Gray wolf subspecies

Eurasian wolf (Canis lupus lupus)

Italian wolf (Canis lupus italicus) x

Iberian wolf (Canis lupus signatus) x

Arctic wolf (Canis lupus arctos)

Tundra wolf (Canis lupus albus) x

Hudson bay wolf (Canis lupus hudsonicus) x

Alexander archipelago wolf (Canis lupus ligoni) x

Eastern wolf (Canis lupus lycaon)

Northern Rocky Mountain wolf (Canis lupus irremotus) x

Mexican wolf (Canis lupus baileyi) x

Mackenzie Valley wolf (Canis lupus occidentalis) x

Baffin Island wolf (Canis lupus manningi) x

Labrador wolf (Canis lupus labradorius) x

Steppe wolf (Canis lupus campsetris) x

Caspian Sea wolf (Canis lupus cubanensis) x 

Tibetan/Himalayan wolf (Canis lupus chanco), also known as the woolly wolf. x

African wolf (Canis lupus lupaster) x

Vancouver Island wolf (Canis lupus crassodon) x

Arabian wolf (Canus lupus arabs) x

Indian wolf (Canis lupus pallipes) x


hudsonbay wolf artis JN6A3934 by safi kok


hudsonbay wolf Hoenderdael JN6A4836 by safi kok

Larix occidentalis “Western Larch” Pinaceae (cone with evidence of seed predation by Tamiasciurus hudsonicus Red Squirrel)

Seeley Lake, MT
September 13, 2014
Robert Niese

Red Squirrels are cone specialists and create massive debris piles, called middens, in areas where they regularly eat (typically atop a stump, fallen log, or low, broad tree branch). These middens are easy to spot and are often more than a meter in width. In Western Washington, these cone middens are usually created by the Red Squirrel’s cousin, the Douglas Squirrel (T. douglasii).