ho hang

10

I have made a remastered version of the tarot cards I have made up to this point. Here’s half or so of them. The others will appear soonish!

Basically what has changed is that I increased the saturation and tweaked some of the colours here and there. I hope you like them!


Ho-Oh - The Hanged Man

Latios and Latias - The Lovers

Kyurem - The Fool

Jirachi - The Star

Xerneas - Justice

Articuno, Zapdos, Moltres - The Wheel of Fortune

Giratina - The Devil 

Celebi - High Priestess

Yveltal - Death

Mewtwo - Judgement

THE MONGOLS UNDER GENGHIS KHAN WAR AGAINST CHINA’S NORTHWESTERN TANGUT (TIBETO-BURMESE) RULED KINGDOM OF XI XIA

This is an expert from my post “THE MONGOLS AND THE RISE OF GENGHIS KHAN”.

WESTERN XIA, 1205–1210 CE

Something their Chinese neighbors had always feared was a unified nomadic nation and now Genghis Khan (Temujin, Chinggis Qa’an) had done just that. With the Mongolian Steppe unified under one banner, Genghis Khan and his hordes could direct their full attention elsewhere, like towards the rich and opportunistic nations of northern China. Uniting these rivalrous tribes was difficult enough but as Genghis promised them a comfortable life of profit and glory, he needed a target to assail – an outlet, a common enemy and a unifying ploy. After defeating his father-like patron To’oril and his oath-brother Jamuqa there still remained one foe, Senggum (son of To’oril), who fled to the empire of Western Xia (Chinese: Xi Xia or Hsi Hsia). Senggum’s refuge in Western Xia, the third weakest realm in China, was enough of an excuse for Genghis Khan to invade it.

In reality Genghis Khan long sought to conquer a different realm in China, the eastern Jinn Empire, but he first needed to eliminate the threat posed by the Tangut (Tibeto-Burmese peoples) empire of Western Xia. Western Xia was renowned for trade (being that they also had trade relations with Central Asia), artistry (literature and architecture), and craftsmanship (weavers, builders, leatherworkers, metallurgists). This Buddhist realm was also admired for their religious, cultural and intellectual aptitude; boasting about three hundred schools and nine grand pagodas. Despite being the smallest, weakest and most vulnerable of the northern dynasties this did not mean that they were powerless, just overshadowed by their neighbors. Western Xia possessed a military force renowned for its skill in archery, chariotry, horsemanship, amphibious combat and artillery (with cannons being carried around by camels). Another advantage was their geographical position: they lived in a fertile valley and were guarded by the Taklimakan desert to its east, the Tibetan Plateau in the south and the great Gobi Desert in the north and northeast.

^ Trade map. Voyages in World History, Volume 1 by Valerie Hansen, Kenneth Curtis.

Before invading Western Xia, Genghis Khan gathered intel from many sources. One of these sources of information came from newly conquered steppe nomads like the Kerayits, Naimans and the Uighurs who had closer relationships with China’s northern dynasties. Another was from Muslim merchants whom had long traded with the Xia and were unhappy with the empire’s greedy overtaxing. The third source of intel came from the results of small scale raids ordered by the Khan, the true purpose of these raids was a way for the Mongols to not only loot the Xia but to explore the landscape, scope out their new enemy and to take captives for them to question. One obstacle that Genghis Khan had to overcome was that now he faced his first sedentary foe which possessed walled cities that they could hide behind. By this time the Mongols were highly inexperience at besieging cities as the greater part of their history was spent clashing against other nomads.

Another obstacle faced were the great deserts which guarded the Xi Xia from the northern nomads. The Mongols, however, learned that they could bypass said deserts by traversing through a mountain pass they learned of beforehand. This pass was guarded by Tangut fortresses which the horde of one hundred and twenty thousand Mongols, inexperienced in siege warfare, failed to overcome.

Osprey – ‘Men-at-Arms’ series, issue 295 – Imperial Chinese Armies (2): 590–1260 ADby CJ Peers and Michael Perry (Illustrator). Plate E: Hsi-Hsia. E1: King with attendants – “This figure, based on an 11th-century cave painting from Tun-huang, is thought to represent one of the kings of Hsi-Hsia. His embroidered robe is a typically Chinese symbol of royalty”. E2: Armoured cavalryman – “A 10th-century painting – also from Tun-huang – in the Musee Guimet in Paris shows several of these warriors on foot. However, the unsuitability of the armor for infantry fighting, and its similarity to the long lamellar coats used by Turkish horsemen, suggest that they are dismounted cavalry. Such armour styles are also very similar of those used in the same area by the Tibetans. The figures are shown armed with bows, but may also have used lances when mounted. A distinctive Hsi-Hsia hairstyle was imposed by Yuan Hao: the top of the head was shaved, leaving a fringe across the forehead.

The Mongols then employed a common tactic used by the steppe nomads, that of the feigned retreat. This so-called ‘Dog Fight tactic’ was a soon-to-be common ploy used by the Mongols in battle and when facing fortified settlements. In an attempt to lure the garrison out of the safety of their walls and into the plain where the nomadic hordes held the advantage, the Mongols would leave a small detachment of men or supplies behind and feign retreat. The enemy garrison would then sally out of the settlement and attempt to chase down the fleeing Mongols, attack the abandoned Mongol camp or pillage and loot their abandoned supplies. The Mongols would then either lure the garrison further away from their settlement, obliterate the looters or allow them to transport the pillaged supplies to the settlement which would now have their gates wide open and obstructed by carts and animals laden with booty. 

The Mongol tactic was successful as they ambushed the sallying Tangut garrison. Now their path towards the Western Xia capital of Chung-hsing (Mongol ‘Eriqaya’ or ‘Iryai’.  Present day city of ‘Yinchuan’) was clear. Swiftly they headed towards the capital, before reinforcements could arrive, and besieged the seemingly impenetrable capital. The Jinn responded to the Tangut pleas for help by saying, “It is to our advantage when our enemies attack one another, wherein lies the danger to us?

^ Mongol (2007). My snapshot.

The Mongols then began their long siege of the Western Xia capital of Chung-hsing. Despite how greatly skilled the Mongols were as horsemen in the open field, siege warfare was a different beast. The Mongols spent a year unsuccessfully besieging the capital before choosing to use the capital’s canals and dykes (dam), which utilized the Yellow River to irrigate their lands, against them. Genghis Khan ordered the dykes to be destroyed in an attempt to divert the Yellow River (Hang-ho River) into the city which would then be flooded… but instead it was the Mongol camp that was flooded out. 

The eastern Jinn dynasty refused to send a relieving force to save the Western Xia so with the loss of hope, their croplands flooded and the fear that the Great Khan’s plan to flood the city would eventually succeed, the Western Xia submitted to Genghis Khan (in 1209 CE). The Emperor of the Western Xia then gave his daughter (Chaka) to Genghis Khan to marry, gifted them textiles, falcons and camels while agreeing to pay them tribute and supply troops.


To read more about the steppe nomads known as the Mongols, read my post titled “THE MONGOLS AND THE RISE OF GENGHIS KHAN”. I cover their rapid adaptation of foreign technologies, their transition from seemingly insignificant tribal confederacies into an empire that was four times the size of Alexander’s and twice the size of the Roman’s. I also speak of their military tactics, some of their battle formations, armaments, and their secretive order of bodyguards known as the Keshik, as well as Genghis Khan’s early wars against northern China’s Western Xia dynasty (Tanguts: Tibeto-Burmese) and eastern Jinn dynasty (Tungusic Jurchens who were Sinicized).


The following is an excerpt from my post, “GENGHIS KHAN, THE STALLION WHO MOUNTS THE WORLD”. 

During Genghis Khan’s campaigns against Khwarezmia, Western Xia (Tibeto-Burmese empire) refused to send reinforcements, declared independence and tried gaining an alliance with the eastern Jinn dynasty (sinicized Tungusic Jurchens). This betrayal and disrespect remained on the mind of Genghis Khan as he had a secretary of his remind him twice a day (every noon and dusk) that the Western Xia still existed.

Because the Tang’ut people gave their word but did not keep it, Chinggis Qa’an for the second time took the field against them.” – The Secret History of the Mongols.

When the west was under his sway, he returned to China in his late 60′s to exact his revenge on the Xi Xia. The Great Khan was furious at how resistant and defiant the Western Xia were so he ordered that every settlement and fortification was to be destroyed. During this campaign Genghis Khan mysteriously died (August 18, 1227 CE) and on his deathbed he ordered that the Western Xia should be erased from the face of the earth – even in death his death toll rose. The Mongols were pretty successful at following his last order as we have few archaeological remains to study and the Xia are rarely ever spoken of.

after having exterminated the Tang’ut people’s mothers and fathers down to the offspring of their offspring, maiming and taming, Činggis Qa’an gave the following order: ‘While I take my meals you must talk about the killing and destruction of the Tang’ut and say, “Maimed and tamed, they are no more.” – The Secret History of the Mongols.

Burial

The rich could be buried on an open plain and inside a ger (tent; Turkish ‘Yurt’), but at times this was just a ruse as he was instead secretly buried in a pit elsewhere. Mongols could be buried alongside a horses, saddles, bridles, bows, quivers and arrows. The rich man’s slave was placed beneath the body and if he managed to escape within the span of three days then he was made a freeman and respected guest of the rich man’s family. The rich man’s burial site was then further covered with earth and trampled on by horses so to obscure the site. Horses could be impaled over or stuffed with hay and placed on wooden scaffold over the grave of the deceased. The poor, however, were simply deserted and left unburied out in the open where vultures, wolves, and dogs could pick at their carcasses. This was seen as a noble act as all living creature needed to eat, another benefit being that these momentarily satisfied predators and scavengers would leave more wildlife for man to hunt. If the deaths of the poor were larger in scale or if they shared a specific spot of interest, mass graves or hills of bodies would be a common site.

It would be impossible to imagine a more horrible spectacle than met our eyes on arriving at Golgotha, an open space or cleft between two green hillocks… a valley literally crammed with corpses in every stage of decomposition, from the bleached bones of skeletons that had lain there for years, to the disfigured, shapeless masses of flesh that had been living beings but a few days or hours ago. The moon shed a pale, unearthly light over the grinning skulls and grey upturned faces of the dead, some of whom lay stark and stiff, just as they had been left by their friends, others with their blue shrouds ragged and torn, with disfigured faces and twisted limbs, lying in the horribly grotesque positions in which the dogs or wolves had dragged them… The Mongol is, at any rate, free from an evil which always more or less threatens us of superior civilization – that of being buried alive.” 

The Great Khan’s death remained secret to keep the campaign and his empire from unraveling. Mongol soldiers had all tomb builders executed; all witnesses to his funeral procession to Karakorum were also killed as were two thousand funeral attendees and the eight hundred soldiers themselves – so to keep its location secret. There are also stories of horses trampling over his unmarked grave so to obscure signs of a burial, trees being planted over it or maybe even a river being diverted to flow over It. Till this day it has not been found though some historians believe that it may be buried in an area (Ikh Khorig, “Great Taboo”) near the great sacred mountain Genghis often visited, prayed atop of and meditated at (Burqan Qaldun).


Head over to “GENGHIS KHAN, THE STALLION WHO MOUNTS THE WORLD” to read more about how Genghis Khan was pressured into campaigning out of China toward Central Asia (Kara Khitai Khanate) to Greater Iran (Khwarezmian Empire), the frontier of Eastern Europe (Medieval Russia and Ukraine) and back to China. Genghis Khan’s campaigns against the Jinn dynasty of Northern China might’ve reduced their population by two thirds and the invasion of Khwarezmia ended in the population of Persia dropping to about one tenth of its original number. I also cover Mongol shamanism and their tolerance of foreign religions, the famed ‘Yam’ pony express, their tactical use of captives and their massive deportation policy.

  • ban ryu: the only positive to either of these shows not ending in a gay romance, is that naruto and sherlock show a friendship can have a stronger bond than a romance or even a marriage.
  • yeo wool: ... are you straight?
  • soo ho: hang on. i wanna hear about the bond between sherlock and naruto.
9

Upcoming Drama: Missing 9

Release Date: January, 2017 - Runtime: Wednesdays & Thursdays 22:00 
The drama will be set in a deserted island and cover all the things that happen when a plane crash lands there, inside carrying a fallen boy band member dealing with a plagiarism scandal, a girl group, an actor, a bodyguard, an entertainment reporter, and a flight attendant. They will have to deal with how they survive in the wild, and through the adventure and adversity they learn the meaning of love.

Cast:

Baek Jin Hee as Ra Bong Hee
Jung Kyung Ho as Seo Jun Oh
Chan Yeol as Lee Yeol
Lee Seon Bin as Ha Ji Ah
Choi Tae Joon as Choi Tae Ho
Ryu Won as Yoon So Hee
Oh Jung Se as Jung Ki Joon 
Kim Sang Ho as Hwang Jae Kook
Tae Hang Ho as Tae Ho Hang

vitriss  asked:

"I'm beautiful and underappreciated."

famous text-post meme

                               “ Whoa-ho-ho! Now hang on there, ‘lil lady. ”

                                “ Not once have I ever thought you weren’t beautiful, ” he tells her, blue meeting blue. His smile  v e n t u r e s  into more of a smirk, slightly lopsided & forever mischievous, as his hands slide along the  c u r v e  of her waist. “ And I’m preeeetty sure you weren’t complaining ‘bout being underappreciated last night… ”  

@vitriss

“I Know You Don’t Belong To Me” (Requested)

Thanks for requesting! You guys keep me going!

Requests are open :)

Masterlist

Be sure to join my kik group chat! Use the hashtag #sourstilinski and we can all chat together :)

Originally posted by obriensjunk

You knew he wasn’t yours. You didn’t own him and you probably never would. Especially since he liked Hayden. The worst part was that Hayden was nice to you so that made it really hard to hate her. But lately, you had found yourself getting annoyed with the two. Whenever you and Liam would plan something, he would always bail to go hang out with Hayden. Frankly, you were sick and tired of it.

You watched as your best friend, Liam, talked with Hayden at their lockers. You couldn’t help but feel a twinge of disappointment at the way he looked at her. He never looked at you that way. She laughed at something he said and he involuntarily leaned towards her, his bright eyes shining. 

You pretended to be interested in your own locker as they closed theirs and turned around. They said their goodbyes and Hayden walked down the hall towards you.

She sent you a huge smile. “Hi (Y/N).”

You sent her one back, although it was rather forced. “Hey.”

You brightened up as you saw Liam making his way towards you. You had been in love with him for as long as you could remember. Probably ever since he had given you a flower in the second grade. His bright blue eyes and his wide grin were only two of the things you loved about him. 

“Hey best friend,” he greeted, pulling you in for a hug. 

You hugged him back but felt a pang of sadness. That’s all you would ever be to him was his best friend.

“Are we still on for tonight? Mason’s bringing the pizza,” You said, closing your locker so your full attention would be on him. It was Friday, which meant it was your annual best friend movie night. It had been a tradition between the three of you since the sixth grade.

He bit his lip and scratched the back of his neck, nervously. That was all you needed. 

You shrugged. “I guess that’s a no. I figured.”

“Wait, I’m sorry,” he tried to explain. “It’s just I promised that I would help Hayden with her science project.”

You narrowed your eyes. “Hayden’s a genius. Why does she need help with her project?”

He opened his mouth to say something then closed it again.

“Whatever. I don’t want to know. I’ll see you later.” The final bell had rung and the halls were pretty much empty.

“(Y/N)! Wait!” He ran after you, his supernatural abilities making it easy to catch up to you. “What’s your problem?”

You stopped walking and scoffed. “What’s my problem? I’m sick of my best friend ditching me, that’s what.” 

“I’m not ditching you-”

“Yes you are,” you cut him off. “Just like you have been for the last few weeks. I thought you hated Hayden, now you’re all gung ho to hang out with her?”

“Maybe I don’t hate her anymore,” he mumbled. “I actually really like her.” 

You heart sank to the floor. There was your answer. He had just admitted it without you even asking. You turned for the door but he grabbed your arm, pulling you back to him. 

“What’s going on with you? There’s something you’re not telling me.” His eyes searched yours for an answer.

You shook your arm from his grasp. “Well, I guess your supernatural werewolf senses haven’t been helping you much. You are so blind.”

He looked at you, confused. “What are you talking about?”

You took a deep breath. You had to let all of this out. “I’m so in love with you and you don’t even see it! I’ve been in love with you since we were little kids and everyone else notices it but you! You’re so involved with getting Hayden to like you that you don’t notice that I’m crazy about you! I know you don’t belong to me but I’m tired of having to sit on the sidelines while you go have your fun. I’m tired of being hurt and I’m tired of being left behind. I’m moving on.” 

The silence between you two was deafening. He stood in front of you, shocked. He never knew you felt this way. 

“(Y/N), I’m so sorry.”

You shook your head. “Don’t be. It’s my fault anyway.”

You turned and walked out of the school. This time, he didn’t stop you. Out of the corner of your eye, you saw him fall against the lockers, leaning his forehead on the metal. 

*

Later that night, you laid on your bed and played Fall Out Boy through your earbuds. You had decided to skip movie night with Mason because you weren’t feeling up to it. When you explained to him why, he completely understood. 

A tapping at your window interrupted your music time. You took out your earbuds and walked over to your window. Who could this be? You pulled back the curtain to see Liam struggling to hold onto your windowsill. You opened the window. 

“Liam, what are you doing here?”

“Please, can I come in? I’m dying out here,” he pants, adjusting his fingers.

You stifle a giggle and move inside, letting him pull himself into your room. 

“What are you doing here?” You ask again. “Shouldn’t you be with Hayden?”

He shook his head. “No. Because she’s not the girl I love.”

“Liam stop-”

“I’m serious (Y/N). I love you. It just took you telling me you loved me for me to find out that I love you too.” He stepped forward, taking your hands in his. 

“You love me?” You ask, looking up at him.

He nods. “More than you’ll ever know.”

You took a step back. “I don’t want this to ruin our friendship.”

He shrugged. “Well, what if I want it to?”

He kissed you gently, pulling you towards him. 

You broke away and smiled at him. “I love you.”

“I love you too.”

You looked back at your bedroom door. “You should probably go. My parents will kill me if they catch you in here.”

He nodded and gave you a hug before striding over to your window. He swung his leg over the windowsill. “This would be so much easier if you lived in a one story house.”