On this day in history 1963 America witnessed one of its most spiteful moments of discrimination. A story of two clever Negroes from Alabama and a staunch conservative determined to keep his promise.
The story begins 11 years earlier when in 1954, Alabama was ordered to desegregate its education system by the supreme court. Hundreds applied in the following years but the university worked with the police to find even the slightest disqualifying quantities but when this failed, the university resorted to intimidating applicants. All black applicants were denied with the exception of Katherine Lucy in 1956. Who was later kicked out of the school due to violent attacks and riots on campus.
Nearly a decade later, two black students successfully enrolled. Vivian Malone Jones and James hood. A court order from a district judge ordered they be admitted.
Previously that year in January. Alabama elected George Wallace as its 45th governor of Alabama. This conservative democrat would pledge at his inaugural address
The two students pre registered at Birmingham courthouse were they selected their courses. The students then arrived at the university to pay their fees. Only to find Governor Wallace stood in the doorway of foster auditorium. Refusing to move. Deputy attorney general Nicholas katzenbach told him to step aside. But was interrupted by Wallace, who gave a speech on states rights. In which he described the enrollment of the two students as“Unwelcome and unwarranted” and the “oppression of the rights, privileges and sovereignty of this state by officers of the federal government.
Katzenbach called president John F Kennedy who had issued executive order 1111. Authorizing the federalization of the Alabama national guard. 4 hours later Guard general Henry graham arrived with 100 Alabama guard and demanded Wallace to step aside saying
“Sir, it is my sad duty to ask you to step aside under the orders of the President of the United States.” Wallace stepped aside. Hood and Malone were escorted into the auditorium were they completed their registration to the cheers of pro integration whites.
Malone would receive her bachelor of arts in business management with a B+ average becoming the first black person to graduate from the University of Alabama. She died of a stroke aged 63 in 2005.
George Wallace would propel to national fame and would run for president in 1968 carrying five states with 9 million votes. He survived an assassination attempt in 1972 and remained wheelchair bound for the rest of his life. He renounced his racist views and apologized to African Americans. He died in 1998.
James hood left the university after only two months but returned 30 years later in 1995 were he completed his doctorate in interdisciplinary studies. He attended Wallace’s funeral in 1998 imploring others to forgive Wallace as he had. James died in 2013.
They have died but the racial divide in America lives on today.
If you have ever dabbled into a history book, specifically surrounding the late 15th and early 16th century, you have probably heard of the French or Gabled hood. These two items were as valuable to a lady in the Tudor era as her dress and costly jewels, but the two types of headgear set two very different social structures apart. From the misconception that Anne Boleyn brought the French Hood to England, to Jane Seymour’s rival of the Gable Hood, continue reading for a quick, organized guide on THE ENDLESS DEBATE: THE FRENCH HOOD VS THE GABLE HOOD.
** This guide is brought to you by historyrph, a nonprofit historical fiction helper. Any likes, reblogs and comments are appreciated.
King Leopold holds a Masquerade ball and his Queen has an encounter with a stranger.
Paper faces on parade
Hide your face so the world will never find you
(“Masquerade,” The Phantom of the Opera)
Leopold insisted on hosting a masquerade ball to celebrate their first anniversary. Regina didn’t feel like celebrating a marriage she felt trapped in, especially when it would be so close to the one year anniversary of Daniel’s death. But like most things in her life, she had no say. She had no choice but to smile, nod and thank her husband for his kindness.
Before she knew it, the night of the masquerade arrived. She had decided to wear a silver dress, a feminine color that also symbolized mysteriousness. Regina curled her dark red lips into a smirk at the thought. Everyone was going to expect the queen to be wearing gold. And she was going to be wearing a mask which covered her entire face, something queens didn’t do. She didn’t care. Her entire costume had been planned to give her a chance to slip into the crowd unnoticed for a little while.
Merry Men - Robin Hood (2010) OST / Wallace Courts Murron - Braveheart OST / Main Titles - Outlander OST / Northern Pastures - Two Steps From Hell / Noble Maiden Fair - Brave OST / Main Theme - Braveheart OST / The Gathering - Outlander OST / Opening Titles - John Adams OST / Fate and Destiny - Brave OST / The Legends Spreads - Breaveheart OST /Merida’s Home - Brave OST / Kingdom Dance - Tangled OST / Turtle - Cinderella Man OST / For The Dancing and The Dreaming - How To Train Your Dragon 2 OST / The Legend Begins - Robin Hood (2010) OST