how to write comic books

My 2016 In Reading

THE BOOKS I LOVED SO MUCH I WANTED TO SEW THEM INTO MY SKIN AKA MY FAVORITE BOOKS OF THE YEAR IN NO PARTICULAR ORDER

Homegoing by Yaa Gyasi
Another Brooklyn by Jacqueline Woodson
Today I Am a Book by xTx
The Three Woes by Casey Hannan
A Bestiary by Lily Hoang
Queen of the Night by Alexander Chee
The Mothers by Brit Bennett
Commonwealth by Ann Patchett
The Red Car by Marcy Dermansky

THE BOOK THAT OPENED MY EYES AND MIND AND BROKE MY HEART WITH THE PAINFUL REALITY TOO MANY AMERICANS LIVE WITH

Evicted by Matthew Desmond

THE BOOK THAT WAS TOTAL TRASH AND I THINK THE WRITER HATES FAT PEOPLE WHICH IS FINE BECAUSE WE ALL HAVE OUR ISSUES BUT STILL, GIRL, WHAT….

Maestra by L.S. Hilton

THE COMING OF AGE PROSE POETRY THAT MOVED ME IMMEASURABLY

The Pocket Knife Bible by Anis Mojgani

THE BOOK THAT MADE ME THINK HILLARY CLINTON REALLY WAS GOING TO WIN THE PRESIDENCY

All the Single Ladies by Rebecca Traister

THE STRANGE BOOK ABOUT LONELINESS AND THE THINGS WE DO ONLINE THAT I HIGHLY RECOMMEND

Valletta78 by Erin Fitzgerald

THE POETRY BOOK I DIDN’T UNDERSTAND AT ALL THOUGH I COULD TELL THE POEMS WERE SUPER SMART

The House of Lords and Commons by Ishion Hutchinson

THE ACTION THRILLER THAT HAD LOTS OF HYPE BLURBS BUT WAS ONLY SO SO

The Second Life of Nick Mason by Scott Hamilton

THE RETELLING OF A CLASSIC THAT I REALLY ENJOYED, WHICH SURPRISED ME AND ALSO THE AUTHOR WROTE ONE OF MY FAVORITE BOOKS OF ALL TIME, AMERICAN WIFE

Eligible by Curtis Sittenfeld

THE BOOK THAT MADE ME CRY BECAUSE IT HELD SO MUCH I COULD RELATE TO AND THEN MADE ME A LITTLE MAD

13 Ways of Looking at a Fat Girl by Mona Awad

EXCELLENT SMALL PRESS BOOKS YOU SHOULD CHECK OUT

Pink Museum by Caroline Crew
The Farmacist by Ashley Farmer
The Voyager Record by Anthony Michael Morena
Massive Cleansing Fire by Dave Housley

THE BOOK I READ TO LEARN HOW TO WRITE A COMIC BOOK SERIES EVEN THOUGH I WAS WRITING FOR THEIR MAJOR COMPETITOR

The DC Comics Guide to Writing Comics by Dennis O’Neil

THE COMIC BOOK I LOVED AND RECOMMEND OFTEN

Saga by Brian Vaughan

THE COMIC BOOK ISSUE I READ AND THOUGHT WAS NOT SO GOOD SO I HAVEN’T READ ANY OTHER ISSUES IN THE SERIES

Wonder Woman Rebirth #1

THE BOOK I WROTE AN INTRODUCTION FOR (OUT IN 2017! FROM BEACON PRESS!)

Like One of the Family by Alice Childress

THE BOOK I REVIEWED FOR THE NEW YORK TIMES

Small Great Things by Jodi Picoult

THE BOOK I WANTED TO LOVE THAT HAD GORGEOUS OBSERVATIONS OF WOMEN’S FRIENDSHIPS

Rich and Pretty by Rumaan Alam

THE BOOK ABOUT CHEFS AND THEIR TATTOOS WITH FASCINATING STORIES OF WHY PEOPLE PERMANENTLY INK THEIR SKIN

Knives and Ink by Isaac Fitzgerald and Wendy MacNaughton

THE BOOK I READ BECAUSE I SAW A PREVIEW FOR THE TV SHOW AND LEARNED IT WAS BASED ON A BOOK SO I STARTED WONDERING IF THE BOOK WAS GOOD

Queen of the South by Arturo Perez-Reverte

SOME VERY GOOD BOOKS YOU SHOULD CHECK OUT BECAUSE THE STORIES ARE WARM AND/OR INTELLIGENT AND/OR STRANGE AND/OR GRIPPING AND/OR INTENSE

Turner House by Angela Flournoy
LaRose by Louise Erdrich
The Wangs vs the World by Jade Chang
The Story of My Teeth by Valerie Luiselli
You Will Know Me by Megan Abbott

THE HEARTBREAKING BOOK ABOUT BEING GAY IN THE MIDDLE EAST DURING THESE TUMULTUOUS TIMES FROM A WRITER WITH A LOT OF POTENTIAL

Guapa by Saleem Haddad

GORGEOUS BOOKS OF POETRY I REALLY LOVED

Night Sky With Exit Wounds by Ocean Vuong
L’Heure Bleue by Elisa Gabbert
The New Testament by Jericho Brown
Look by Solmaz Sharif
There Are More Beautiful Things Than Beyoncé by Morgan Parker

THE EXCELLENT BOOK I CHOSE AS MY SELECTION FOR BOOK OF THE MONTH CLUB

The Veins of the Ocean by Patricia Engel

THE BOOK I READ BASICALLY TO IMPRESS A GIRL AND IT WAS A PRETTY GOOD BOOK ALSO AND I HOPE THE GIRL WAS IMPRESSED BY MY DEDICATION BECAUSE THE BOOK WAS VERY LONG

The Fireman by Joe Hill

THE BOOK WITH AN AMAZING TITLE,  SOME REALLY GOOD STORIES INCLUDING A RIFF ON ANTIQUES ROADSHOW AND ALSO SOME STORIES I LIKED LESS

American Housewife by Helen Ellis

THE BOOK THAT WAS EXCEPTIONALLY WRITTEN BUT I WANTED THE ACTUAL RAILROAD PART TO BE MORE FULLY REALIZED

The Underground Railroad by Colson Whitehead

FUN BOOKS THAT WERE FUN

The Assistants by Camille Perri
China Rich Girlfriend by Kevin Kwan

THE BOOK ABOUT BEING SINGLE TOWARD THE MIDDLE OF YOUR LIFE THAT PRETTY MUCH EVERYONE IS GOING TO LOVE WHEN IT COMES OUT

All Grown Up by Jami Attenberg

THE EXCELLENT SHORT STORY COLLECTIONS COMING OUT AROUND THE SAME TIME AS DIFFICULT WOMEN THAT MADE ME JEALOUS AND ALSO SCARED OF THE COMPETITION

Homesick for Another World by Ottessa Moshfegh
Always Happy Hour by Mary Miller

THE BOOK THAT WAS NOT MY CUP OF TEA BUT IT’S ME NOT THE BOOK

300 Arguments by Sarah Manguso

THE BOOKS I BLURBED (AND THEREFORE REALLY ENJOYED)

You’re the  Most Beautiful Thing That Happened by Arisa White
In the Not Quite Dark by Dana Johnson
I Almost Forgot About You by Terry McMillan
The Red Car by Marcy Dermansky
Feminist Baby by Loryn Brantz
Lower Ed: The Troubling Rise of For-Profit Colleges in the New Economy by Tressie McMillan Cottom
Bruja by Wendy C. Ortiz
Sing For Your Life by Daniel Bergner
Made for Love by Alissa Nutting

anonymous asked:

Do you have a fave xmen? I always loved nightcrawler and colossus, but boy are they never going to get focused on much

GAMBIT. ALWAYS GAMBIT. MY BOY, GAMBIT. i also love nightcrawler, but GAMBIT. and ORORO AND REMY ARE THE BEST BROTP. i would do. anything. for them to get a miniseries together. being bros. specifically remy is like ororo’s big brother on account of how they met and, look, i just can’t believe that they ever really managed to shake that dynamic, she’s like the smart younger sister and he’s the bad boy older brother who would do anything for her and and and ;w;

unfortunately Gambit has become Plot Hole Spackle as well as sometimes acting as a literal convenient shrubbery to hide other peoples’ nudity so he’s the most misused and accidentally powerful character in x-men, and i will probably never get the Gambit And Stormy’s Robin Hood Adventures series that i really want out of life

The whole James Roberts/Megatron controversy is wayyy overblown and people are treating James Roberts like he’s writing Megatron as if he never did anything wrong but let’s not forget the following points:

Keep reading

I like how Pacific Rim has given us the perfect way to describe all the different kinds of soulmates. It may refer to your best friend or the love of your life or your writing partner or maybe even your fandom buddy–someone who just gets you and knows how you think and fits perfectly into the space beside you: You’re drift compatible.

i’m screaming because in my docs i have an entire fic planned out with a superhero au for valgrace, but it’s already been done a million times already

anonymous asked:

What were some major influences for BtR?

Alrighty so:

2010 Era (Codename: ORION)

Influenced by:

  • Ben 10: Ultimate Alien
  • Generator Rex
  • Tron Legacy
  • GONE by Michael Grant
  • Marvel “How To Draw/Write Comics” instructional books
  • Teen Titans (comics and the show)
  • Comics I’d pick up at my local library (JLA, Batman, Superman, Green Lantern/Green Arrow, miscellaneous random titles I’ve forgotten)


2012 Era (Codename: ORION/NIGHTFALL)

Influenced by:

  • Ben 10: Ultimate Alien/Ben 10: Omniverse
  • WB’s Legion of Superheroes
  • Justice League
  • Batman: The Brave And The Bold
  • Sym-Bionic Titan
  • Young Justice
  • Avengers: Earth’s Mightiest Heroes
  • Max Steel


2015-2017 Era (Beyond The Rubicon)

Influenced by:

  • Ben 10: Omniverse
  • Ben 10 (2016)
  • Transformers: Animated
  • Justice League: Unlimited
  • Justice League: Action!
  • Batman Beyond
  • Beware The Batman
  • Gravity Falls
  • Steven Universe
  • CW’s The Flash

Sorry it took so long to answer this one!! I wanted to find my old 2012 era art to make a promo out of, and I kept forgetting! Hope you enjoyed this!! <3

PEOPLE DON'T KNOW HOW TO WRITE FEMALE CHARACTERS

Authors do not know how to write female characters. Most female characters in TV shows, movies, books, comics, ect., are made to be the love interest. They’re not very elaborate. A lot of the characters, although they try to hide it, are your typical damsel in distress. There are so small strong female starring roles. They’re usually the sidekick, never the main roll.

Let’s tear apart some characters in books. KK. Charlene Turner and Amanda. Literally, Charlene is the ‘pretty face’ of the team. She’s written as that, she’s not elaborate, she’s just there. Hence why I have picked up a hating for her. As well as Amanda. Her only purpose was to be the love interest in book 1. These characters are written in a way that doesn’t tie you into liking them, unlike the male characters. There are only two females I have taken a liking to in the series.

Now, let’s look at TV, Arrow (season 1), more specifically. Laurel Lane, two dimensional, she is the base for love triangles, about 5% of her scenes involve crying (a lot when you think about it) and most, if not all, involve romance. She could be SUCH an amazing character if they just build on her. Make her more than just a pretty face. Now, let’s look at another character in Arrow, Felicity Smoak. She hasn’t really had much of a backstory built up on her, but that doesn’t matter. She’s a dynamic character. You see her evolve. At the beginning, she is against helping Oliver as the vigilante, now, as the season closes, she is complete for fighting for his cause and working besides him. She’s smart, quirky, and has some AMAZING lines. She shows personality, without breaking down into tears every three seconds. She may not be as involved in action as Olly or Diggle, but she does kick butt and get her hands dirty sometimes.

All writers need to do is give female characters personality, elaborate with them, (give them good one liners also,) NOT start off with having them as the love interest, maybe sometimes, not have them as the sidekick *gasp*.

Little girls need these women to look up to. It’s so amazing to see someone just like them on screen (don’t get me started on racial issues in the media).

I remember as a little girl, I had the game Marvel: Avengers Alliance. I remember always playing with the same team: Storm, Invisible Woman, Electra, and Captain Marvel (I would occasionally swap her out for Spider-Woman). This is because they were like me, girls. I felt so happy that I could relate to them. That I was like them, I don’t have to be 6'4 and 240lbs to be a superhero (sorry Stevie). Those 5 women were the ONLY playable female characters in the game. That I’m enough, I don’t need to change to pursuit my dreams.

In the media, they occasionally have the bad ass female character. But she’s usually the “token girl” as I refer to her as. She’s only there so that there’s a girl. That’s pretty much it. They feel obligated to have a girl there, so they just put her there. pLEASE. STOP. The worst part is, she usually becomes the love interest. I’M COOL WITH HAVING THE WHOLE ROMANCE THING BUT CAN SHE HAVE ANOTHER PURPOSE.

Now, here are some tips for writing female characters:

•not all girls are skinny, they have a body, curves, fat *gasp*

•personality, please

•bacKSTORY PLEASE

•IS SHE A TOKEN GIRL? BETTA CHECK YOURSELF BEFORE SHREKING YOURSELF.

•IF THERE IS ROMANCE, MAKE SURE SHE HAS A PURPOSE BEFOREHAND. TAKE A WHILE BEFORE INTRODUCING IT.

•GIRLS CAN BE TOMBOYS

•BI. LESBIAN. ACE. PAN. OTHER SEXUALITIES THAN STRAIGHT.

•giRLS CAN BE SMART.

•BLONDES AREN’T AUTO DUMB

•BRUNETTES AREN’T AUTO SMART

•THERE ARE OTHER RACES THAN WHITE.

•HAIR DOESN’T HAVE TO BE LONG HAIR IS ANNOYING. CUT IT ALL OFF (jk you can have it long sometimes buT REALISTICALLY A LOT OF GIRLS HAVE SHORT HAIR.)

Now, let’s take a moment to thank those strong/ACTUALLY LIKABLE/COOL/AWESOME women in the media.

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The Lead Singer and the Web-Slinger: Gerard Way Talks 'Spider-Man'

The former My Chemical Romance singer and longtime comic-book fanatic gives us the scoop on his ‘Edge of Spider-Verse’ one-off

For a man whose band, the Goth-punk favorites My Chemical Romance, broke up last year, Gerard Way is busier than ever. Having long established parallel careers as a rock singer and an award-winning comic book writer (the first run of his original series, The Umbrella Academy, won an Eisner Award, the highest accolade in the comics industry), Way continues to pursue both. His first solo album, Hesitant Alien, came out at the end of September, while October 15th sees the arrival of Way’s first-ever story for Marvel Comics: a one-shot called Edge of Spider-Verse #5.

Way’s story is one of five, each giving an alternate take on the Spider-Man mythology — which will lead up to an event series called Spider-Verse in which every iteration of the popular web-slinging superhero will be featured. Way’s version may be one of the most unusual: his Spider-Man is actually a Spider-Girl, a 14-year-old named Peni Parker (who may be the daughter of a certain Peter Parker). Peni has not only been bitten by a sentient radioactive spider but shares a telepathic bond with it, and both of them fight crime inside a complex mechanized armor code-named “SP//dr.”

Rolling Stone got on the phone with Way to discuss his take on Spider-Man, the changing role of women in comics and how his music and comic book writing feed off each other.

How did you get involved with Marvel on this? Did they approach you?

Nick Lowe, the editor of all the Spider-Man books, was a big fan of Umbrella Academy and had a lot of enthusiasm for my work. When he was still editing the X-Men titles, he’d got my email from somebody in the business and just started writing me. We met up at New York Comic Con [last year] and he offered me an annual. He was like, anything you want to do forX-Men just do it. But it never materialized.

So I had a little time after finishing the album and then he hit me up again: “Hey I’m the editor of Spider-Man now. Do you want to do a Spider-Man book?” My response was, “I don’t know, I have to think if I could add something to it.” He said, “Well you get to make up any Spider-Man you want because we’re doing this mega-crossover.” And that was right up my alley because that’s the stuff I think I do a lot better with. If I had to go write somebody’s character [in keeping] with years of continuity, I don’t think I would fare so well. But starting from scratch and making something new and wild out of a concept — I have a lot of fun doing that. So I was like, “Yeah, I’ll do it.” And then he found [artist] Jake Wyatt and I knew I wanted to work with him, so it jelled pretty quick.

It must have been fun to play in this universe and create your own take on the character with only the most basic connection to the larger Spider-Man universe.

It was thrilling! I just took the basic concepts of Spider-Man and then I looked deeper into it. I thought about the radioactive spider: "What if it was more than just a bite? What if a bite was a psychic link and the spider stayed part of the story?“ That brought up a little girl who loses her dad. Then I drew the spider suit. And then right away I drew Daredevil, because I thought to myself, if I’m only getting going to get to write one Marvel comic, I’m going to put Daredevil in it as well.

When you decided to go with a female character, you probably didn’t imagine there would be a lot of discussion about the new Thor being a woman, or people campaigning that we need to see a Captain Marvel movie or a Black Widow movie. What are your thoughts on the way that’s shifting within the comic book world?

Ever since doing The Umbrella Academy, the characters I’ve connected the most with were the women. That’s been kind of pattern through my whole life, actually. Like I strongly connected with my grandmother when I was a boy and I never really connected with other boys my age. I was never into sports. I was only into stuff like comics and action figures and I never really identified that much with the masculine type of male; I identified more with the women in my life. So I found myself wanting to write a young woman again. It’s just what interested me the most.

But with regards to comics and women, I think it’s absolutely fantastic what’s happening in comics. I think it’s a breath of fresh air. There’s all sort of diversity — racial diversity, religious diversity, gender diversity. I’m still waiting for like a big transgender character as a main hero for a book. But I think it’s incredible. And I think it really is adding new life into comics and I’m glad they’re getting representation. I’m glad people are drawing women as women are.

This book is arriving now and your first solo album just came out. When you’re working on comic books and on music do they somehow feed off each other?

They do, and that’s the biggest trick. I think with Killjoy, because of where I was emotionally within My Chemical Romance I think I was trying to shoehorn or fit in my comics into the music maybe a little too drastically. But that was my first kind of experiment with doing it. Over the years, I’ve realized that, whether I knew it or not, my art was always very connected. I was conceiving Umbrella Academy when I was doing [the album] The Black Parade. When you look at that book it has a lot of Black Parade to it — this kind of theatric pageantry and darkness. Even now with the music I’m making, it feels a little like the Stooges or Iggy Pop by way of science fiction, and that’s crept into what I do with my comics.

Not too many bands get a chance to go out on top with their heads held high, but you did that with My Chemical Romance.

The way My Chemical Romance did it felt like the first of its kind, just like the band. That’s what I appreciated the most about the way it ended, was it was fitting for the band. You know, nobody hates each other and nobody is mad at each other. The band didn’t break up because people were fighting, it broke up because it was time. That’s crazy — you don’t see that. And I think everybody has a good shot at continuing their lives making music because people are interested in all of us. I think that really has to do with how interested people are regarding what all the members of My Chemical Romance do next.

Source

littlemrhandy  asked:

Dude I love your comic of sans! Where or when did you come up with this cool idea? Also do you mind giving a rookie a couple of tips for writing a comic?

Uhhh ok I’ve been getting a number of questions along these lines. First of all thank you guys so much, this is… just a doodle comic? I’m kind of embarassed, I wish I had, uh… “tried”. Maybe penciled at least?? But that’s the story of my life I guess. Regardless I’m really honoured by those of you who have told me you found inspiration in it, or are asking me for advice for how to get better at comics.

But secondly…uhhh you guys know I didn’t just “emerge from the foam” right?? haha I’ve been drawing comics for over 20 years now! Not to say that it takes that long to learn to make comics, I just want you guys to understand that what you’re seeing here is a product of a looooong time spent being bad at comics. So don’t give up! And furthermore, my friends who started at a later age got faster so much quicker because of focus and discipline, so it’s never too late ^_^

Hmmm so uh advice….

Keep reading

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I know I said I was gonna stop talking about feminist Thor but holly shit is this ever fucking hilarious.

Okay so Jane Foster now has breast cancer and is slowly dying, somehow having breast cancer made her worthy enough to pick up Thor’s hammer and become Thor (not get Thor’s powers but become Thor because the real Thor is now unworthy) and apparently the hammer’s power is slowly killing her as well yet instead of telling Thor about this (because you know she was his girlfriend for a couple of decades and he would have done everything in his power to help her deal with her cancer) she decides to run away and have a long pointless inner monologue about her inner struggles.

Where do I even start with this? First of all giving her breast cancer in a pitiful attempt to get people to sympathize with is her is just terrible writing, the character failed to make any sort of an impact on longtime readers because Aaron refused to give her a personality and relied too much on a mystery plot to keep readers coming back to read more.

But now all of a fucking sudden we’re supposed to feel sorry for this character and forgive any bullshit she might have said and done in the previous issues because she has breast cancer.

Give me a fucking break. 

See Aaron I know you don’t understand this but the key to making the audience give a shit about a character is to make that character likable, flawed and develop over time and you’ve done none of that.

You wrote a character who was a feminist first and a superhero second, you pandered to feminists and feminists alone with this character and you’ve shunned everyone that gave you constrictive criticism or called you out on your shit on Twitter.

You labeled everybody who didn’t like feminist Thor a sexist MRA neckbeard and then proceeded to turn The Absorbing Man into a fucking strawman for feminist Thor to beat. 

I say this without a hint of irony or humor but Jason Aaron’s writing on feminist Thor is so fucking bad that it makes Ultimatum look like a fucking masterpiece.

And again outside of feminists nobody fucking likes feminist Thor! No lie I looked on every comic book site and forum that I could think of and I have yet to find a single longtime comic reader or longtime Marvel reader who likes feminist Thor.

Also Jane Foster is most likely gonna die and then come back to life when Thor 3 comes out. And chances are the real Thor will get his hammer back by that time as well. 

But you know what? I’m glad a series like feminist Thor exists because it’s a great example of how not to write a comic book. It’s also a great example of why you should never pander to feminists by adding in bullshit feminist pandering into your writing because the end product is always gonna be shit. 

I also wanna make one thing perfectly clear, there is nothing wrong with having an opinionated character or social commentary but when you have a character beat up a starwman to justify a bullshit ideology then congrats you’re a shitty writer.

I’ll end this little post with this ever so wonderful image of the Thor run from 2007 outselling feminist Thor.

Dinah Drake was very much alive and present in Dinah Lance’s life when her daughter became the Black Canary.

Sara did not “have to die” in order for Laurel to take the mantle and, by killing her off, the show has purposely gone against the comics.

Stop trying to use the source material to defend the clearly sexist decision the Arrow writers chose.

Roomies.
College!AU: Our characters meet while attending university and end up sharing a dorm room. Awkwardness ensues after a drunk one night stand after a night of partying

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So, are you going to that party tonight? At Harry’s?” Gwen asked across thier little dorm to her science major buddy Peter Parker. It was quiet, both of them reading or doing homework and her voice sounded loud admist the scratching of pens and rubbing of erasers. 

Harry Osborn was the reason that Peter and Gwen had met, actually. Pete and Harry were best friends during childhood and upon returning to NYC from prep school, Harry started connecting his friends. Knowing that his two science majors were looking for roommates, he set up Gwen and Peter.

They actually got along really well, and so far having a guy for a roommate wasn’t so bad. He didn’t have any disgusting habits and she hadn’t walked in on him having a lady over, so all in all life was pretty good. Well, even better than good. Peter was quickly becoming one of her best friends. He was attractive and intelligent, funny and endearing. She’d be lying if she didn’t admit to having a little crush on him.

So Gwen mustered up the courage to casually - for Harry’s sake right? - see if Peter was headed to the mansion tonight. Harry said they could both stay over after the party after all. Maybe it’d be weird not sleeping across from Peter.

drewdasilva  asked:

How do your write comic scripts?

It depends on the book and the artist. And even then the tone, content, flow, and choice of stuff I write varies wildly. If it’s Chaykin, and it’s SATELLITE SAM, it looks like this:

EDIT: this is because Howard wants what’s called a FULL SCRIPT. He wants me to guide him and offer visual notes and to see where my cutter’s instinct finds edits and beats. Then he either executes or improves upon those ideas. Allred and Bags were the same way; i was SURE Doc would want Plot/Marvel Style (as it was the King’s fashion) but no. 

If it’s David, and it’s HAWKGUY, it looks like this, EDIT because it’s PLOT STYLE and i learned on IRON FIST to SHUT UP and GET OUT OF DAVID’S WAY:

if it’s an action scene in the middle of an issue, anyway. 

All of that is predicated on knowing what happens in a given issue, and what the issue is about, which are two different things, obvious as that may sound. and that starts with a lot of thinking and thinking and thinking. and that thinking becomes a vague list. there’s more thinking and the list gets added to and rearranged and taken apart and rebuilt and slowly starts to resemble an outline. Those look like lists numbered 1-20, with varying degrees specific data written after each, indicating the rough beat that must be served on the page and ideas of how to do it. Once i get to a place where that all seems to make linear sense i turn it into the above.