holy spain

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/ madrid / by Aubrey Dunnuck

@Neoprusiano
Emperador Carlos V del Sacro Imperio Romano Germánico y I Rey de España
Imperator Carolus V Sacri Imperii Romani et I Rex Hispaniae
Kaiser Karl V. des Heiligen Römischen Reiches und I. König von Spanien
Emperor Charles V of the Holy Roman Empire and I King of Spain
Empereur Charles V de le Saint Empire Romain Germanique et I Roi d'Espagne

Edmond de Busscher (1805-1882), 1858.

3

The Origin of the Dollar and Pocket Change

Among the most popular currencies in the world, the dollar is not only used by the United States, but by 20 other countries including Canada, Australia, Taiwan, Hong Kong, Singapore, New Zealand, Liberia, Jamaica and Namibia. In addition the US dollar is the official currency of East Timor, Ecuador, El Salvador, Federated States of Micronesia, Marshall Islands, Palau, the Caribbean Netherlands. 

The origins of the dollar can be found in the Bohemian town of Jachymov in the Kingdom of Bohemia, now the Czech Republic.  There in the early 16th century of Bohemian noble named Count Hieronymus Schlick operated a very successful silver mine. In 1518 he began minting his own silver coins at a specific weight which he felt would be easier for merchants to use for trade.  Called the “Joachimsthaler” (named after St. Joachim) it was a coin with the  silver weight of 27.2 grams. The new “thaler” quickly became popular in Europe, being used in the Holy Roman Empire, Spain, Holland, and Scandinavia. Each country minted their own thalers with different weights, but all kept pretty close to around 26 or 27 grams of silver.  Remember that back then money was valued by pressure metals, not fiat (government decree), thus money was just as much of a unit of weight as it was a unit of value.  This explains the origin of common lesser coins based on the dollar.  A half dollar weighs one half of a dollar. A quarter weighs ¼th of a dollar. The word “dime” comes from the French word “ dîme “, meaning a tithe, or tenth. Thus a dime weighs one tenth of a dollar.

The thaler continued to be commonly used in the 18th century. In colonial America, Spanish Thaler’s became a popular currency among colonists, being used beside British Pounds.  After the United States became independent from Britain, the pound was dropped and the thaler became the new currency of the US, although being called by it’s Anglican name, the “dollar” .  By the 19th century the use of paper money became common, although the dollar was still a measurement of weight and silver dollars, quarters, and dimes were minted. However paper dollars were not cash in and of themselves, but were certificates which represented silver money, used because carrying paper money was easier than carrying silver coins.  Each bill had printed on it “one silver dollar payable to the bearer on demand”. 

  This meant that a person who had a dollar bill could exchange their paper for silver at any bank on demand. Today, silver certificates are highly collectible items.

By the 20th century most nations ended the use of gold and silver currency.  The US ended the gold/silver standard in 1933 under Franklin D. Roosevelt.  Thus, the dollar was severed from it’s link to silver weights, and dollar bills became simple pieces of paper that were worth something simply because the US Government says it is worth something. Half dollars, dimes, and quarters continued to be minted in until 1965, when silver became more valuable then the coins its was used to mint. Thus the US mint began producing pocket change out of copper-nickle alloys and made it legal to melt earlier silver coinage.  Australia did the same in 1965, Canada in 1969.  The silver half dollars, dimes, and quarters are called “junk silver”, so named because they are not rare enough to have collectors value, but are still valuable because they are made of silver.  A pre-1965 silver quarter can be worth around $5 in today’s silver market.  Thus many collect junk silver as a means of investment.  I myself invest some of my money in precious metals, and I buy a little bit of junk silver now and then.  Plus, I also like to have a bag of silver coins for when I dress up and pretend to be a pirate in my free time, so that I can jingle it while shouting AARRRGGHHH!!!!

Hetalia Body-Type Headcanons

Hetalia Body-Type Headcanons

So I saw a post like this, and I thought “why not?” So here’re my Hetalia body-type headcanons!

Italy : Italy is mostly slim, with a bit of chub around the waist from all the pasta and pizza. Little body hair. 5'7"

Germany : Germany is the buff bara-type, broad shoulders, big chest, the works. Kind of a smaller butt tho. Light body hair. 5'11"

Japan : Japan is short, but lean. Lots of compact muscle, like a martial artist. Little body hair. 5'5"

Romano : Romano is like his little brother, but sliiiiightly more muscular. Probably because tomatoes are healthier than pasta and pizza. Little body hair. 5'6.5"

Prussia : Prussia is like a shorter, slimmer Germany. He’s got beautiful legs. Shaves his body hair. 5'6"

America : America is definitely an endomorph. Pretty buff, but also a bit chubby on the chest, waist, and hips. All that McDonald’s is hard to burn off. Moderate body hair. 6'0"

Canada : Canada is pretty average, barely any muscle mass, and his waist is kind of chubby too. Supple legs, though. Moderate body hair. 6'0"

England : England is slim as hell. Like, almost skinny, but still kinda muscular from his pirating days. Shaves his body hair. 5'7"

France : France is built like a model. Muscular, but not huge. Hairy af. 5'10"

Russia : Russia is sorta like America. But with more fat, and taller. He’s got a big chest and butt. Basically a big teddy bear. Pretty hairy. 6'4"

China : China is like Japan, but shorter. 5'4"

Austria : Austria’s kinda chubby around the waist, but he’s got nice legs. Shaves his body hair. 5'8"

Hungary : Hungary’s got an hourglass figure, but an athletic one. She’s got nice abs. About a C cup. 5'7"

Switzerland : Swiss has got a pretty lean build, muscular, but you wouldn’t know it just by looking at him with clothes on. 5'7"

Liechtenstein : Liech is very smoll. She’s like a fragile doll. About a AA cup. 4'11"

Spain : This man is a supermodel like holy crap. Killer abs, nice, broad chest and shoulders. And of course, an ass so big and round, you’d mistake it for a dwarf planet or something. Shaves his body hair. 5'10"

Belarus : Belarus is pretty slim. Small bust, thin waist, narrow hips. About an A cup. 5'3"

Ukraine : Ukraine’s basically canon with this one. Top-heavy, but probably a bit of a chubbier waist. About a DD cup. 5'5"

Lithuania : Lithuania is pretty lean. Smooth stomach, taut butt. Little body hair. 5'9"

Poland : Poland has a pretty androgynous build. He’s got a small chest typical of a male, a moderate waist, and feminine hips. Also pretty long eyelashes. 5'6"

Estonia : Estonia’s got the typical “hot nerd” build. Meaning, he clearly doesn’t do any sports or exercise, yet he still retains a nice, healthy figure. The nerd doesn’t even need to shave his body hair, he barely has any. 5'7"

Latvia : Latvia is really short of course, but I imagine about 4'9" as opposed to 4'7". Tiny figure, with a small, round booty. Typical shota build. Almost no body hair.

Denmark : Denmark is a buff bara, just like Germany, except he’s got more scars all across his body. He’s got moderate body hair. 5'11"

Sweden : Sweden is super tall and pretty buff, but seems a bit lankier because he’s so tall. Moderate body hair. 6'2"

Norway : Norway is the type that seems skinny under his clothes, but then he takes them off and he’s got these killer abs. He’s got a nice chest and butt. Shaves his body hair. 5'8"

Finland : Finland is very cute and very round. He’s got a soft chest, and big, soft, round stomach, and a soft, round butt. Soft curved all around. Moderate body hair. 5'6"

Iceland : Iceland is a total twink. Small chest, thin waist, small butt. Def a bottom. Little body hair. 5'6"

Netherlands : Ned is really tall, and is pretty muscular, but you couldn’t tell from how he hides it under all that heavy clothing. Moderate body hair. 6'1"

Luxembourg : Lux is built like his brother, but shorter and slimmer. It’s easier to tell he’s muscular though because of those fancy suits he’s always wearing that fit right against his figure. Moderate body hair. 5'10"

Belgium : Belgium’s got a short, chubby kind of figure. Ample chest, soft waist, round hips. About a D cup. 5'2"

Bulgaria : Bulgaria is pretty physically fit, nice abs, broad shoulders. Moderate body hair. 5'10"

Romania : Romania is even thinner than England, with barely any muscle mass at all. Not a twink-like as Iceland though. Little body hair. 5'7"

Moldova : Much like Latvia, Moldova has the typical shota build, but he’s a bit taller. No body hair. 4'10"

Egypt : Egypt is model-like. Far from Spain, but definitely nice. Killer abs, warm, manly chest, nice butt, etc. Little body hair. 5'9"

Cyprus : Cyprus is a bit like Egypt, if not more muscular. He’s also taller than Egypt. Little body hair. 5'10"

Greece : Greece is built like a Greek god. Imagine one of those marble statues with the chiseled abs and killer V-line and broad chest. That’s Greece. Little body hair. 5'11"

Turkey : Turkey is even bigger than Greece, tanner, more muscular, but also has a bit more body fat. Probably hairier than France too. 6'0"

Cuba : Cuba’s got a sort of chubby build. Large, round stomach, soft chest, big butt. Also pretty hairy. 5'8"

Seychelles : Seychelles has a lean, swimmer’s build, probably curvier than Belarus though. About a B cup. 5'3"

Hong Kong : Hong Kong is basically the Iceland of the East Asian countries. He’s got a really thin build, but is actually super athletic. Little body hair. 5'7"

Taiwan : Taiwan looks like she could easily be a dancer. She’s got a slim but athletic build. About a B cup. 5'0"

Vietnam : Vietnam is pretty lean, and has clearly been in a few tough fights that she’s come out on top of. She could probably square up against MMA fighters. About an A cup. 5'6"

Thailand : Thailand has got a pretty hot bod, and he clearly exercises. He’s got the build of a runner, like he does track and field. But it’s actually from dancing so much. Moderate body hair. 5'9"

South Korea : Imagine the typical K-Pop boy band idol. That’s South Korea. He’s got little body hair. He’s about 5'11"

Australia : Australia is super buff. Like, imagine Makoto from Free! So not as buff as say America or Germany or Denmark, but he’s up there. He actually shaves his body hair. 6'0"

New Zealand : New Zealand is pretty slim, but he’s clearly worked out before, so he’s not as slim as England. Probably closer to Switzerland really. Little body hair. 5'8"

Monaco : Monaco has a fairly hourglass figure, sort of like a girl you’d see in a casino in one of those cocktail dresses. About a C cup. She’s actually pretty short though, only about 4'11", but she wears heels often to look taller.

Sealand: Sealand is a tiny shota boy, like super thin and stuff. No body hair (too young). About 4'5"

Wy : Wy is a small girl, really short with a thin build. Probably too young and/or underdeveloped for a bra. About 4'7"

Seborga : Seborga’s built a lot like Italy and Romano, probably somewhere in between the two of them. He’s shorter though. Little body hair. 5'6"

Ladonia : Much like Sealand, Ladonia’s a small shota. He’s taller than him though. No body body hair. About 4'8"

Molossia : Ever since I heard a certain audio post (I can’t find it unfortunately), I’ve imagined Molossia to be a lot like Markiplier. That includes voice and build. Moderate body hair. 5'10"

Kugelmugel : I imagine Kugelmugel to be the smallest of the Micronations. He’s very smoll, only 4'3". No body hair of course.

Czech Republic : Czech has a petite body, sorta like Belarus, but with rounder hips. About an A cup. 5'1"

Slovakia : Slovakia is actually pretty muscular. Not huge by any means, but imagine, like, Haruka from Free!, and that’s what he’s like. Moderate body hair. 5'9"