horizontal planes

Spins, Explained

So, as a follow-up to my previous layman’s guide on jump identification, this time, let us try to make sense of all the different types of figure skating spins.

Now, before we start, not to discourage you or anything, but keep in mind that spin is a topic more complicated than you might think, mostly because spins can come in endless flavors and weird naming conventions and skaters constantly invent new ways to mix and match. Another note is that this post will cover spins in single skating only - I don’t watch enough pairs and ice dance to have proper knowledge on their spins.

A couple of terms you will want to understand when it comes to spins:

Position refers to the way the skater holds their body while spinning. There are 3 basic positions, each of which comes in many different variations, in other words, different movements of the skater’s body while holding to the general shape of the basic position.

Level refers to the difficulty of the spins. There are 5 levels in total: B (no level) and Level 1 to 4. 

Level feature is how the spin levels are determined. One feature = one level, so a spin must have 4 features counted in order to be a Level 4. The ISU defines, in total, 13 different types of features a spin can have, any 4 of these in a spin will make it a level 4. Well, don’t sweat, this is just general information. We are most definitely not getting into all the technical details of all these features today. Layman’s guide, remember?  

Incidentally, it’s worth pointing out that Level and Grade of Execution (GOE) are independent, as I’ve seen some new fans confusing the two. Level reflects how difficult the spin is, while GOE is about how well it is executed. Think of it this way, the equivalence of level for a jump is the number of rotations, whether it’s a single, double, triple, or a quad. Jump of any rotations and spins of any level can be awarded GOE ranging from -3 to +3 and this has no direct correlation with the number of rotations/number of level features.   

With that, let’s move on to look at the 3 basic spin positions and some of their more popular variations.

Keep reading

I’m sitting on a bar stool in the middle of my room

Sitting at a weird angle

My lower back against the horizontal plane of the seat

Laptop with me

I can’t explain it but I can’t get off

Help me

“As Above, so Below” and Manifestations of Planets in Astrology

Astrology (and many other divination arts) works on a very old, very basic principle: as above, so below. This is an ancient phrase often heard in earth worshiping religions, but it brings up a question; why are things above are they so below? Aren’t “above” and “below” in different places for a reason? The answer to this is both yes and no.

“As above so below” is an image, two different planes that are parallel to each other have the same events at the same time. Things that happen up top also happen down below. Now, in astrology, this is quite literal with the motions of the planets above mirroring the events on Earth, but the applications go further. “As above, so below” could easily be “As within, so without”, changing the vertical plane of the sky and earth to a horizontal plane, the individual and their surroundings. The Universe is both complete chaos and perfect structure, but how we see it depends on how we’re trying to observe it. To people who do not believe in astrology (or tarot or palm reading or runes or any other fortune telling art) there isn’t a link between the motions of the planets and the emotions and realities we experience, but if you learn how to read the signs, anything from the leaves in a tea cup to cards on a table can reflect our futures and lives. The extent to which only depends on the reader.

In astrology in particular, I’ve noticed that as a result of this, there are almost always two manifestations of a planet: one that is internal and one that is external. For example, the Moon manifests both as what we need emotionally to feel secure (internal) AND how we perceive our mother (external). In any kind of reading, it is important to recognize both “as above, so below” as why our divination tools work, but also to read with “as within, so without” to accurately read the whole picture of why an individual is experiencing a certain situation.

Here is a quick-reference for internal vs external manifestations of planets. This is not a complete list but should offer a clearer look into how we experience them. The sign tells us HOW we experience these things and the house tells us WHERE we experience these things. *Note: aspects and Rx planetary motions also affect how we experience these planets.

The Sun External: The Father, our ideology, what we get attention for and want to show people.

The Sun Internal: What makes us feel happy to be alive, ego, importance.

The Moon External: The mother, fast reactions, being nurtured.

The Moon Internal: Feeling nurtured or not nurtured, security, emotions.

Mercury External: Information sharing, communication, siblings.

Mercury Internal: How we observe something, how we intellectually perceive something.

Mars External: Competition, conflict, rivals.

Mars Internal: Drive, excitedness, passion, anger.

Venus External: Objects, our bodies, food, money.

Venus Internal: Ownership, value as perceived by us.

Ceres External: Routines, what is real, how we receive/give physical care.

Ceres Internal: Existential security, a sense of order.

Juno External: Relationships, partners, what we do to support somebody.

Juno Internal: Sense of belonging to a partnership, dependence, caring for a partner.

Jupiter External: Travel, education, new things, morals, lucky breaks.

Jupiter Internal: The “aha” moments, things making sense, feeling lucky.

Saturn External: Restrictions, authority figures, rules, failure

Saturn Internal: Depression, worthlessness, frustration, patience, achievement.

Uranus External: Disruptions, calamities, rebellions, causes, inventions, friends, machines.

Uranus Internal: Dissociation, a desire to solve problems, a sense of wanting better and easier methods.

Neptune External: Dreams, altered states of mind, magic, the supernatural, being lost.

Neptune Internal: despair, ecstasy, feeling lost, wonder, numbness.

Pluto External: Death, major life-altering changes, endings.

Pluto Internal: Completion, loss, “the end”.

If you have any questions, please let me know so I can clarify further. Chances are, somebody else has the same question but if nobody asks nobody gets an answer. If you found this helpful or think somebody else would, republish it and be sure to subscribe for more astrology posts.

-Ralph

Eric Harris’s autopsy report (FULL)

(Page 1)

HARRIS, Eric 

Dr. Galloway

FINAL ANATOMIC DIAGNOSES: 

1. Through and through high energy contact gunshot wound involving the roof of the mouth associated with: 

A. Extensive lacerations of the scalp and soft tissues of the face

B. Massive fracturing of the skull 

C. Evacuation of the brain - cerebral cortex and brain stem

D. Extensive fraturing of the facial bones

COMMENT: The autopsy findings in this case reveal that the cause of death is due to massive head injury secondary to a high energy gunshot wound involving the roof of the mouth, consistent with a shotgun. This wound is consistent with self-infliction.

(Page 2) 

This autopsy is performed in the Jefferson County Coroner’s Office in Golden, Colorado on 04/22/99 at 2:00 pm. The autopsy is done at the request of Dr. Nancy Bodelson, the Coroner of Jefferson County. Identification is by fingerprints. The position identification for this individual is #12. Members of the Jefferson County Sheriff’s Department attended the autopsy. I am assisted in the autopsy by Mr. Rob Kulbacki.

History: This is the case of an 18-year-old, white male who was the alleged victim of a self-inflicted gunshot wound to the head that occurred in the Columbine High School library on 04/20/99. No other history is available at the time of autopsy.

External Examination: The body is clothed in a blood stained white T-shirt with the inscription “Natural Selection” on the front; green plaid jockey shorts; black combat boots; white socks; and a black glove on the right hand with the fingers cut away. This is the unembalmed, well-developed, well-nourished, extensively traumatized body of a white male appearing consistent with the stated age of 18. Height is measured at 5'8-½"; weight is estimated at 135-140 pounds. Rigor is present in the lower extremities only. Faint reddish-purple livor is present over the dorsal aspects of the body with appropriate blanching of the pressure points.

Head: The scalp is covered by short, blood stained, black hair. The normal contour of the head is prominently distorted by extensive laceration of the scalp and associated massive fracturing of the cranium. Present in the mid-aspect of the lower forehead and extending downward to involve the bridge of the nose; the distal portion of the right side of the nose; and the medial aspects of both orbits; is an oblong configured blow-out type of laceration measuring 3" in length by 2" in width, associated with underlying multiple fracture fragments which extend outward from the wound. Present on the right lower forehead, extending upwards and across the lateral aspect of the right side of the head; extending up over the apex of the head; and then extending downward to involve the posterior aspect of the scalp to the level of the horizontal plane of the ears; is a large gaping laceration which measures 8" in length by 3" in width. Ears - both ears are intact. There is blood in both external auditory canals. There is blood staining of the earlobes. Present anterior to both of the ears are vertical lacerations. The one on the right measures 1-½" in length; the one on the left measures ¾" in length; and these are consistent with blow-out injuries from a gunshot wound involving the mouth. Eyes - the eyebrows are brown. The orbits are distorted by fracturing of the underlying skeleton. The sclera on the right is bluish-gray; the sclera on the left is white. The right iris is gray; the left iris is hazel. The pupils are round, measure 8 mm, and are directed antericrly. The conjunctive are minimally congested. No petechiae are observed. A reddish-purple periorbital contusion involves the left orbit. Nose - there is, as previously described, injury to the external surface of the nose with extensive underlying fractures. Present adjacent to the right lateral margin of the nose are two vertical lacerations, each measuring ¼". Present on both sides of the face are multiple linear, curvilinear, punctate lacerations and cuts, more dense on the right. Palpating the face reveals massive fracturing of the facial bones. Mouth - there are several lacerations involving the corners of both sides of the mouth, the largest of which is on the right side, measuring ½" in length. There are multiple mucosal lacerations involving the mid-aspect of the lower lip. Slightly downward from the right side of the mouth is a laterally diagonal laceration measuring ½" in length. There is extensive laceration of the buccal mucosa. The tongue is intact, reddish-purple, with some black staining consistent with powder. There are central fractures of the upper and lower alveolar ridges. The teeth are intact with the exception that the lateral lower incisor on the right side of the jaw is absent. There is dense powder (soot) staining the mucosal surface of the hard palate. There is a large cavitary defect involving the roof of the mouth, including the hard palate, the soft palate, extending upwards involving the nasal pharynx and nasal passages, communicating directly into the base of the skull. This represents a contact entrance high energy gunshot wound. Present on the lateral surface of both sides of the face are brown whiskers.

Neck: The external surface of the neck reveals no evidence of trauma. The neck organs are in the midline without palpable masses.

Chest: The chest demonstrates a mild pectus excavatum with some central decrease in the anterior-posterior diameter. Present in this area is a curvilinear, horizontally oriented scar. No external trauma involves the chest. The breasts are normal male. Palpating the chest reveals no instability. The axillae are negative to observation and palpation.

Abdomen: The abdomen is flat. No external trauma is present. There is no evidence of previous surgical exploration. There is green discoloration of the lower abdomen. On deep palpation, no organomegaly or masses are noted grossly.

Genitalia: A normal appearing male, black, genital hair pattern is present. The penis is of normal size, shape, and position; circumcised. Both testicles are bilaterally descended in their respective scrotal sacs without palpable masses. There is a pigmented nevus in the right groin.

Back: Present on the right upper back is a horizontal area of soft tissue indentation with postmortem drying artifact. There is a small pigmented nevus on the right lower quadrant of the back. The anus is intact without any unusual dilatation or trauma.

Extremities: The upper extremities are intact. The nails are intact, short and slightly dirty. The lateral surfaces of the hands are unremarkable. The forearms are unremarkable. The antecubital fossae reveal no evidence of recent needle puncture marks or scars. Present on the lateral aspect of the left upper arm is a small cluster of punctate lacerations and cuts. Present on the lateral aspect of the right upper arm is reddish-brown abrasion associated with purple contusion measuring 3/8" in size. Arm spans: the right arm from the right shoulder to the tip of the right index finger is 30-½"; the left arm from the left shoulder to the tip of the left index finger is 31". The lower extremities are intact without evidence of congenital abnormality or trauma. There is a small reddish-brown abrasion on the lateral aspect of the right foot.

(Page 3)

Internal Examination: Through the usual Y-shaped incision, a thin layer of yellow subcutaneous adipose tissue and reddish-brown musculature are revealed. The diaphragms are intact and arch to the level of the 5th left intercostal space and the 4th right intercostal space. The peritoneal cavity contains no unusual accumulation of fluid. The lining is smooth, gray and glistening. The viscera and omentum are normally disposed.

Pleural Spaces: The pleural spaces are without any unusual accumulation of fluid. The parietal pleurae are smooth, gray and glistening. The ribs of the chest are intact and unremarkable grossly. There is a mild pectus excavatum deformity of the sternum. The clavicles are intact. The pericardial sac is intact. The lumen contains 8 cc of clear fluid. The pericardium is smooth, gray and glistening.

Thymus: Five (5) grams of pink, lobular, firm, thymic tissue is present in the anterior-superior mediastinal space.

Neck: The lumen of the upper esophagus and pharynx is patent. The mucosal surface is tan and wrinkled. The lumen of the upper respiratory tract is patent. The mucosal surface is tan and smooth. The hyoid bone and cricothyroid cartillages are intact. There are contusions involving the mucosal surface of the piriform sinus consistent with the blast impact of the contact gunshot wound to the roof of the mouth.

Thyroid: The thyroid is of normal size, shape, and position, and has a reddish-brown, lobular, firm, gross appearance. The cervical vertebrae are intact. There is no obstruction to the posterior nasopharynx or the posterior aspect of the oral cavity. I can palpate a large defect of the nasopharynx associated with multiple fracture fragments. The major vessels of the neck are intact and unremarkable grossly. There is no soft tissue hemorrhage in the neck.

Heart: The heart is intact and weighs 290 grams. The epicardial surface is reddish-brown, smooth, and glistening. Very little epicardial yellow fat is present. The myocardium is reddish-brown and firm without gross evidence of fibrosis or softening.

The ventricular walls are of normal thickness. The endocardial surface is reddish-brown, smooth, and glistening. The cardiac valves are intact. The valve leaflets are thin and fully pliable. The valve circumferences are normal for this size heart. The chordae tendineae are tan and delicate. The papillary muscles are intact. The foramen ovale is closed. The atrial septum is intact. The coronary sinus is patent. The ventricular septum is intact. The coronary ostia are in a normal anatomic position and widely patent. The coronary arteries demonstrate a normal anatomic distribution with normal gross features.

(Page 4) 

Aorta: the aorta is intact and of normal course and calibre throughout. The intimal surface is tan and smooth. The wall is thin and elastic. The main abdominal tributaries are intact.

Respiratory System: The lumen of the lower respiratory tract contains a small amount of hemorrhagic fluid on the right side. The mucosal surface is hyperemic and smooth. The lungs are moderately well aerated. The pleural surfaces are pink, smooth and glistening. The lungs together weigh 600 grams.  Serial sections reveal moderately well aerated, soft, spongy, lung tissue. The pulmonary arteries are intact without evidence of thromboembolic disease. The pulmonary veins empty into the left atrium in a normal fashion.

Gastrointestinal System: The esophagus is of normal courses and calibre throughout. The lumen is patent. The mucosal surface is tan with longitudinal furrowing. The wall is thin. The stomach is in normal anatomic position. The lumen contains 250 cc of brown, liquid, gastric contents. The gastric mucosa is tan with intact rugae. No peptic ulcer disease or tumor are noted grossly. The small bowel demonstrates a normal anatomic distribution with normal gross feature. The appendix is present and unremarkable grossly. The large bowel demonstrates a normal anatomic distribution with normal gross features.

Spleen: The spleen is intact and weighs 160 grams. The external surface is purple and smooth. Serial sections reveal a firm, reddish-purple, splenic parenchyma.

Liver: The liver is intact and weighs 1250 grams. The external surface is reddish-brown, smooth, and glistening. Serial sections reveal a soft, reddish-brown, lobular, normal appearing, liver tissue.

Gallbladder: The gallbladder is intact. The lumen contains 10 cc of liquid, yellowish-brown bile. The mucosal surface is smooth and bile stained. The cystic duct and common bile duct are intact and patent throughout. The portal vein, splenic vein, and superior mesenteric vein are intact and patent.

Pancreas: The pancreas is of normal size, shape, and position, and has a tan, lobular, soft, partially autolyzed, gross appearance.

(Page 5) 

Adrenals: Both adrenals are identified. Serial sections reveal a thin yellow cortex and gray medulla.

Kidneys: Both kidneys are identified. The capsules strip easily. The left kidney weighs 120 grams; the right kidney weighs 110 grams. The cortical surfaces are reddish-brown and smooth. Bivalving of each kidney reveals a well-demarcated, reddish-brown cortex and medulla. The renal papillae are normal. There is no calyceal scarring. There is no unusual pelvic dilatation. Both ureters are present, patent, and uniform in diameter throughout.

Bladder: The bladder is intact. The lumen contains 2 cc of cloudy yellow urine. The bladder mucosa is tan and wrinkled. The prostate, seminal vesicles and testicles are intact and unremarkable grossly.

Musculoskeletal System: Other than the injuries to be described under the observation of the head, no other injuries are observed.

Lymphatics: There are reactive lower respiratory tract lymph nodes. A biopsy is taken.

Venous System: There is no evidence of hepatic vein, renal vein, or portal vein thrombosis. The superior and inferior vena cavae are intact.

Central Nervous System: As previously described, the scalp is massively lacerated. The external cranium is markedly distorted with a large area in the right lateral and posterior aspects of the head absent, having been blown away. The cranium is a mass of fracture fragments. The cerebral cortex and brain stem have been evacuated. All that remains is a small portion of medulla oblongata. Several large fragments of brain are submitted separately consisting of portions of cerebral cortex; examined and there is no evidence of any underlying disease. There is massive fracturing of the base of the skull, and there is a large cavitary defect involving the base of the skull, including the posterior aspect of the orbital plates, the temporal fossae, portion of the posterior fossae, and the sphenoid bone and clivus. This is the area that represents entry of the gunshot wound into the skull. C1 and C2 are intact. The odontoid ligament and odontoid processes are intact.

Toxicology: 

Blood: I obtained two gray-stoppered test tubes of blood from the heart. 

Urine: I obtained one gray-stoppered test tube of urine. 

Bile: I obtained one gray-stoppered test tube of bile. 

Gastric Contents: I obtained one gray-stoppered test tube and one red-stoppered test tube of gastric contents. 

Vitreous Humor: I obtained one gray-stoppered test tube of vitreous humor. 

I also obtained approximately 100 grams of liver and 100 grams of kidney which will be retained and frozen.

Trace Evidence: 

1. Hair samples: I obtained random scalp and public hair. 

2. I obtained left and right nail scrapings. 

3. I obtained one yellow-stoppered test tube of blood, one purple-stoppered test tube of blood, and one red-stoppered test tube of blood.

The hair samples and nail scrapings are given to the Jefferson County Sheriff’s Officers in attendance at the autopsy. 

We will keep the blood samples with the toxicology specimens for a year for any possible evidentiary need. 

X-ray Examination: Revealed no evidence of retained bullets.

Wound Summary: The wound of entrance is a high energy gunshot wound to the roof of the mouth consistent with shotgun. The major force of the wound extended upward, backwards, and slightly to the right, causing large cavitary defects in the base of the skull and the right lateral posterior aspect of the skull. The characteristics of the wound are consistent with self-infliction.

04/22/99 Addendum: Additional material obtained from the scene is submitted for examination includes: 

A. Skull fragments with one tooth. 

B. Decomposed brain tissue - 600 grams

Impressions: 

1. Decomposing cerebral cortex and cerebellar cortex - containing bone fragments - one circular shotgun wad - one tiny piece of what appears to be metal 

A. Wad and metal given to Sheriff’s Office. 

2. Skull fragments demonstrating circular perforations with outward bevelling

3. Separated dried blood for any future DNA testing - frozen

4. Other specimens frozen separately - i.e. bone ffrom decomposing brain tissue

Microscopics: 

Thymus: Normal histologic features. 

Adrenal: Normal histologic features. 

Brain Fragments: Sections reveal early autolysis and small foci of intraparenchymal hemorrhage involving the medulla. 

Liver: Sections reveal moderate autolysis. 

Kidney: Sections reveal moderate autolysis.  

Lymph Node: Sections reveal benign reactive lymphoid hyperplasia.

Stomach: Sections reveal early autolysis involving the gastric mucosa. 

Heart: Normal histologic features. 

Spleen: Normal histologic features.  

Thyroid: Normal histologic features.  

Lung: Sections reveal patchy atelectasis.

Toxicology: 

Blood Alcohol - Negative 

Blood Drug Screen - Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectroscopy. Only drug detected is Fluvoxamine - 390 ng/ml (therapeutic levels 50-90 ng/ml) 

Urine Drug Screen - Negative

Dylan Klebold’s autopsy report (FULL)

(Page 1) 

KLEBOLD, Dylan

Dr. Galloway

FINAL ANATOMIC DIAGNOSES: 


1. Through and through close contact large calibre gunshot wound involving the left side of the head (region of the left temple) associated with:
A. Brain injuries - lacerations and contusions
B. Skull fractures
C. Subdural hemorrhage
2. Aspiration blood lower airway and lungs


COMMENT: The autopsy findings in this case reveal that the cause of death is due to brain injuries secondary to a close contact, large calibre, through and through gunshot wound involving the left side of the head. This gunshot wound is consistent with self-infliction.

(Page 2) 

This autopsy is performed in the Jefferson County Coroner’s Office in Golden, Colorado on 04/22/99 at 10:30 a.m. This autopsy is done at the request of Dr. Nancy Bodelson, the Coroner of Jefferson County. The identification was made by fingerprints. Concerning location, this body is identified as #11. Members of Jefferson County Sheriff’s Department attended the autopsy. I am assisted in the autopsy by Mr. Rob Kulbacki.

History: This is the case of a 17-year-old, white male who is allegedly a victim of a self-inflicted gunshot wound to the head. The decedent was found dead in the library at Columbine High School, and the death occurred on 04/22/99. No other history is available at the time of autopsy.

External Examination: The body is clothed in a black T-shirt with the inscription “Wrath” across the front; a black glove on the left hand with the fingers cut away; blue-green plaid boxer shorts; black pants with a black belt which have been partially cut away; white socks; and black boots. A large calibre, copper-jacketed bullet is present in the right boot. This is given to the Sheriff’s Officer along with the clothing. Present on the left boot was a red star medallion containing a sickle and a hammer. Black suspenders were in close proximity of the body. This is the unembalmed, well-developed, well-nourished, traumatized body of a white male appearing consistent with the stated age of 17. Height is measured at 74-½"; weight is 143 pounds. Rigor is minimal in the neck and the right lower extremity; absent in the other areas of the body. Faint reddish-purple livor is set over the dorsal aspects of the body with appropriate blanching of the pressure points.

Head: The scalp is covered by long, thick, blood-stained, brown hair which measures 6" in length at the apex. Present on the left side of the head, in the region of the temple, ¼" above and ¾" anterior to the left ear, is a circular, large calibre, entrance type of gunshot wound. The wound is surrounded by marginal abrasion, and what appears to be powder, although there is extensive drying artifact which makes this determination difficult. There are small irregular tears in the wound margins. The perforated area of the wound measures ¾" in diameter; the stippling associated with the wound. For identification purposes, this wound will be referred to as “A”. Present on the right lateral surface of the head, ½" anterior to the mid-portion of the right ear, is a generally circular exit type of gunshot wound showing irregular tearing of the margins. This wound measures ½" in diameter. No marginal abrasion or powder residue are observed. For identification purposes, this wound will be referred to as “B”. Ears - the ears are intact. Both ears are blood stained. Eyes - the eyebrows are brown. The sclerae are white. The irides are bluish-gray. The pupils are round, measure 7 mm, and are directed anteriorly. The conjunctivae are pale. Bilateral periorbital reddish-purple contusions are present. Nose - the nose is externally unremarkable. The nasal passages contain bloody fluid. The septum is in the midline. Mouth - the lips are reddish-purple with some drying artifact. There is a blonde mustache on the upper lip. The oral mucous membranes are tan and moist. The tongue is reddish-brown and finely granular without evidence of lacerations or contusions. The teeth are in a good state of dental repair. There is a small amount of hemorrhagic fluid in the oral cavity. Chin - a blond beard, fashioned in a goatee, involves the chin. Dried blood smears the forehead; there are dried blood flow patterns extending across both sides of the face in a predominantly horizontal plane.

Neck: The external surface of the neck reveals no evidence of injury. The neck organs are in the midline without palpable masses.

Chest: The chest demonstrates a normal anterior-posterior diameter. No external trauma is present. The breasts are normal male. Palpating the chest reveals no instability. The axillae are negative to observation and palpation. A moderate amount of brown hair is present in both axillae. 

Abdomen: The abdomen is flat. No external trauma is present. There is some green discoloration of the lower abdomen due to early decomposition. Present in the right upper quadrant of the abdomen, is a linear, horizontal scar which measures 3" in length. Palpating the abdomen reveals no organomegaly or masses.

Genitalia: A normal appearing male, brown, genital hair pattern is present. The penis is of normal size, shape, and position; respective scrotal sacs without palpable masses. There is postmortem drying artifact on the anterior surface of the scrotum.

Back: The external surface of the back reveals no evidence of trauma. The anus is intact without any unusual dilatation or trauma.

Extremities: The upper extremities are intact. The nails are intact, short, and clean. A silver-colored ring with a black stone is present on the ring finger of the left hand. There is accentuated dark purple livor involving the portions of the fingers external to the glove on the left hand. Present on the lateral aspect of the left hand involving the thumb and middle finger are several small reddish-brown abrasions, measuring 1/8" in diameter. Present overlying the proximal knuckle of the index finger of the right hand is a purple contusion which also involves a portion of the hand, and measures 1-¼" in size. The forearms are unremarkable. The antecubital fossae reveal no evidence of recent needle puncture marks or scars. The upper arms are intact and unremarkable grossly. The lower extremities are intact. Present on the anterior aspect of the proximal portion of the right lower extremity are several tiny healing reddish-brown abrasions. There is a cluster of three yellow-brown contusions on the anterior-lateral aspect of the right lower leg, varying in size from ¼" to 1". Present on the lateral aspect of the left knee is a cluster of three yellow-brown contusions, varying in size from ¼" and 5/8". The soles of the feet are intact and unremarkable grossly.

Also present in close proximity to the body, in the body bag, were the following personal effects: a pierced earring, a silver-colored pocket watch, and a beaded cloth necklace.

(Page 3) 

Internal Examination: Through the usual Y-shaped incision, a thin layer of yellow subcutaneous adipose tissue and reddish-brown musculature are revealed. The diaphragms are intact and arch to the level of the 5th left intercostal space and the 4th right intercostal space. The peritoneal cavity contains no unusual accumulation of fluid. The lining is smooth, gray and glistening. The viscera and omentum are normally disposed.

Pleural Spaces: The pleural spaces are without any unusual accumulation of fluid. The parietal pleurae are smooth, gray and glistening. The bony structures of the chest are intact and unremarkable grossly. The clavicles are intact. There is no soft tissue injury involving the chest wall. The pericardial sac is intact. The lumen contains 10 cc of clear fluid. The pericardium is smooth, gray and glistening.

Thymus: Eight (8) grams of pink, lobular, firm, thymic tissue is present in the anterior-superior mediastinal space.

Neck: The lumen of the upper esophagus and pharynx is patent. The mucosal surface is tan and wrinkled. The lumen of the upper respiratory tract contains blood. The mucosal surface is tan and smooth. The hyoid bone and cricothyroid cartilages are intact.

Thyroid: The thyroid is of normal size, shape, and position, and has a reddish-brown, lobular, firm, gross appearance. The cervical vertebrae are intact. There is no obstruction to the posterior nasopharynx or the posterior aspect of the oral cavity. The major vessels of the neck are intact and unremarkable grossly. There is no soft tissue hemorrhage in the neck.

Heart: The heart is intact and weighs 300 grams. The epicardial surface is reddish-brown, smooth, and glistening. Minimal amounts of epicardial yellow fat are present. The myocardium is reddish-brown and firm without gross evidence of fibrosis or softening. The ventricular walls are of normal thickness. The endocardial surface is reddish-brown, smooth, and glistening. Early subendocardial flame type hemorrhages are present in the left ventricle. The cardiac valves are intact. The valve leaflets are thin and fully pliable. The valve circumferences are normal for this size heart. The chordae tendineae are tan and delicate. The papillary muscles are intact. The foramen ovale is closed. The atrial septum is intact. The ventricular septum is intact. The coronary ostia are in a normal anatomic position and widely patent. The coronary arteries demonstrate a normal anatomic distribution with normal gross features.

Aorta: The aorta is intact and of normal course and calibre throughout. The intimal surface is tan and smooth. The wall is thin and elastic. The main abdominal tributaries are intact.

Respiratory System: The lumen of the lower respiratory tract contains blood. The mucosal surface is tan, smooth and blood stained. The lungs are mildly hyperaerated. The pleural surfaces are pink, reddish-purple, smooth and glistening. The lungs together weigh 850 grams. Serial sections reveal soft, spongy, mildly hyperaerated lung tissue showing evidence of vascular congestion, early pulmonary edema, and aspirated blood. The pulmonary arteries are intact without evidence of thromboembolic disease. The pulmonary veins empty into the left atrium in a normal fashion

Gastrointestinal System: The esophagus is of normal course and calibre throughout. The lumen is patent. The mucosal surface is tan with longitudinal furrowing. The wall is thin. The stomach is in a normal anatomic position. The lumen contains 160 cc of yellow-orange, liquid, gastric contents containing fragments of what appears to be potato skins. The mucosal surface is tan with intact rugae. No peptic ulcer disease or tumor are noted grossly. The small bowel demonstrates a normal anatomic distribution with normal gross features. The appendix is present and unremarkable grossly. The large bowel demonstrates a normal anatomic distribution with normal gross features.

Spleen: The spleen is intact and weighs 180 grams. The external surface is purple and smooth. Serial sections reveal a firm, reddish-purple, splenic paranchyma.

Liver: The liver is intact and weighs 1300 grams. The external surface is reddish-brown, smooth, and glistening. Serial sections reveal a firm, reddish-brown, lobular, normal appearing liver tissue.

Gallbladder: The gallbladder is intact. The lumen contains 12 cc of cloudy yellow-brown, liquid bile. The mucosal surface is smooth and bile stained. The cystic duct and common bile duct are intact and patent throughout. The portal vein, splenic vein, and superior mesenteric vein are intact and patent.

Pancreas: The pancreas is of normal size, shape, and position, and has a tan, lobular, soft, partially autolyzed, gross appearance.

Adrenals: Both adrenals are identified. Serial sections reveal a thin yellow cortex and gray medulla.

(Page 4) 

Kidneys: Both kidneys are identified. The capsules strip easily. The left kidney weighs 160 grams; the right kidney weighs 150 grams. The cortical surfaces are reddish-brown and smooth. Bivalving of each kidney reveals a well-demarcated, reddish-brown cortex and medulla. The renal papillae are normal. There is no calyceal scarring. There is no unusual pelvic dilatation. Both ureters are present, patent, and uniform in diameter throughout.

Bladder: The bladder is intact. The lumen contains 20 cc of clear yellow urine. The bladder mucosa is tan and wrinkled. The prostate, seminal vesicles and testicles are intact and unremarkable grossly.

Musculoskeletal System: Other than the injuries to be described under the head, no other significant injuries are observed.

Lymphatics: No gross abnormality.

Venous System: There is no evidence of hepatic vein, renal vein, or portal vein thrombosis. The superior and inferior vena cavae are intact.

Central Nervous System: Reflection of the scalp reveals wound tracts in the soft tissues involving both the left and right side powder staining of the soft tissues comprimising the margin of the wound tract on the left side of the head. There is also a contusion measuring 1-½" on the apex of the scalp. There is a circular perforation which is beveled inward involving the left temporal bone. There is a circular perforation which is beveled outward involving the right temporal bone. Numerous fractures radiate from the circular perforations. Removal of a portion of the calvarium reveals no epidural hemorrhage. 40 cc of subdural hemorrhage overlies the right cerebral hemisphere and on the undersurface of this hemisphere. There is no subarachnoid hemorrhage. There are contusions on the undersurface of both temporal lobes. There is a wound tract across the undersurface of the brain, involving both cerebral hemispheres in the temporal and frortal areas. The brain demonstrates laceration and some pulverization of brain tissue involving the previously mentioned areas. The brain weighs 1500 grams. Serial sectioning the cerebral cortex, the midbrain, the pons, the medulla, the spinal cord, the cerebellum and the pituitary reveals internal injury to the brain involving the anterior aspects of both cerebral hemispheres involving the frontal and temporal areas; and there is injury to the midbrain with predominantly contusion. There is no evidence of any underlying disease of the brain. Examination of the base of the skull reveals a transverse basal skull fracture that involves both temporal fossa and interconnects across the sphenoid bone in the region of the sella turcica. C1 and C2 are intact. The odontoid ligament and odontoid processes are intact. Removal of the dural on the left side of the head reveals powder staining (soot) in the margins of the dura adjacent to the perforated area of skull.

Toxicology:

Blood: I obtained two gray-stoppered test tubes of blood from the heart.

Urine: I obtained two gray-stoppered test tubes of urine

Gastric Contents: I obtained two gray-stoppered test tubes and one red-stoppered test tube of gastric contents.

Vitreous Humor: I obtained one gray-stoppered test tube of vitreous humor.

Bile: I obtained one gray-stoppered test tube of bile.

Approximately 100 grams of liver and kidney were also obtained and will be frozen. 

Trace Evidence:

Hair: I obtained random samples of scalp hair and pubic hair. I obtained scalp hair adjacent to the wounds involving the right and left sides of the head.

Nail Scrapings: I obtained nails scrapings of both hands.

Blood: I obtained one yellow, one purple and one red-stoppered test tube of blood from the heart.

All of the trace evidence, with the exception of the blood samples, are given to the Jefferson County Sheriff’s Officers upon completion of the autopsy. The blood samples for any evidentiary need are going to be stored along with the toxicology specimens for up to a year.

X-ray Examination: Revealed no evidence of retained bullets.

Wound Summary: The wound of entrance is designated wound “A” in the region of the left temple. The projectile penetrated the cranium through the left temporal bone; extended across the undersurface of both cerebral hemispheres; exiting the head through the right temporal bone. The perforated area on the left side is beveled inward; the perforated area on the right side is beveled outward. Powder is associated with the wound on the left side of the head. The projectile traveled left to right slightly front to back and slightly downward. The characteristics of the wound are consistent with a large calibre weapon; with a close contact range of fire; consistent with self-infliction.

The wound is consistent with 9 mm ammunition.

(Page 5) 

Microscopics: 

Heart: Normal histologic features. 

Lung: Sections reveal intra-alveolar edema. 

Liver: Sections reveal moderate autolysis. 

Kidney: Sections reveal moderate autolysis.  

Spleen: Normal histologic features. 

Adrenal: Normal histologic features.  

Thymus: Normal histologic features.  

Thyroid: Normal histologic features.

Stomach: Sections reveal early autolysis involving the gastric mucosa.

Brain: Sections reveal fragmentation and intraparenchymal hemorrhage.

Entrance Wound A: Sections are of skin revealing a central deeply penetrating wound associated with a few scattered fragments of powder residue in the deeper margins of the wound.

Dura: Sections reveal scattered foci of powder residue adhering to one side of the dural surface.

Toxicology: 

Blood Alcohol - Negative 

Blood Drug Screen  - Gas chromatography/Mase Spectroscopy

Acid Neutral Extract - No drugs detected 

Basic Extract - No drugs detected

Urine Drug Screen - Negative

Cuando una mujer deja de amar a un hombre empieza a sentir estas cosas

Amar es mucho más fácil que dejar de hacerlo, pocas personas superan y siguen adelante y es que lo cierto es que cuando alguien llega a amar verdaderamente, olvidar es imposible, simplemente con el tiempo las heridas sanan, uno se reconstruye y decide continuar su camino asimilando que por algo las cosas tuvieron que ocurrir así.

A las personas enamoradas se les nota el sentimiento porque lo traen a flor de piel, sobre todo a las mujeres quienes por lo general somos más sentimentales y expresivas, pero cuando estas van dejando de amar, también hay cosas que hacen o muestran que son indicios de que sus sentimientos han comenzado a cambiar.

Estas son las principales cosas que siente una mujer cuando va empezando a dejar de amar a un hombre, toma nota:

1- Despedirte ya no te da la menor congoja, no sientes nada cuando te dice adiós o sabes que no lo mirarás por un par de días, incluso llegas hasta a sentir alivio o simplemente te es indiferente la situación, algo que no ocurre cuando una está enamorada, por lo general, los enamorados tardan mucho despidiéndose e incluso uno de los dos no desea separarse, se desea estar el mayor tiempo posible con esa persona.

2- Las salidas, paseos y comidas juntos ya no se disfrutan como antes y vaya que lo que pasa en una mesa dice mucho de una pareja. Incluso compartir los alimentos con él ya no suena atractivo ni es importante, la cocina fácil se vuelve parte con más frecuencia de su relación y las conversaciones se torna aburridas o simplemente no existen.

3- Al despertar ya no sientes la misma emoción si lo ves a un lado tuyo, ya no te motiva despertarlo con un beso y darle los buenos días o quedarte unos minutos en cama acariciándolo. Cuando se está enamorado todo ello se desea y se hace con gran emoción porque es prioridad hacer sentir al otro amado.

4- Deja de importarte, así de simple y no porque sea alguien que no merezca tu preocupación, simplemente cuando no se quiere a alguien todo lo que tenga que ver con esa persona pasa desapercibido. Si ya no hay amor tampoco habrá importancia, uno comienza a dedicarse más tiempo y a preocuparse más por uno mismo.

5- Si no está no pasa nada, no le echas de menos, no deseas saber dónde y con quien está y ese tiempo que no están juntos simplemente se te borra de la mente, no te apetece que llegue a casa, prefieres continuar con la tranquilidad de estar en soledad.

6- Llega a ti la ilusión de encontrar a otra persona, sentir algo distinto, tu mente recrea historias con alguien más que tal vez ya conoces o tal vez no. Crece una nueva ilusión por volver a enamorarte y la inquietud por salir y conocer a más personas.

7- Las historias que te imaginas y recreas en tu mente ya no lo tienen como protagonista a él. Tristemente si tu pareja comienza a desaparecer de tus pensamientos, simple y sencillamente es porque no es alguien que quieras para tu futuro.

Por último, comienzas a mirar otros horizontes, hacer tus propios planes que ya no lo incluyen, tu mundo gira entorno a ti y nada más, eres feliz y sonríes y te das cuenta que ambas ya no son en ningún sentido gracias a él. Ahora eres solo tú con muchas ganas de volver a empezar.  Por favor deja tu opinión en los comentarios .

¿Concuerdas con estos puntos? Si deseas agregar uno más, déjalo en los comentarios.

Anne Teresa De Keersmaeker, left, and Michèle Anne De Mey performing “Fase” in 1999

“She described the pieces, collectively, as “the very beginning, where somehow I taught myself how to choreograph — literally the first steps.” She created all four for herself and other women, exploring movement “of a very specific character,” she said, “that I think was more linked to the female body.”
~ as seen in The New York Times

"This acknowledgment of the unavoidably human dancer in the mechanical process — this drama — was Ms. De Keersmaeker’s swerve from her models in American postmodern dance. Much of the vocabulary is pedestrian: walks, turns, hops. The spatial patterning is lucid: horizontal planes, a circle and its radii. But emotions, not quite controllable, keep surfacing.”

~ also in The New York Times 

An FV 214 Conqueror of the 3rd Hussars, stationed with the Army of the Rhine, sends a round down range from its 120 mm main gun, circa 1957. The Conqueror was only ever put into service by the British Army in Germany. Developed as a direct answer to the Soviet’s Joseph Stalin heavy tank series, predominantly meaning the IS-3, it was a 63 long ton or 71 U.S. short ton heavy tank, similar to the M103. It’s lineage traces back to a chassis design from 1944. Post-war however, this was adopted as the common hull for a series of vehicles, one of which would be a candidate for Britain’s next main battle tank. The success of the Centurion made it the natural choice, but that left the IS-3 without true rival, still. Something bigger was needed.

In 1955 the first Conqueror was produced, albeit 10 years after the IS-3 had entered service. What was lacking in punctuality however, was certainly not in capability. A chief cause of delays was a 1949 decision to upgun to a deadly L1 120 mm rifled gun, certainly capable of knocking out any Soviet tank of the era. The frontal armour of these vehicles was also exceptionally thick. At 7 inches (180 mm) in the horizontal plane, an effective thickness of around 10 inches (250 mm) was achieved. Weight reduced speed and mechanical reliability was an issue. However, like the WW2 era Churchill tank, the Conqueror excelled cross country. The rotating commander’s cupola, featuring a rangefinder, by which the gunner could be positioned onto a target by the vehicle commander acting independently, was a very advanced feature for its time. The latest Soviet vehicles used a similar system, but these did not provide the commander with range-finding equipment.

For all of its strengths, the Conqueror never saw mass production, with just 185 built. For the British Army of the Rhine, these tanks were a useful asset on the front lines of the Cold War in Germany. They were deployed in groups of three, nine to each regiment, with a primary task of providing long range anti-tank support to the faster Centurions. Some tactical relevance was lost in 1959, when the armament on the Centurion was upgraded to the now renowned L7 105 mm. However, the Conqueror remained in service until 1966, the year the Chieftain arrived on the scene as the ‘most formidable main battle tank in the world’.

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STUDY: Gunfight around vehicle, Atlanta GA. A lot to consider here. Considerations: 1)Handguns vs. long guns, are you ready for this type of fight? How important is access, accuracy, movement and the use of tactics? What are you spending time practicing? 2)As Tim C, who I first saw post this vid points out, note the difficulty the handgun guy has getting the gun out once he realizes he’s got a fight? Consider your ability to get your gun out and into action if someone with a long gun entered your immediate environment. Is it practiced enough? Simply carrying a gun and how fast you can shoot doesn’t matter one bit if you can’t get the gun out and into the fight. 3)Close quarters shooting=width and length of car until the guy with handgun disengaged. 4)Use of the vehicle as cover. Note long gunner had “high ground” and handgun guy went low and stayed low until started shooting. High ground doesn’t always have to be elevated on a roof top, balcony or hill=standing vs. kneeling who has the advantage? 5)Interval from cover. Note how close handgun guy stayed to vehicle. Long gunner actually motions with off hand telling him to move away so he could see him better or so he didn’t have to shoot his ride. If handgun guy had been “arms length” off vehicle he would have been in the open to the long gunner with high ground. Interval from cover/concealment changes based upon fighting on either horizontal or vertical planes. Consider and study both. 6) Accuracy. Only person hit was girl in car. Neither shooter acquired sight alignment but simply pointed in the direction of threat. Be the trained marksman or markswoman. 7)Movement. Note how handgun guy kept moving (while talking at first), buying time, creating space and then disengaging. Movement is a survival skill and should be trained in conjunction with firearm marksmanship and mechanics as soon as a shooter demonstrates fundamental proficiency of marksmanship and mechanics. 8) Neither guy had any concern for where their rounds went. The armed civilian or LEO is responsible for every round. Study, train, practice and test your skills constantly if you carry a gun.#picoftheday#igmilitia#follow#mdts#training #pistol#ak47

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Savvy Saturday - Stunt Combat

Today I got to watch people pretend to punch and kick each other for three hours. It was delightful. I took lots of notes.

I hadn’t planned on doing research for my writing today when I went to campus; I had planned on cleaning my office, working on a paper, and categorizing citations on my computer. But when I saw that a Hollywood stuntwoman and alumna of the university (Jessie Graff, credits include Live Free or Die Hard and X-Men: First Class) was going to be giving a “master class” this afternoon in the theater department – “Free and open to the public!” – I figured that the citations could wait. Even though I’m not writing anything right now either involving martial arts or the stunt profession, learning about both of them in the context of a workshop class was a fantastic opportunity.

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Jessie Graff

In my experience with martial arts and rapier, the instruction is aimed at giving individuals a deep knowledge of the sport. History, proper mindset, technique, solid footwork and grounding, all is important before you start getting to the parts that “look good” to an audience. A three-hour theater workshop in stunt fighting, however, is completely different. There, it’s all about what your actions look like. In other words, perfect for a novelist. The class also moved quickly: the instructor took the class through basic punches, rolls, and kicks, as well as how to “properly” respond to them.

“To learn how to properly react to being hit in the side of the face,” Graff said, “place your hand on your chin, push your head to one side, and let it go limp.” Note how your head swivels, but it doesn’t lean to one side. Further, it doesn’t just turn and stay there as if you’re purposefully looking over your shoulder. Instead, it “bounces” slightly, rebounding/jiggling in reaction to the sharp movement. (Try it and you’ll see what I mean.) Graff said that she likes to think of the reaction in a “1-2-3” pattern – side, forward, side, all happening very quickly. If you’ve been “hit” especially hard, blow air into your mouth, inflating your cheeks and exhaling quickly.

Camera angles are also a much larger part of stunt fighting than I had ever thought about before. Good stunt doubles and actors will see where the camera is pointed, draw a line from the camera to the actor’s face, and know from that both what height to hit at and when the actor should respond to the hit. For instance, the instructor said that she once had to throw her punches at triceps height for an actor she was supposed to be hitting in the face, because the camera was shooting up from the level of their feet. A bit strange, she said, to be aiming punches at his arm and having his head respond to her “blows.”

Being ten feet away from a skilled stuntwoman, watching her demonstrate attacks and blocks over and over again, was a fantastic experience for me as a writer. While I don’t need to be able to do the things that fighters can, I do need to be able to write them in a way that others can picture them. In a way, then, writing is like being a stunt person. You don’t need to be able to actually throw a punch, you just need to be able to fake it well enough that the people who are enjoying the entertainment you produce think it’s real.

With that in mind, here are some mechanics I learned today about how various types of attacks and blocks work. These aren’t going to give you enough detail to become the next superhero, but they should help you write about one.

How to stand like a fighter:

-          Always shift, and stay on the balls of your feet. Don’t let your heels touch the ground.

-          Your feet should be shoulder width apart, with your off-foot (left, if you’re right handed) forward and your primary foot at between a ninety degree and forty-five degree angle.

-          Keep your elbows in and your hands up in closed fists, with your thumbs on the outside of your fists.

-          Keep a straight line going from your arms up the back of your hands: if you want to practice, you can rubber-band a chopstick to the back of your hand and your wrist. If you let this get sloppy, you can break your hand if you hit wrong.

-          Stay low: imagine that you have a bar placed over the top of your head, and if you stand up, you’ll smack into it.

How to block a punch

-          The block comes from your hip, shoulder, and arm. If someone punches toward you, twist your hip and shoulder so that you’re almost showing your back to the attacker. This should result in your back heel lifting off the floor.

-          At the same time, lift your elbow up against your ear, so that your hand is behind your shoulder. This is almost a “combing your hair” type of motion.

-          Keep your arm tight against your head; this presents a flat surface (that isn’t your head) to the attacker.

-          During all of this, keep looking at the person you’re fighting so you don’t miss anything that happens.

How to throw a punch

-          The motion of your hip initiates the movement, whether you’re throwing a jab, cross, or hook.

-          Keep your muscles taut all the time.

-          If you’re jabbing, turn your body to the right as you punch with your left. It’s opposite for a cross.

-          Keep your arms straight, but slightly bent: don’t hyper-extend your arms or you’ll hurt yourself.

-          For a hook punch: turn your hips, extend your arm, then come in from the side. All of this should be on one horizontal plane: no punching upward or downward.

How to duck a hook punch:

-          Keep your eyes on your opponent

-          Bend your entire upper body forward in a u-shaped motion toward the direction of the punch, by twisting your hips. (So if the person is swinging with his right, you duck from your right to your left and come up again.)

-          This presents the small of your back as the target, rather than your head.

-          Keep your fists by your face to block.

How to roll into a fighting stance:

-          Imagine a line that goes from your right pinky down your arm, then across your back in a diagonal line to your left hip and down your left ankle. This is how you land in a roll to be able to come up fighting.

-          Once your back is on the ground, tuck your left foot behind your right knee, in the shape of a four. This allows you to push up on your right leg and be in fighting position.

-          Once you know what you’re doing, you can do things like grab a sword on the ground as you go into a roll, then come up out of it holding the sword and ready to fight.

Two other ways of using rolls:

  1. Dive roll. In this roll, Person 1 flips Person 2 over Person 1’s shoulder. Person 2 goes into a roll and comes up fighting. To do this: Person 1 is standing in front of Person 2, facing the same direction. Person 1 holds the wrist of Person 2 with his left hand across his body, and reaches behind him to grab Person 2’s shoulder with his right hand. Using his hips, Person 1 throws Person 2 forward and into a roll.
  2. Back roll. In this roll, Person 1 is facing Person 2. Person 1 grabs Person 2’s shirt and falls backward on purpose, with his left leg straight and his right leg bent to his chest. As Person 1 falls, he places his right foot on Person 2’s lower abdomen and pushes, sending Person 2 flying over Person 1’s head and onto the ground. Person 2 lands in a roll.

In addition to learning this information, I had a blast watching the theater students get into the acting portion of the workshop. From the right angle, you could almost believe that these students were actually knocking each other silly. And then one or the other of them would laugh and the spell would be broken. All in all, it was a remarkable afternoon: both enjoyable for its own sake, and hopefully profitable for later writing. A perfect way to celebrate being done with the semester.

Pow!

7

7/22/16                          Longjawed Orbweaver     Adult Female

Class Arachnida (Arachnids)
Order Araneae (Spiders)
Infraorder Araneomorphae (True Spiders)
No Taxon (Entelegynes )
Family Tetragnathidae (Long-jawed Orb Weavers)
Genus Tetragnatha (Longjawed Orbweavers)


Synonyms and other taxonomic changes
First described in 1804 by Pierre André Latreille
Explanation of Names
From Greek tetra (τετρα)- “four” + gnathos (γναθος)- “jaw”
Numbers
15 species and 3 sub-species in Bugguide’s range.
Identification
Best views to post are side view, dorsal view, eyes from the front & close-up of chelicerae.

Levi, 1981:
1) The distance between the two lateral and the two median eyes is useful.
2) Some characteristics of the chelicerae vary greatly. The following are the only useful features Levi mentions:
 - Male T. dearmata and T. pallescens always lack the first distal, long tooth.
 - T. elongata generally has longer chelicerae than T. versicolor.
3) Size is not useful as specimens in the same species can be twice as long. Also smaller individuals tend to have fewer teeth than larger ones in the same species.

Range

branda - USA
caudata - USA, Canada
dearmata - Holarctic
elongata - USA, Canada
- elongata debilis - USA
- elongata principalis - USA
- elongata undulata - USA
extensa - Holarctic
gracilis (=earmra) - USA
guatemalensis - USA, Canada
laboriosa - USA, Canada
nitens - cosmotropical
pallescens - USA, Canada
shoshone - USA, Canada
straminea - USA, Canada
vermiformis - USA, Canada
versicolor - USA, Canada
viridis - USA, Canada
Habitat
Larger species near water, especially along the shores of rivers and streams. Smaller species in fields and meadows.
Remarks
These spiders spin circular (orb) webs, mostly in the horizontal plane, often just inches above the surface of water where they can intercept emerging insects like midges, mayflies, and stoneflies.

ALL INFORMATION FROM BUGGUIDE

And that goes for ALL space agencies…

People think it’s a joke, it’s too “primitive” yet many of these people are Christians and Muslims, when the Bible and Qu'ran express a flat earth (horizontal plane) with a firmament. All ancient cultures had the same concept (The Vedas, Sikh Guru texts, the Pyramid Texts of Egypt, Chinese cartography even began on flat earth models, etc), and it wasn’t based off of their ignorance…

I simply want someone to answer this question I tweeted to B.o.B. and his current nemesis, Neil deGrasse Tyson. Cause case and point, the pictures are straight up fake… CGI… composite… drawn-up… etc. Stop chastising this man and open your goddamn mind for once. He’s doing what most can’t even build a thought for.

So if you’ve never thought about this, I hope I’ve gained your attention.
And if you know jack squat about either side of the argument, keep your indoctrinated mouth shut.

Peace

600 Followers Special - Good ol’ MFW gang

OMG LOOK SO MANY PPL TO DISAPPOINT!!
I really don’t like writing smut-fics cause they get so generic… I tried to change it up and play around a little. I think I kinda like having different themes for everyone. Cut out Kuni, but if you really want to cough cough cough him, I have a standalone piece.

VERY NSFW

Saeki:
“Hey! No! It’s not big enough for the two of us!”
You yelp as your boyfriend slides into the shower, closing the door with one hand and dragging you to him by the waist with the other.
“It will be if we are one, honey.” He murmured against your ear, nibbling on the edge as he slides his hands along your body, grabbing at his favourite curves. You toss your head back in pleasure and Saeki dips his fingers against your folds.
“Terrible… logic.” You gasp out, mind swimming already as the hot water and his warm hands smooth over your body.
“Are you criticizing my math, honey?” Two fingers prod between the sensitive area and you whimper.
“No…”
“Really now?” He chuckles and lowers his lips to move along your neck, out across the horizontal plane of your shoulder. “Sounds like you were doubtful of my theory. I feel the need to run some tests and prove it.” As if to make his point, Saeki grinds his stiffened member against your rear. He moves you forward until you were pressed against the cold tile of the wall, digging his knee between your legs to spread them. “What do you say, honey?”
You press your blushing cheek against the wall, feeling the nubs of your breasts harden at the chill.
“Takamasa…”
You entire body slams up against the tiles as Saeki fills you with a strong thrust. Your knees almost give out at the feeling, and he laughs with the low, seductive voice of his, pinning you up with his arms. A hand sneaks around to toy with your nipple as he bucks his hips against you, the in and out of his pace picking up as your moans reverberate around the bathroom.
“Takamasa!”
“Mmm.” He murmurs in satisfaction as you scream out his name over and over, helpless at his lovemaking. His hand slips down between your legs, to where he was thrusting hard friction, and shoves them up against the tightness. Your entire body unravels into pleasure, and you slump, weak, against the wall. Saeki continues until you feel his member pulse, and he pushes completely into you, pumping his seed deep within you.
“Mmm, honey, that was good.” His hips bucked a few times, leaving every drop within you, and pulls out, slick with your juices. Saeki drags his tongue against your shoulder, covering with water from the shower and fresh marks from his lips. “What do you think? I think the two of us, as long as we’re joined, fit here pretty well.”
Too drained to answer, you give a tiny nod, leaning in his arms as he kissed your cheek lightly and started to clean you off.

Yamato:
“Ahhhh!”
You had no idea how you ended up in this position with your boyfriend. It was just a regular weekend afternoon. He had no work, and was marking test papers. You made him some mochi snacks and he commented on how soft and squishy they were compared to you. Yamato had laughed and pinched your cheek.
“You look just like these.” He smirked, and you had replied:
“How? Delicious?”
And with that, you had accidentally triggered something in Yamato. His hands grabbed you and  the next moment you were bent over the dining table, staring at the empty chair at the opposite end. Silently apologizing to the students as the tests went flying off the table, you spread your stance in preparation for what was to come.
Almost instantly your panties were yanked to the knees, there was the sound of a zipper, some more rustling, and you were filled with Yamato’s hungry lust. He grunted as he adjusted himself, and the sex began.
The angle the position provided was something so different and delightful that he elected a scream from your lips almost immediately.
“That’s it, pouty. That’s the kind of scream you should have for me.” He chuckled and pulled out partway, slamming himself in with such force that you writhed and screamed again.
Yamato’s hands grabbed your breasts, both saving them from the brutal friction as he worked you over the table and satisfying himself. He kneaded them firmly, twisting the nipples between his fingers.
“Y… Ya-!” Your cry was abruptly cut off as you pressed your face hard against the table, the most recent thrust so deep and perfectly angled that the pleasure overtook every sense you owned.
“You like that one?” He murmured against your ear. “There’s more where that came from, pouty. Brace yourself.”
“AHHH!”
Now certain of your sensitive spot, Yamato channeled all efforts into that one region, tearing cry after cry from your throat.
“YAMATO!” Your knees buckled as you went limp against the table, mind fizzling with the intense pleasure. He didn’t slow, his thrusts only picking up speed. As your mind edged to the brink of completely passing out, you felt Yamato fill you with one particularly deep stroke, releasing inside you. He slowly pulled out and pried your boneless body off the table, cradling you against him as he sat on the chair.
“Look at what you’ve done, pouty.” He chuckled. “Sending my students’ tests everywhere.”
“Sorry.” You pout at him and nuzzle against his shoulder.
“Oh well.” He stroked your cheek and gave it a light pinch. “At least we didn’t make a mess ON them.”

Yuta:
“You’ll probably really like it. It’s worth a try!” He kissed you adoringly and you nervously look back at him.
“You don’t have to, Yuta.” Your cheeks bright red, you watch as your boyfriend slides your panties down your legs. He unhooks them from around your ankles and makes a show of throwing them over his shoulder. Yuta grins up at you.
“Tell me how it is.”
He spreads your legs and kisses his way up your thighs, eliciting soft gasps from your lips. He pressed a kiss to your entrance and you lean far back against the bed, straining against the contact.
“Yutaaaahhhhhh…”
Your voice drags out his name as you feel his tongue slowly move over the sensitive area. He nibbles lightly against your entrance and your body reacts eagerly. Your fingers tangle into his curls as you yank on them, trying to get him to reach exactly where you wanted him to. Tasting you on his tongue, Yuta smirks and sucks lightly on you, a soft moan escaping you as you twist on the bed. Yuta’s hands grab your hips and holds them still until you shudder and come undone at his clever mouth.
“How was it?” He pulls out from under your skirt and smiles up at you fondly. Coming down from your high, you meet his eyes with tenderness. Sitting up slowly, you ease Yuta into the bed on his back.
“I… I think I can show you.”
Your face darkens a few shades and you lightly tug Yuta’s pants and boxers to his knees, hands going to stroke his member.
“Ah, __________.” He gazes down at you adoringly. “Are you sure? You don’t have to just cause I- Ohhhh.”
You needed none of his reassurance as you form your mouth around his member, lips rubbing so tantalizingly lightly against the skin that Yuta’s bright eyes narrow into slits of lust. His fingers wove into your hair slowly, creeping through the locks as if he was thinking you wouldn’t notice. Yuta definitely wasn’t thinking straight. You bobbed your head on his throbbing length, drawing out a rather helpless gasp as Yuta’s grip in your hair tightened. Your started moving a little faster, and earned a moan from your boyfriend’s mouth. He started pulling your head down, thrusting his hips up to match. You whimper in complaint as he pushes in far enough to make you gag, and you sputter around him.
“Sorry.” He gazed at you and quickly retracted his hands. “Did that hurt?”
You shake your head with the biggest movement your position would allow, and smile faintly, kissing his tip, tasting him on your tongue.
“Gosh, __________, you’re so amazing.” Yuta throws his head back and leans against the pillows as far as he could go, raising his hips ever so slightly for the best position to rub himself inside your mouth. “This is perfect.” You feel him pulsing, stronger and faster, and you pick up your face rapidly, easing him into his climax as you pulled off, stroking him gently as he came onto the bed.
“Nnnnnng, ___________.” Yuta groaned and reached for you with grabbing hands, pulling you to him quickly and snuggling you down against his chest. “That felt wonderful. Thank you.” He kissed your forehead, and the loving arms pulled you closer.

Takao:
You tiptoe down the hall, trying to slip into the bedroom without being seen. Fresh out of the shower, you had your wet hair pulled over one shoulder, skin shimmering with dampness. You had forgotten your clothes in a haste, and you had snatched what was available - Takao’s dress shirt - and tried to sneak back to avoid awkwardness.
You quickly slide into the bedroom and shut the door behind you, believing Takao to be in the living room, working still.
“_________?!”
You freeze on the spot, horrified as you look into Takao’s stunned grey eyes, your boyfriend sitting on the bed, folding some laundry. His gaze dips to your body in his oversized blue shirt, and quickly moved his eyes up to your face with the faintest blush of guilt.
You tug the shirt tighter around yourself and shyly try to skirt around him as far as possible.
“Sorry, I had to borrow the shirt you left there cause… I…”
“It’s fine.” Takao said quietly. “You look lovely.”
A hot flush rises up into your face, and you try to hid your flustered state in your business in opening a drawer and retrieving your own clothing. Arms slowly wrap around your waist.
“Takao!”
“I… I like seeing you in my clothes.”
“Oh…” You feel the heat in your cheeks mirrored on his as Takao nuzzled against your jaw. “Should… should I do it more then?”
“It would be nice.” He murmured, pressing light kisses against your neck. “You just look so… amazing like this, ___________. In my clothes, here, in my arms.” He trailed off, the contact of his lips growing hotter and more urgent with every passing moment. “__________, can we?”
“Takao…” You nod and allow him to pull you back to the bed, laying you down within it as he settled himself down. Kisses fluttered over you, and you lose your mind in the tender feeling, absentmindedly noting the rumpling sounds of fabric as he removed his pants. Takao gazed down at you lovingly, his hand stroking your hair and cheek, sliding down your body to align himself with your entrance.
“__________, I love seeing you like this.” His lips pressed tenderly upon your skin and body, sending your heart into a wild patter. “I love you so much.”
You whimper softly under him as he starts thrusting in and out of you, a wonderful sweet pace that raised such tender feelings in your heart you could melt into him.
“Takao… Ah…”
There were no words needed, just the heavy breathing and the quiet sound of skin that sounded in the room, outlining the glorious love of the moment. You gave yourself to him as much as he shared himself with you, enjoying the steady, flowing affection that entered your body from where you were connected.
“__________”
His handsome face, his slow and vivid lovemaking, his securing touch, everything made you long for more. As the night progressed, you sank deeper into your desires, and he met every single one of them.

Kyoichi:
You giggle as he takes your wrists, easing them over your head.
“Don’t laugh at me.” Kyoichi said quietly, his voice a low and seductively dangerous tone. He was adding a silver metal loop around one of your narrow wrists and attaching it to the rail of the bed with a clink of cuffs. “I will teach you exactly how this is NOT laughing matter.”
Your other wrist was locked against the head of the bed, and you gaze up at your boyfriend with a happy, almost playful shimmer in your eyes. Kyoichi groaned.
“Stop tempting me.” He grumbled, lowering his body on yours so he could kiss at your neck, biting at the soft skin there, leaving a network of bruises over which he flicked his tongue.
“Kyonnnn.”
“That’s not my name, ___________.” His voice still carried that velvety, tingling touch that send pleasurable shudders up your spine. “Tsk tsk, looks like you don’t scream it enough to remember.”
You blink wide eyes at him, suddenly a little nervous at the impeding fierceness of his lovemaking. Kyoichi had always been a little rough, intense, and passionate. With the brown eyes narrowed at you in such a manner, you wonder if you would finish the night conscious.
His fingers trace  your body, light and cold touch sending shivers rippling through your skin. Your back arches for more, urging your exposed breasts to him. He chuckled.
He moves his hand to your entrance to abruptly that your body reacts instantly in pleasure. Your arms jerk, and there was a metallic rattle at the head of the bed. The icy rings around your wrists left you unable to touch him at all, and you gasp as he runs his fingers teasingly against your core.
“Kyon…”
“Name please.”
His fingers pinched ever so lightly, fleetingly that your body was begging for more.
You couldn’t help but beg.
“Kyoichi, please…”
“That’s a good girl.” The thin lips rose into a smirk as he thrust fully into you in one swift motion. You cry out and strain against your handcuffs, wanting to get more of him. He picks up a ravishing pace, pounding your body senseless onto the mattress. Pleasure and pain built up where you couldn’t see, and you writhe under him, moans slipping from your lips along with his name.
“__________.”
He grunted quietly against your ear. You could feel his body tensing, pulsing, growing closer to the climax that both of you so desperately needed. Eyes closed and barely able to keep your mind awake as he slams himself against your most sensitive regions, you feel your body unclench with a shuddering wave of delightful pleasure.
“K… Kyoichi!”
The handcuffs jangle again as you fight against them, and Kyoichi releases into you with a satisfied sigh. As he empties into you, he presses a light kiss to your forehead and reaches for the key. Although you could feel your wrists freed, you had no energy to even bring them down to yourself. Kyoichi took your hands gently and wrapped your arms around him. He clutched you close against his chest. Still dazed and distracted from the ordeal, you let yourself be snuggled against his chest like a teddy bear. He rubbed your wrists lightly, comfortingly, soothing the painful redness that marked your moments of pleasure.
“You feeling alright?”
“Mhm.” The tiny sound managed to come out of your mouth.
Kyoichi kissed you again, slowly and lovingly.
“Good, good.”

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Ren is cut out for a reason. ;)