I am myself a Queen, the daughter of a King, a stranger, and the true Kinswoman of the Queen of England. I came to England on my cousin’s promise of assistance against my enemies and rebel subjects and was at once imprisoned…As an absolute Queen, I cannot submit to orders, nor can I submit to the laws of the land without injury to myself, the King my son and all other sovereign princes…For myself I do not recognize the laws of England nor do I know or understand them as I have often asserted. I am alone without counsel, or anyone to speak on my behalf. My papers and notes have been taken from me, so that I am destitute of all aid, taken at a disadvantage.

8 February 1587 - Execution of Mary Stuart Queen of Scots 

Between eight and nine in the morning she was led to the Great Hall of Fotheringhay where she was eventually allowed to have some of her servants present after much pleading and reasoning. Sir James Melville her Secretary, Bourgoing her physician, Jacques Gervais her surgeon, Didier her porter and two of her women, Elizabeth Curle and Jane Kennedy were allowed to attend. She entered the Great Hall dressed in a black satin dress, embroidered with black velvet, and set with black acorn buttons of jet trimmed with purple. On her head she wore a white lace-edged veil flowing down her back to the ground. Her stockings were edged with silver in her black Spanish leather shoes. Her garters were of green silk and her petticoat of crimson velvet. She held a crucifix and prayer book in her hand and two rosaries hung down from her waist; round her neck was her pomander chain and an Agnus Dei.

Mary was led up the three steps to the stage and from there listened unperturbed to the commission for her execution.  It wasn’t until the Protestant Dean from Peterborough proposed to say her prayers according to Protestant rights that she expressed her disapproval.  The Dean nevertheless proceeded while Mary, kneeling, read out loud from her Latin Prayer book, and then in English.  The executioners as customary, then asked for her pardon to which she replied: “I forgive you with all my heart, for now I hope you shall make an end of all my troubles”.   They proceeded to help her undress assisted by Jane Kennedy and Elizabeth Curle, and to divest her of her Agnus Dei and Rosary.  Mary was now stripped to her red petticoat with red satin bodice trimmed with lace and a pair of red sleeves.  Red, the colour of martyrdom in the Catholic church.After bidding her servants not to cry and to pray for her, Jane Kennedy bound her eyes with a white cloth embroidered in gold, chosen by Mary the night before.  Mary now stood alone on the stage and positioned her own chin on the wooden execution block.  "Into thy hands O Lord I commend my spirit“ were her last words before the first stroke of the axe. 

The first blow missed the neck and cut into the back of the head. Mary was heard to whisper "Sweet Jesus”.The second blow almost severed the head.The third blow completely cut through the remaining sinew.As the executioner then picked up the head and held it up in the air to show the audience, the wig slipped off and the head rolled to the floor.  Mary’s hair was almost entirely grey from her long imprisonment.  

Every relic was burned and every drop of blood washed away.  Her little Skye terrier which had managed to hide under her skirts and would not leave his dead mistress’s side was also washed but refused thereafter to be fed.Mary’s body was then subjected to further humiliations.  Her heart and organs were buried deep within the Castle of Fotheringhay but the exact spot was never revealed.  The body was then embalmed and incarcerated in a heavy lead coffin which remained unburied in the Castle until 30th July 1587, where it was taken at the dead of night for fear of public protest, to Peterborough Cathedral.


HISTORY MEME | FASCINATING WOMEN [8/10} → Anne, Queen of Great Britain l (1665 – 1714)

Anne was born at 11:39 pm, 6 February 1665 in London, the second daughter of James, Duke of York, brother of Charles II. She spent her early years in France living with her aunt and grandmother. Although Anne’s father was a Catholic, on the instruction of Charles II Anne and her sister Mary were raised as Protestants. In 1683, Anne married Prince George of Denmark. It was to be a happy marriage, although marred by Anne’s frequent miscarriages, still births and the death of children in infancy.

Her sister Mary married William of Orange but Anne was forbidden by her father to visit her in the Netherlands. When William landed in England in 1688 to take the throne, Anne on the influence of her close friend Sarah Churchill (1650–1744) the wife of John Churchill (1650–1722), supported her sister and brother-in-law against her father James. Churchill was created Duke of Marlborough by William when he was crowned King William III and her sister Queen Mary II. Anne detested her brother-in-law and she was led by Churchills’ influence to briefly engage in Jacobite intrigues during William’s reign.

Mary died in 1694 and on William’s death in 1702 Anne succeeded to the throne as Queen Anne. When she was crowned in April 1702 Anne was 37 years old and after her many pregnancies had poor health and no longer her youthful figure. She was shy and stubborn and very different from her outgoing sister Mary. Anne and Sarah Churchill, Duchess of Marlborough, remained close friends – Anne addressed Sarah as ‘Mrs Freeman’ and she called Anne ‘Mrs Morley’. Sarah’s husband the Duke of Marlborough commanded the English Army in the War of Spanish Succession. The influence of the Churchill’s however began to decline and after a violent quarrel in 1710, Sarah Churchill was dismissed from court. Abigail Masham succeeded the duchess as Anne’s favourite, using her influence to further the Tories.

Towards the end of her life, Anne suffered from gout and she could hardly walk. On her death in 1714 her body had swollen so large that she was buried in an almost square coffin. On the question of succession, Anne’s family loyalty had convinced her that this should fall to her father’s son by his second wife (Mary of Modena), James Edward Stuart, known as the Old Pretender. However, the Act of Settlement in 1701 ensured Protestant succession to the throne, and Anne was succeeded by George I, great-grandson of James I.


Today in history - The execution of Mary Stuart {8 February 1587}

“I came into this kingdom under promise of assistance, and aid, against my enemies and not as a subject, as I could prove to you had I my papers; instead of which I have been detained and imprisoned… I do not deny that I have earnestly wished for liberty and done my utmost to procure it for myself. In this I acted from a very natural wish…Can I be responsible for the criminal projects of a few desperate men, which they planned without my knowledge or participation?”


Culloden is an evocative place for many people. Not only is it the site of the last full-scale battle to take place on British soil, and the last stand of an ancient royal dynasty which traced its ancestry back to the Dark Age Gaelic Kingdom of Dal Riata and beyond, but it is also the place where the Highland clan culture of Scotland sang its last song. The Battle of Culloden in 1746 meant, quite simply, the end of an era for Scotland. [src]

The Battle of Culloden was fought on Drumossie Moor, to the north east of Inverness, on April 16, 1746. It was the last of the great Jacobite risings - popular attempts to reinstate a Stuart monarch on the throne of Britain - and was led by Charles Edward Stuart, also known as Bonnie Prince Charlie or the Young Pretender.

The Jacobites were outnumbered around 9000 to 6000, and the ground was too marshy to accommodate the Highlanders’ favourite tactic - the headlong charge into the enemy’s ranks. Culloden did, however, lend itself more to Cumberland’s strength in heavy artillery and cavalry. The artillery decimated the clans as they awaited the command to charge. Many clansmen fell simply because the command to charge came too late, as Charles waited for the government troops to advance first, whereas the government troops just kept firing in the light of their highly successfulbombardment. When the command did come, the charge itself was disorganised. The Hanoverians stood firm and blasted the Jacobite army into retreat. 

Many of the Highlanders headed for Inverness and were hunted down and killed without mercy by Cumberland’s dragoons. Others, who headed into the mountains, stood a better chance of survival, but the government troops were thorough in their retribution. Many of the legends surrounding Culloden involve the clans’ attempts to return to home and the severity of government’s reaction. The ’45 was over and Bonnie Prince Charlie headed back to the safety of France and a life of obscurity. 


Royal Houses of the German Empire - I - Kingdoms

The German Empire of 1871-1918 consisted of 26 constituent territories: Four Kingdoms (Prussia, Bavaria, Saxony, Württemberg), six grand duchies (Baden, Oldenburg, Mecklenburg-Strelitz, Mecklenburg-Schwerin, Hesse and by Rhine, Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach), five duchies (Saxe-Altenburg, Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, Saxe-Meiningen, Anhalt, Braunschweig), seven principalities (Waldeck and Pyrmont, Lippe, Reuss-Greiz, Reuss-Gera, Schaumburg-Lippe, Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt, Schwarzburg-Sonderhausen), three Free Hanseatic Cities (former Reichstädte of the Holy Roman Empire: Hamburg, Lübeck and Bremen), and Reichsland Elsaß-Lothringen.

PRUSSIA - House of Hohenzollern (Franconian Branch) - Head and current claimant: Georg Friedrich, styled HI&RH The Prince of Prussia - married Princess Sophie of Isenburg on 25 August 2011
 - Heir: HI&RH Prince Carl Friedrich, his son

* Also a heir to the Latin Emperors of Constantinople

Bavaria - House of Wittelsbach - Head and current claimant: Franz, styled HRH The Duke of Bavaria - unmarried - Heir: Prince Max, his brother

* Also a descendant of the House of Stuart.

Saxony - House of Wettin (disputed between Albertine and Gessaphe branches) - Current claimant: Prince Alexander, styled HRH The Margrave of Meißen (Gessaphe - by decision of the previous head Margrave Maria Emanuel) or Prince Rüdiger (Albertine-Moritzburg branch - heir to Prince Albrecht, Margrave Maria Emanuel’s brother) 

Württemberg - House of Württemberg (senior branch became extinct in 1921, claim passed to King Wilhelm’s distant relative Duke Albrecht and his descendants) - Head and current claimant: HRH Duke Carl of Württemberg - married Princess Diane of Orleans in 21 July 1960 - Heir: Duke Friedrich, his son


{make me choose} ♔
theanglerfishes asked: the house of stuart or the house of hanover

The House of Stuart ruled England, Scotland, and Ireland from the fourteenth to early eighteenth century during a time in European history of transition from the Middle Ages, through the Renaissance, to the mid point of the early modern period. The Stuart dynasty endured through a brutal civil war that lasted almost a decade, assassination attempts, usurpations, national disaster and revolution. The great playwright, William Shakespeare, lived through this time period. The last monarch of this house was Queen Anne of Great Britain, who died in 1714. After that, the House of Hanover took over for the next two hundred years.

King Charles I was, let’s face it, a terrible leader. A terrible judge of character, he had terrible political instincts, almost no friends, and was so insufferably pig-headed about his alleged "Divine Rights" that he more or less forced his own subjects to behead him, even after they presented him with seventy-two different ways to get out of it and go back to being king, you know, like everyone wanted!

But he was also, let’s face it, not some murderous tyrant or some sadistic sociopath. There were no mass murders or gulags or genocide. He was a fairly sharp guy, loved his wife and kids, was an avid and knowledgeable art-collector. But he lacked imagination and self assurance and so, when presented with the kinds of problems that wiser and better rulers dance around easily, Charles dug in his heels and fell into traps that no-one had actually laid for him. I mean, it’s not like anybody tricked him into imposing the Book of Common Prayer on Scotland in 1637, knowing it would start a war and that the King would have to call a new Parliament. He did that himself. He did it all himself. To himself. To death.
—  Mike Duncan, author and presenter of the “History of Rome” and “Revolutions” podcasts, on King Charles I of England - Revolutions, Episode 1.10 “Regicide”

4. Crown Jewels of the United Kingdom, part I - Crown Jewels of England (3/3)

The English crown jewels include other pieces such as the Sceptre with the Dove, the Sceptre with the Cross, the Sovereign’s Orb and several swords.

1. The English Regalia in 1820.
2. Portrait of Charles I Stuart by Daniel Mytens - 1631, National Portrait Gallery.
3. Coronation portrait of Charles II of England by John Michael Wright - circa 1661, Royal Collection.
4. Coronation portrait of George VI of the United Kingdom by Sir Gerald Kelly - c. 1938, Royal Collection.

Source for all pictures (x)


When the Scots ruled England — Peashooter’s VERY brief guide to the Stuarts.

When one typically thinks of Scottish and English relations throughout history one usually thinks of the English being dominant over Scotland.  After all anyone who has watched the movie Braveheart can tell you how Edward I conquered Scotland and kept the country under a brutal tyrannical English rule.  But did you know that four Kings and one Queen of England were Scottish?

In 1542 King James V of Scotland died passing the Scottish throne to his daughter Mary.  From thence on Mary became known as “The Queen of Scots”.  After marrying the Dauphin of France and becoming a widower, Mary returned to Scotland to continue her reign as Queen.  She married a Scottish nobleman named Henry Stuart, Lord of Darnay.  Together they had a son named James.

While Mary was Queen of Scotland she was also niece to King Henry VIII and thus had a claim for the English throne.  Her cousin, Elizabeth Tudor, also claimed the throne.  In the end Elizabeth would become Queen of England and later had Mary beheaded.

In the meantime Mary’s son James was raised in Stirling Castle to become a proper Scottish king.  He was crowned King of Scotland (James VI) in 1567 while he was only 13 months old.  Meanwhile Queen Elizabeth I of England had a prosperous and glorious reign… until she died without an heir in 1603.  That left the English throne to King James VI of Scotland, who also became known as King James I of England.

King James I (pictured upper left)

  • Reigned 19 June 1566 – 27 March 1625
  • Ruled over England, Scotland, Ireland, and Wales
  • Sponsored an English translation of the Bible, now known as the King James Version.
  • Wrote several books on philosophy and government.
  • Brought a wave of witch hunts to England.

King Charles I (pictured upper right)

  • Reigned 27 March 1625 – 30 January 1649
  • Son of James I
  • Clashed with Parliament over his authority in government.
  • Tried to force the entire realm to worship Protestant Anglicanism.  This Angered Puritans, Presbyterians, and Catholics.
  • Conflicts with Parliament and the Puritans led to the English Civil War.  His supporters were called the Royalists a.k.a “Cavaliers”.  The rebels were called the Parliamentarians a.k.a “Roundheads”
  • Under the leadership of Oliver Cromwell the Parliamentarians defeated the Royalists.  Charles I was beheaded on January 30th, 1649.

From 1649 until 1658 England was ruled by Oliver Cromwell, more or less a military dictator with the title of “Lord Protector”.  In the meantime Charles I’s sons Charles II and James II lived in exile in France and the Netherlands.  When Cromwell died in 1658 the Parliamentarian government collapsed.  Charles II returned to England and became king during a period known as “The Restoration”.

King Charles II (pictured lower left)

  • Reigned 29 May 1630 – 6 February 1685
  • Re-established the Church of England and the monarchy.
  • Supported Catholicism and made reforms favorable to Catholics.
  • Supported religious freedom.
  • Made war with the Dutch… a lot.
  • Suffered a stroke in 1685.  His doctors tried to cure him by putting pigeon droppings on his feet and mustard on his head. He died five days later.

King James II (pictured lower right corner)

  • Son of Charles I, brother of Charles II, reigned 6 February 1685 –
    11 December 1688.
  • Declared religious freedom.
  • Devout Catholic
  • Last Catholic monarch of England.
  • Was very friendly to Catholics allowing them to take high offices, something which had been illegal for generations.
  • Received a representative from the Pope, the first since Henry VIII. By then many in England feared James II would force the country to become Catholic.
  • Was ousted from power in a bloodless coup called the “Glorious Revolution” in 1688.  William of Orange from the Netherlands was invited to become King of England in his place on the condition that he had limited powers.

King James II would be the last Stuart King of England.  He tried to regain his throne in the coming years but was unsuccessful.  He died in 1701.  Over the next five decades the Stuarts would live in exile in France.  In a series of wars called The Jacobite Rebellions the Stuarts would attempt to regain the throne.  The last occurred in 1745 in Scotland and resulted in an overwhelming British victory at Culloden.  The Stuarts never again attempted to regain the throne.

William of Orange died in 1702 without an heir.  Thus the last Stuart in England that was eligible to inherit the throne became Queen of England in 1702.  Named Anne, she was the daughter of James II.

Queen Anne (large picture, very bottom)

  • Reigned 8 March 1702 -  1 August 1714, part of her reign was as Queen of England, part was as Queen of the United Kingdom.
  • The last Stuart monarch.
  • Was the last reigning monarch of England.
  • Was the first reigning monarch of the United Kingdom. (Acts of Union 1707).
  • Development of the two party system (Whigs and Torries) in the UK.
  • War of Spanish Succession.
  • Died without an heir, ushered in the rise of the House of Hannover from Germany.

The Prince (1720-88) is entering the ballroom at the Palace of Holyroodhouse. He is wearing Prince Charles Edward Stuart tartan, the riband and star of the Order of the Garter. Flanked by Donald Cameron of Lochiel (c. 1700-1748) on the right, and the 4th Lord Pitsligo (d. 1762) on the left, his figure is brightly illuminated, whilst his companions stand behind in the shadows. The wooden floor is strewn with silk favours. 

Prince Charles Edward Stuart (1720-88) led the attempt to claim the throne of Great Britain for his father, James Francis Edward, the son of James VII and II. In September 1745 he seized Edinburgh and set up court at the Palace of Holyroodhouse. Here he conducted his official business. He left Edinburgh with his troops at the end of October 1745, on his way to London.