Urology Terms
  • Anuria: No urine being produced
  • Bacteriuria: Bacteria in the urine
  • Crystalluria: Urine with naturally produced crystals present
  • Cystitis: inflammation of the urinary bladder
  • Dysuria: Difficulty during urination
  • Glycosuria (Glucosuria): Glucose in the urine
  • Hematuria: RBC’s in urine
  • Inappropriate urination: urinating at the wrong time/ wrong place
  • Incontinence (urinary): complete inability to control urine function
  • Ketonuria: Ketones in the urine
  • Nocturia: Excessive urination at night
  • Micturition: urination; act of voiding urine
  • Oliguria: Little urine being produced
  • Periuria: Urinating in abnormal/ inappropriate locations
  • Pollakiura: abnormally frequent urination
  • Polyuria: Excessive urination (amount)
  • Proteinuria: protein in the urine
  • Pyuria: Puss in the urine
  • Stranguria: Straining to urinate, slow urination
  • Urolithiasis: formation of urinary calculi

For further post like this one, refer to my Vet Dictionary

Equine Respiratory - NAVLE Review #5

Originally posted by kimblewick

Most Common Respiratory Diseases of Horses: 

Common Upper Respiratory Tract Diseases:

Viral Diseases:

  • Equine influenza (2-3 years olds); high fevers, rapid spread
  • Equine Herpes Virus -1 (weanling/yearlings): causes respiratory, CNS, and abortions in last trimester

  • Equine Herpes Virus- 4 (weanling/yearling): primary respiratory infection


  • Streptococcus equi. Sub. equi. “Strangles” (young horses): Can form Chondroids and horses can become persistent carriers

Originally posted by gifsboom

Common Lower Respiratory Tract Diseases

  • Rhodococcus equi “Foal pneumonia”:  intracellular bacteria, common treatment Erthromycin + rifampicin
  • Pleuritis “shipping fever”: mixed viral and bacterial component


  • Exercise-Induced Pulmonary Hemorrhage: common in high intense sports, racing, eventing
  • Recurrent Airway Obstruction (RAO) “Heaves”: common in older, stabled horses, neutrophilic inflammation
  • Inflammatory Airway Disease (IAD): common in young, athletic horses, neutrophilic, eosinophilic, or mast cell inflammation
Porcine Respiratory - NAVLE Review #4

Originally posted by dailypiggie

Most common respiratory diseases of Pigs:

Piglets/ Weanlings:


  • Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae: Pneumonia; 3-10 wk old piglets
  • Mycoplasma hyorhinus: Pericarditis, Pleuritis, Peritonitis, Arthritis (all the -itis); 3-10 wk old piglets
  • Pasterurella multocida: Fibrinous pneumonia; seen in association with other diseases (Mycoplasma, APP, SIV)


  • Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus (PRRSV): Arterivirus: Focal to diffuse interstitial pneumonia, can progress to bronchopneumonia. 
  • Psudorabies (Herpesvirus): CNS signs in neonates (& sudden death). Piglets > 3 weeks sneezing, coughing, necrotic bronchitis, bronchiolitis, alveolitis. 
  • Porcine Circovirus Virus - 2: Pneumonia, commonly seen as a complex with PMWS. 

Originally posted by 8bitcookies

Grow-Finish Pigs:


Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (APP): Pneumonia; Acute death

Atrophic Rhinitis (Bordetella bronchiseptica (+/-) Pasterella multocida): Variable turbinate atrophy, secondary pneumonia. Pigs > 8 weeks. 


Swine Influenza (SIV): high morbidity, low mortality- nasal discharge, coughing. All age groups. 

Equine Diarrhea - NAVLE Review #3

Originally posted by equinefeather

Most common causes for Equine Diarrhea: 

Foal Diarrhea:


  • Foal-heat Diarrhea: occurs 4-14 days after birth, self-limiting, BAR foals, no fever present.


  • Clostridia ( Clostridium perfringens and Clostridium difficile): Most common bacterial cause of diarrhea in foals. C. perfringes affects foals <7 days; Type A most common. C. difficile causes hemorrhagic diarrhea and death in all foal age groups.
  • Salmonella: Second most common cause of diarrhea in foals. Usually acquired from dam. 
  • Lawsonia intracellularis (Equine Proliferative Enteropathy)- older foals (3-8 months)
  • Rhodococcus equi - older foals (1-6 months)


Rotavirus: most common viral cause of diarrhea. Occurs 2 days- 2 months of age


  • Cryptosporidium
  • Strongyloides westeri (threadworm): 1 week - 2 months

Originally posted by sofunnygifs

Adult Horse Diarrhea:


  • Right Dorsal Colitis - NSAIDs abuse and overuse 


  • Salmonella
  • Clostridia (Clostridium perfringens and Clostridium difficile)
  • Neorickettsia risticii (Potomac Horse Fever)


  • Coronavirus: 2-4 yrs 
Five things NOT to say to your Veterinary Student

#5: “You have been in school forever, will you ever graduate?”

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#4:“So you can just be my doctor then, right?”

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#3:“When you graduate, you will just be rolling in the dough.”

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#2: “So when you become a vet are you going to treat my animals for free, right?”

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#1: “With how long you have been in school, when you graduate you could have been a Medical Doctor.”

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