no children by him. He died sometime between 1169 and 1170 and then Agnès married a final time to Renaud Granier, seigneur de Sidon. Amaury died in 1174, leaving Agnès’ young son, Baudouin IV, as king. Baudouin had been infected with leprosy as a child and was not expected to live long nor father any children. Raymond III de Tripoli¹ served as regent for the young Baudouin with the support of Agnès and her fourth husband. Though they’d previously had no real relationship with each other, Agnès came into conflict with Maria Komnēnē, who wanted to see her daughter, Isabelle, as Baudouin’s heir.

In 1176, Baudouin arranged for Sybille to marry Guglielmo Lungaspada degli Aleramici di Monferrato. He lived long enough to impregnate Sybille before dying from malaria. Shortly after Filips van de Elzas arrived in Outremer and demanded that he be recognized as regent as the closest male relative of Foulques V d'Anjou² present and that Sybille and Isabelle marry his vassals. His attempted power grab failed and Baudouin shortly after came of age. In 1180, Agnès appointed Eraclius, Archbishop of Caesarea the Latin Patriarch of Jerusalem. This is most likely the source of Willelmus Tyrensis’ grudge against her. The Old French Continuation of Willelmus Tyrensis (written about a century after the fact) claimed that she was having an affair with Eraclius. The Chronicle of Ernoul also claims that Agnès had an affair with the Potievin knight, Aimery de Lusignan, after having him appointed Constable of Jerusalem. Both are probably untrue; while Agnès supported Eraclius and Aimery politically, that is not the same thing as having sex with them.

In 1180, Baudouin arranged for Sybille to marry Guy de Lusignan, the younger brother of Aimery. Though the Old French Continuation of Willelmus Tyrensis claims that Agnès was responsible for Sybille’s marriage , it’s more likely that Baudouin was thinking politically. Guy and Aimery were both vassals of Baudouin’s wealthy Plantagenet cousins, who had every reason to want to keep the Lusignan brothers overseas and furthemore, Henry II of England had promised to take a pilgrimage to the Holy Land as peintence for his involvement in the murder of Thomas Becket. Guy de Lusignan turned out to be a disappointment in virtually every way however. He allowed Renaud de Châtillon to attack trade caravans and proved to be an ineffective military leader. Baudouin then chose to remove Guy as regent and appointed Sybille’s young son by her first husband, Baudouinet, as his heir. By this point, Agnès was in ill health and retired from court. She died sometime in 1184. After her death, her widower remarried to Helvis d'Ibelin, the daughter of Maria Komnēnē and her second husband, Balian d'Ibelin.

Agnès has not fared well in historical fiction. Taking the claims of Willelmus Tyrensis, Old French Continuation of Willelmus Tyrensis and Chronicle of Ernoul at face value (the latter two of which suffer horribly from hindsight bias), most authors consistently depict her as stupid, promiscuous, ugly, and singularly responsible for the downfall of Jerusalem.

¹ Son of Raymond II de Tripoli and Hodierne de Jérusalem.
² Filips was the son of Sybille d’Anjou

►►Braquo S4E2


Air Date : September 12th, 2016
Season Number : 4
Episode Number : 2
Networks : Canal+
Genres : Drama, Action & Adventure

Braquo is a French crime drama television series created by Olivier Marchal and produced by Capa Drama with the participation of Canal+ in association with Marathon Group, Be-Films and RTBF. It was first broadcast in France from October 12 to November 2, 2009. The first season established a record of audience for an original production of the channel, and has surpassed that of many U.S. productions broadcast by the network. The second season started in Canal+ on November 21, 2011. A third and final season was announced by main actor Jean-Hugues Anglade in 2011. The name of the series comes from the French “braquage” that describes armed robberies, particularly those committed on banks.

Samuel Le Bihan, Karole Rocher, Alain Figlarz, Geoffroy Thiebaut, Jean-Hugues Anglade, Pascal Elso, Joseph Malerba


» history meme : Kings of France.

Maison Capet
Hugues Capet (987 – 996)
Robert II “Le Pieux” (996-1031)
Henri Ier (1031-1060)
Philippe Ier (1060-1108)
Louis VI “Le Gros” (1108-1137)
Louis VII “Le Jeune” (1137-1180)
Philippe II Auguste (1180-1223)
Louis VIII “Le Lion” (1223-1226)
Louis IX “Saint Louis” (1226-1270)
Philippe III “Le Hardi” (1270-1285)
Philippe IV “Le Bel” (1285-1314)
Louis X “Le Hutin” (1314-1316)
Jean Ier “Le Posthume” (1316)
Philippe V “Le Long” (1316-1322)
Charles IV “Le Bel” (1322-1328)

Maison Capet-Valois
Philippe VI (1328-1350)
Jean II “Le Bon” (1350-1364)
Charles V “Le Sage” (1354-1380)
Charles VI “Le Fol” (1380-1422)
Charles VII “Le Victorieux” (1422-1461)
Louis XI “L’invincible Aragne” (1461-1483)
Charles VIII “L’Affable” (1483-1498)
Louis XII “Le Père du Peuple” (1498-1515)

Maison Capet-Valois-Angoulême
François Ier Le Magnifique (1515-1547)
Henri II (1547-1559)
François II (1559-1560)
Charles IX (1560-1574)
Henri III (1574-1589)

Maison Capet-Bourbon
Henri IV “Le Vert Galant” (1589-1610)
Louis XIII “Le Juste” (1610-1643)
Louis XIV “Le Roi Soleil” (1643-1715)
Louis XV “Le Bien-Aimé” (1715-1774)
Louis XVI “Le Père de la Nation” (1774-1792)
Louis XVIII (1814-1824)
Charles X (1824-1830)

My top 10 favorite movies

10. The Departed, (2006)  Martin Scorsese

9. Moonrise Kingdom, (2012) Wes Anderson

8. Gone Girl, (2014) David Fincher

7. The Usual Suspects, (1995) Bryan Singer

6. Se7en, (1995) David Fincher

5. The Royal Tenenbaums, (2001) Wes Anderson

4.Ferris Bueller’s Day Off, (1986) John Hughes

3.The Shining, (1980) Stanley Kubrick

2.Mommy, (2014) Xavier Dolan

1.Fight Club, (1999) David Fincher