houseofyork

On the day in history
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28 April 1442
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King Edward IV was born
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Edward’s achievements,
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◼ An extremely capable & daring military commander, Edward crushed the House of Lancaster in a series of spectacular military victories, during the war of the roses; he was never defeated on the field of battle.
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◼ Despite his occasional (if serious) political setbacks – usually at the hands of his great Machiavellian rival, Louis XI of France – Edward was a popular & very able king. While he lacked foresight & was at times cursed by bad judgement, he possessed an uncanny understanding of his most useful subjects, & the vast majority of those who served him remained unwaveringly loyal until his death.
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◼ Domestically, Edward’s reign saw the restoration of law & order in England (indeed, his royal motto was modus et ordo, or “method & order”). The latter days of Henry VI’s government had been marked by a general breakdown in law & order, as well as a sizeable increase in both piracy & banditry.
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◼ Interestingly, Edward was also a shrewd & successful businessman & merchant, heavily investing in several corporations within the City of London.
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◼ During the reign of Henry there had been corruption in the exchequer. Edward made his household gain more control over finances & even investigated old records to see payments had been made. Documents of the exchequer show him sending letters threatening officials if they did not pay money. His properties earned large amounts of money for the crown
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#OnThisDayInHistory #ThisDayInHistory #TheYear1442 #d28apr #EdwardIV #KingEdwardIV #EdwardIVofEngland #KingofEngland #houseofyork #houseofplantagenet #Plantagenet #Plantagenets #History #RoyaltyinArt #EnglishMonarchy #BritishMonarchy

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On This Day In History
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1 May 1464
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Edward IV secretly married Elizabeth Woodville
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◼ King Edward IV’s marriage to the widowed Elizabeth Woodville took place secretly and, though the date is not accepted as exactly accurate, it is traditionally said to have taken place (with only the bride’s mother and two ladies in attendance) at her family home in Northamptonshire on 1 May 1464, just over three years after he had taken the English throne after leading the Yorkists in an overwhelming victory over the Lancastrians at the Battle of Towton.
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Elizabeth Woodville was crowned queen on 26 May 1465, the Sunday after Ascension Day.
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#OnThisDayInHistory #ThisDayInHistory #TheYear1464 #RoyalWedding #Marriage #Wedding #History #EdwardIV #EdwardIVofEngland #KingEdwardIV #KingofEngland #ElizabethWoodville #HouseofYork #HouseofPlantagenet #EnglishMonarchy #BritishMonarchy

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On This Day In History
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4 May 1471
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– Wars of the Roses: The Battle of Tewkesbury: Edward IV defeats a Lancastrian Army and kills Edward, Prince of Wales.
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◼ The Battle of Tewkesbury, which took place on 4 May 1471, was one of the decisive battles of the Wars of the Roses.
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◼ cThe forces loyal to the House of Lancaster were completely defeated by those of the rival House of York under their monarch, King Edward IV.
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◼ The Lancastrian heir to the throne, Edward, Prince of Wales, & many prominent Lancastrian nobles were killed during the battle or were dragged from sanctuary two days later & immediately executed.
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◼ The Lancastrian king, Henry VI, who was a prisoner in the Tower of London, died or was murdered shortly after the battle. Tewkesbury restored political stability to England until the death of Edward IV in 1483.
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#OnThisDayInHistory #ThisDayInHistory #TheYear1471 #Battle #Tewkesbury #BattleofTewkesbury #TheBattleofTewkesbury #WaroftheRoses #English #England #HouseofYork #HouseofLancaster #KingEdwardIV #EdwardIV #HenryVI #KingHenryVI #History #Heritage #EnglishMonarchy #Monarchy #Royalty #BritishMonarchy

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On This Day In History
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3 May 1446
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Margaret of York was born
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◼ Margaret of York (b.3 May 1446 – d.23 November 1503) – also by marriage known as Margaret of Burgundy – was Duchess of Burgundy as the third wife of Charles the Bold & acted as a protector of the Duchy after his death.
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◼ She was a daughter of Richard Plantagenet, 3rd Duke of York, & Cecily Neville, & the sister of two Kings of England, Edward IV & Richard III.
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◼ She was born at Fotheringhay Castle, Northamptonshire, England, & she died at Mechelen in the Low Countries.
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Portrait ; Anonymous portrait of Margaret of York, ca. 1468, Louvre
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#OnThisDayInHistory #ThisDayInHistory #TheYear1446 #MargaretofYork #MargaretofBurgundy #Duchess #DuchessofBurgundy #Burgundy #Royalty #HouseofYork #FotheringhayCastle #Fotheringhay #Monarchy #EnglishMonarchy #BritishMonarchy

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3

On This Day In History
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30 December 1460
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Richard of York, 3rd Duke of York died at the Battle of Wakefield
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York was killed in the battle. He was buried at Pontefract, but his head was put on a pike by the victorious Lancastrian armies & displayed over Micklegate Bar at York, wearing a paper crown. His remains were later moved to Church of St Mary & All Saints, Fotheringhay.
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About Richard;
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Richard of York, 3rd Duke of York (b.21 September 1411), was a leading English magnate, a great-grandson of King Edward III through his father, & a great-great-great-grandson of the same king through his mother.
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He inherited vast estates & served in various offices of state in Ireland, France, & England, a country he ultimately governed as Lord Protector during the madness of King Henry VI.
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His conflicts with Henry’s wife, Margaret of Anjou, & other members of Henry’s court, as well as his competing claim on the throne, were a leading factor in the political upheaval of mid-fifteenth-century England, & a major cause of the Wars of the Roses.
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Richard eventually attempted to take the throne, but was dissuaded, although it was agreed that he would become king on Henry’s death. But within a few weeks of securing this agreement, he died in battle.
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Although Richard never became king himself, he was the father of King Edward IV & King Richard III.

On This Day In History
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3 May 1415
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Cecily Neville, Duchess of York was born
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◼ Cecily Neville, Duchess of York (b.3 May 1415 – d.31 May 1495) was an English noblewoman, the wife of Richard Plantagenet, 3rd Duke of York & the mother of two Kings of England, Edward IV & Richard III.
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◼ Cecily Neville was called “the Rose of Raby”, because she was born at Raby Castle in Durham, & “Proud Cis”, because of her pride & a temper that went with it. Historically she is also known for her piety. She herself signed her name “Cecylle”.
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◼ Cecily Neville was a daughter of Ralph Neville, 1st Earl of Westmorland, & Joan Beaufort, Countess of Westmorland. Her maternal grandparents were John of Gaunt, 1st Duke of Lancaster, & Katherine Swynford. John of Gaunt was the third surviving son of Edward III of England & Philippa of Hainault. By her mother, Cecily was a niece of King Henry IV of England.
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◼ She was the aunt of Richard Neville, 16th Earl of Warwick, one of the leading peers & military commanders of his generation, a grand-aunt of queen consort Anne Neville, & a great-great-grand-aunt of queen consort Catherine Parr, sixth wife of her great-grandson, King Henry VIII.
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#OnThisDayInHistory #ThisDayInHistory #TheYear1415 #History #CecilyNeville #Duchess #DuchessofYork #HouseofNeville #HouseofYork #Royalty #Royal #Medieval #WarofTheRoses #Monarchy #England #EnglishMonarchy #BritishMonarchy

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On This Day In History
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1 May 1464
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Edward IV secretly married Elizabeth Woodville
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King Edward IV’s marriage to the widowed Elizabeth Woodville took place secretly and, though the date is not accepted as exactly accurate, it is traditionally said to have taken place (with only the bride’s mother and two ladies in attendance) at her family home in Northamptonshire on 1 May 1464, just over three years after he had taken the English throne after leading the Yorkists in an overwhelming victory over the Lancastrians at the Battle of Towton.
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Elizabeth Woodville was crowned queen on 26 May 1465, the Sunday after Ascension Day.
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#OnThisDayInHistory #ThisDayInHistory #TheYear1464 #RoyalWedding #Marriage #Wedding #History #EdwardIV #EdwardIVofEngland #KingEdwardIV #KingofEngland #ElizabethWoodville #Royalty #HouseofYork #HouseofPlantagenet #Monarch #Monarchy #EnglishMonarchy #BritishMonarchy

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Book of the Day
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The Hollow Crown: The Wars of the Roses and the Rise of the Tudors  
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.by Dan Jones 
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Release date : – 4 Jun 2015
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The fifteenth century saw the crown of England change hands seven times as the great families of England fought to the death for power, majesty and the right to rule. The Hollow Crown completes Dan Jones’ epic history of medieval England, and describes how the Plantagenets tore themselves apart to be finally replaced by the Tudors.
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Some of the greatest heroes and villains in British history were thrown together in these turbulent times: Henry V, whose victory at Agincourt and prudent rule at home marked the high point of the medieval monarchy; Edward IV, who was handed his crown by the scheming soldier Warwick the Kingmaker, before their alliance collapsed into a fight to the death; and the last Plantagenet, Richard III, who stole the throne and murdered his own nephews, the Princes in the Tower. Finally, the Tudors arrived - but even their rule was only made certain in the 1520s, when Henry VIII ruthlessly hunted down his family’s last remaining enemies.
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In the midst this tumult, chivalry was reborn, the printing press arrived and the Renaissance began to flourish. With vivid descriptions of the battle of Towton, where 28,000 men died in a single morning, and the Battle of Bosworth Field, at which Richard III was hacked down, this is the real story behind Shakespeare’s famous history plays.
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#Book #Books #BookoftheDay #TheHollowCrown #HollowCrown #DanJones #History #WarofTheRoses #TheWaroftheRoses #WhiteRoseofYork RedRoseofLancaster #Yorkists #Lancastrians #HouseofYork HouseofLancaster #HouseofPlantagenet #Plantagenets #EnglishMonarchy #BritishMonarchy

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6

on-this-day-in-history:

Richard III: a ‘car park king’ timeline



- August/September 2012: A team of researchers and archaeologists from the University of Leicester searching a grave underneath a Leicester car park – in the choir of the church of the Franciscan friary (Grey Friars) – discover a skeleton. The press is told “strong circumstantial evidence” points to the skeleton being that of Richard III. Researchers begin a range of tests.


• 4 February 2013: The University of Leicester confirms that the skeleton is that of Richard III. The team tells a press conference that a wealth of evidence – including radiocarbon dating, radiological evidence, DNA and bone analysis, and archaeological results – confirm the identity of the last Plantagenet king. “It is the academic conclusion of the University of Leicester that the individual exhumed at Grey Friars in August 2012 is indeed King Richard III,” lead archaeologist Richard Buckley says.


• 5 February 2013: An online campaign for Richard III’s remains to be placed at York Minster begins to gather force. Within a couple of days, an e-petition to the government receives 8,000 signatures. The campaign is supported by York’s Richard III museum, tourism body Welcome to Yorkshire, and the local council. Richard, the last monarch of the House of York, grew up at Middleham Castle in the Yorkshire Dales. Days later, Stephen Nicolay, the 16th great-grandson of Richard Plantagenet, 3rd Duke of York (father of Richard III), tells BBC News: “York and the county of Yorkshire was, and remains, the physical and spiritual home of King Richard III. The burial of his exhumed remains should therefore be, without question, at York Minster which was, in life, his own wish.”

• 7 February 2013: Scarborough Borough Council’s Conservative leader, Tom Fox, claims that the city of Leicester cannot be trusted to look after the remains. “The people of Leicester misplaced him for more than 500 years. Would we really wish to entrust his remains to them again? I think not,” he says. Meanwhile, York Minster says it “commends Richard to Leicester’s care”.

• 8 February 2013: Descendants of Richard III’s family want his remains to be buried in York as “a matter of justice”, BBC News reports.

• 13 March 2013: Leicester Cathedral reveals initial plans for Richard III’s tomb.

• 26 March 2013: Some 15 of Richard III’s relatives – the Plantagenet Alliance Limited – are to seek a judicial review into the decisions authorising his reburial in Leicester, it is announced. The alliance says relatives should have been consulted by the government over the reburial, and states it wants the licence that enables the University of Leicester to decide where the remains are reinterred to be overturned, and the king laid to rest in York Minster. The relevant papers are lodged in the High Court some weeks later.

• 16 August 2013: The Plantagenet Alliance is granted permission for a judicial review. Mr Justice Haddon-Cave says he will grant the review “on all grounds”, but warns the parties against beginning an “unseemly, undignified and unedifying” legal tussle.

• 19 September 2013: Leicester Cathedral unveils a design for Richard III’s tomb. Under the £1.3m plans, due to be submitted to planning officials, the former king could be laid to rest in a raised tomb of fossil limestone with a deeply carved cross. Meanwhile, the justice secretary Chris Grayling says he will defend the decision to bury the remains of Richard III in Leicester.

• 23 September 2013: Members of the Richard III Society request that their donations not be used to fund the king’s tomb at Leicester Cathedral, because they disapprove of the design. The intended reburial is put on hold in November, when officials defer a decision over plans for his tomb.

• 24 September 2013: A petition calling for a parliamentary debate on where to bury Richard III fails to reach its signature target. The online petition, which needed 100,000 names to request a debate on the decision to inter him in Leicester, reportedly has 31,260 names when the deadline passes.

• 18 October 2013: The Plantagenet Alliance will have their costs protected even if they lose their legal battle over where the monarch’s remains should be reburied, it is announced.

• 26 November 2013: A judicial review due to take place in the High Court regarding the licence granted to the University of Leicester authorising Richard’s reburial in the city is adjourned. This is after the court agrees to allow Leicester City Council to make representations as a party. Matthew Howarth, the partner and judicial review expert at Yorkshire law firm Gordons, representing the Plantagenet Alliance, tells History Extra: “It is frustrating – it should not have happened.”

• 13 March 2014: The judicial review gets under way. Leicester City Council is now a defendant in the case, alongside the Ministry of Justice and the University of Leicester. York Minster and Leicester Cathedral are interested parties. Ahead of proceedings, Howarth tells History Extra: “Richard III was a culturally significant person, and there should have been a broader consultation about the location of his reburial.”

• 26 March 2014: Archaeologists “cannot say with any confidence” that bones found in Leicester are those of Richard III, leading experts claim. Speaking exclusively to BBC History Magazine, Michael Hicks, head of history at the University of Winchester, and Martin Biddle, archaeologist and director of the Winchester Research Unit, raise concerns about the DNA testing, radiocarbon dating and damage to the skeleton. The University of Leicester defends its conclusions: “The strength of the identification is that different kinds of evidence all point to the same result. Hicks is entitled to his views, but we would challenge and counter them.”

• 23 May 2014: The Plantagenet Alliance loses its High Court battle. The court concludes: “There are no public law grounds for the Court interfering with the decisions in question. In the result, therefore, the Claimant’s application for Judicial Review is dismissed.” Professor Lin Foxhall from the University of Leicester, who was head of department when Richard’s remains were discovered in 2012, tells History Extra: “We are jubilant. This is a victory for common sense.”

• 17 August 2014: Richard III began to drink more wine and enjoyed a diet filled with lavish foods such as swan, crane and heron after becoming king in 1483, new research published in the Journal of Archaeological Science shows. Through cutting-edge isotope analysis of his bone and tooth material, researchers discovered a change in the king’s diet in later years, and confirmed Richard had moved from Fotheringay Castle in eastern England by the time he was seven, before returning to eastern England as an adolescent.

• 17 September 2014: Richard III was probably killed by two blows to the head during a “sustained attack”, new research shows. Using CT scans on his 500-year-old skeleton, forensic teams at the University of Leicester found the king suffered 11 injuries before his death at the battle of Bosworth in 1485, three of which may have been fatal. He had nine wounds to the skull and two to the postcranial skeleton. However, historian Chris Skidmore tells History Extra that the findings fail to explain the final moments of the last Plantagenet king. “The scientific confirmation of the wounds and detailed research indicate that Richard was not wearing a helmet, but we need to explain why this was the case given that all sources point to Richard riding into his final charge with a helmet topped with a crown,” he says.

• 27 August 2014: The discovery of Richard III has boosted Leicester’s economy by about £45m, latest figures reveal. According to one of the trustees of a new Richard III visitor centre, local tourism has grown by three per cent more than comparable areas, and Richard is the likely cause.

• 2 December 2014: New genealogical research proves “beyond reasonable doubt” that the remains discovered underneath a Leicester car park in 2012 are those of Richard III, it is announced. According to a team of researchers at the University of Leicester, the latest analysis of all available evidence “confirms identity of King Richard III to the point of 99.999 per cent at its most conservative”. The researchers collected DNA from living relatives of Richard III and analysed several genetic markers, and found the mitochondrial genome shows a genetic match between the skeleton and the maternal line relatives.

• 3 December 2014: Professor Michael Hicks calls into question the validity of new data that is said to prove “beyond reasonable doubt” that the remains discovered underneath a Leicester car park in 2012 are those of Richard III. In an interview with History Extra, the recently retired head of history at the University of Winchester says the new genealogical research “does not carry us any further forward. It tells us that the two modern relatives share the same mitochondrial DNA as the bones, not that the bones belong to Richard III.”

• 12 December 2014: An online ballot opens for a seat at the reburial of Richard III at Leicester Cathedral in 2015. Some 5,000 people apply on the first day, and by the end of December more than 13,500 people have entered the ballot, BBC News reports.

• 5 January 2015: Richard III is related to Benedict Cumberbatch, the actor set to play him on screen in 2015, new research shows. University of Leicester genealogist Professor Kevin Schurer says he has revealed a link between Cumberbatch and the king, which makes them third cousins 16 times removed. It is estimated that between one million and 17 million people in the UK are connected, in some way, to Richard, but “He (Cumberbatch) is more direct because he is a third cousin,” says Prof Schurer. “Most other relatives would be much lower order cousins.”

• 7 January 2015: A rosary to be placed inside Richard III’s coffin ahead of his reinterment is blessed at the Clare Priory in Suffolk. The beads and crucifix, donated by historian John Ashdown-Hill, reflect Richard’s Catholic faith. The Clare Priory is connected to Richard’s mother, Cecily Neville: several members of her family are buried there.

• 22 March 2015: Richard III’s remains arrive at Leicester Cathedral ahead of his reburial. His funeral cortege enters the city at the historic Bow Bridge after touring landmarks in the county, and cannons are fired in a salute to the king at Bosworth, where he died in 1485.

• 23 March 2015: Richard III’s coffin goes on public view at Leicester Cathedral. Thousands of people queue for hours to see it, BBC News reports.

Book of the Day
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Cecily Neville Mother of Kings
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by Amy License
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To be released - 15 Jun 2015
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Description ;
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Known to be proud, regal & beautiful, Cecily Neville was born in the year of the great English victory at Agincourt & survived long enough to witness the arrival of the future Henry VIII, her great-grandson.
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Her life spanned most of the fifteenth century. Cecily’s marriage to Richard, Duke of York, was successful, even happy, & she travelled with him wherever his career dictated, bearing his children in England, Ireland & France, including the future Edward IV & Richard III.
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What was the substance behind her claim to be ‘queen by right’? Would she indeed have made a good queen during these turbulent times? One of a huge family herself, Cecily would see two of her sons become kings of England, but the struggles that tore apart the Houses of Lancaster & York also turned brother against brother.
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Cecily’s life cannot have been easy. Images of her dripping in jewels & holding her own alternative 'court’ might belie the terrible heartache of seeing her descendants destroy each other. In attempting to be the family peacemaker, she frequently had to make heart-wrenching choices, yet these did not destroy her. She battled on, outliving her husband, friends, rivals & most of her children, to become one of the era’s great survivors.
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ISBN-10: 1445644800
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ISBN-13: 978-1445644806
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#BookoftheDay #AmyLicense #CecilyNeville #English #Noblewoman #Duchess #DuchessofYork #York #HouseofYork #RichardDukeofYork #RichardIII #EdwardIV #Royalty #Royal #Monarchy #History #RoseofRaby #England #EnglishMonarchy #BritishMonarchy #FifteenthCenrtury 

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