historysisco

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On this day in history July 20, 1969: At 10:56 p.m. EDT, American astronaut Neil Armstrong, 240,000 miles from Earth, speaks these words to more than a billion people listening at home: “That’s one small step for man, one giant leap for mankind.” Stepping off the lunar landing module Eagle, Armstrong became the first human to walk on the surface of the moon.

Dear @historysisco, many thanks for your message and your reply to our post. 

Yes, it is particularly infuriating when people decide to plagiarise not only because it shows a complete disregard for the work of others but also because it defeats the purpose of sharing information and building on previous works to situate oneself in a conversation. 

Moreover, it’s somewhat irritating to see individuals who could not be bothered by quotation marks receive credits for what sometimes took us weeks to prepare. 

At any rate, thank you again for your kind words of encouragement! Have a very nice day. 

historysisco said: It doesn’t matter if the posts are short or long or full of pretty pictures and or text. Just put those ideas and thoughts out there and let the interwebs do the rest. Keep rocking!!!

Thank you. Well, I already have a bunch of history blogs, therefore I think it’s fine if I let this one be about photography/anything else really. But you are very right about just posting ideas, I’m sure I will continue to do that once in a while as before :-)

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On Sept. 1, 1939, World War II began as Nazi Germany invaded Poland. The term Blitzkrieg becomes a household word as Hitler’s “Lightning war” was hurled against the Poles. 

Hitler claimed that Germany was provoked and attacked thereby the Poles brought the invasion on themselves. According to the article German Army Attacks Poland; Cities Bombed, Port Blockaded; Danzig Is Accepted Into Reich from the New York Times dated September 1, 1939, Hitler sent the following proclamation to the German Army:

To the defense forces:

The Polish nation refused my efforts for a peaceful regulation of neighborly relations; instead it has appealed to weapons.

Germans in Poland are persecuted with a bloody terror and are driven from their homes. The series of border violations, which are unbearable to a great power, prove that the Poles no longer are willing to respect the German frontier. In order to put an end to this frantic activity no other means is left to me now than to meet force with force.

“Battle for Honor”

German defense forces will carry on the battle for the honor of the living rights of the re- awakened German people with firm determination.

I expect every German soldier, in view of the great tradition of eternal German soldiery, to do his duty until the end.

Remember always in all situations you are the representatives of National Socialist Greater Germany!

Long live our people and our Reich!

Berlin, Sept. 1, 1939. 

Adolf Hitler

France, Great Britain and Canada respond by declaring war on Nazi Germany on September 3, 1939 ushering the specter of war that the world thought they had exorcised with the end of World War I.

The Soviet Union would invade Poland on September 17, 1939

For Further Reading:

1939: Germany invades Poland from the BBC On This Day 1950-2005 website

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On This Day in History April 10, 1919: Mexican revolutionary and advocate of agrarianism who fought in guerrilla actions during the Mexican Revolution was assassinated by political opponents. 

What did Zapata stand for? According to the post EMILIANO ZAPATA Hero of the Mexican Revolution:

In 1911, Zapata published his Plan de Ayala, a 2,000 word treatise outlining the steps needed for social reform, including the restoration of land to the citizens of Mexico and the ousting of Madero who Zapata believed was incapable of fulfilling the goals of the revolution.

A core component of Zapata’s Plan de Ayala was first and foremost to have 1/3 of all land owned by the wealthy hacienda owners confiscated and returned to the peasantry. Compensation would apply to those owners who agreed to this mandate while those who did not, would still have their lands redistributed with no compensation forthcoming. The Mexican Revolution continued and Zapata’s famous slogan of “Tierra y Libertad” (land and liberty) became the rallying cry of the revolution.

Venustiano Carranza would become President of Mexico after President Francisco Madero was assassinated on February 22, 1913. Carranza stood against Zapata in terms of land reform and was threatened by Zapata’s popularity among the populace. 

Emiliano Zapata would be ambushed and assassinated by soldiers of the regime of Venustiano Carranza regime. 

For Further Reading:

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On this day in History September 6, 1976: Lieutenant Viktor Belenko, a pilot with the 513th Fighter Regiment, 11th Air Army, based in Chuguyevka, Primorsky Krai, Russia finished flying maneuvers with his Mig-25 jet plane and instead of heading back to base, he decided to make a fateful detour. 

Lieutenant Belenko flew the secret Mig-25 towards the Japanese island of Hokkaido, landing his plane at a civilian airport in Hakodate. The article The Defection of Viktor Belenko: The Use of International Law to Justify Political Decisions by James P. Eyster, II from the Fordham International Law Journal Volume 1, Issue 1 1977 Article 3 describes what happened next:

Though two drag chutes were employed to aid in braking, the jet rolled past the end of the mile-long runway, knocking down two short antennae before coming to a halt. The pilot emerged from the cockpit, fired two warning pistol shots, and shouted his intentions: to defect from the U.S.S.R. and receive asylum in the United States.

Belenko was the first Soviet pilot to defect with his plane.

Belenko would indeed receive asylum from the United States while the West had their hands on the elusive Mig-25 jet fighter. To this day he still lives in the United States.

For Further Reading:


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On this day in History December 17, 1903: Brothers Orville and Wilbur Wright made the first successful man-powered airplane flight, near Kitty Hawk, N.C. The article Testimony to Flight from the National Archives website describes the events of December 17, 1903:

Surfmen John T. Daniels, Robert Westcott, William Beacham, W. S. Dough, and Benny O’Neal helped them get the flying machine to the hill on December 14 and witnessed Wilbur Wright’s unsuccessful flying attempt that day.

Because the Wrights wanted a strong wind for their next test flight, they waited until the early morning of December 17 to signal the station. At the time of the flight, there was a 23–27 mile-an-hour wind, and it was bitterly cold. Soon, Surfmen Daniels, Dough, and Adam D. Etheridge arrived on the scene.

Wilbur and Orville flipped a coin to see who would fly first. At 10:35 a.m., as the plane left the ground, Daniels, using Orville’s camera, took a photograph of the first plane in flight with Orville at the controls and Wilbur alongside. The Wrights made three more flights on December 17, each taking a turn as pilot. After the fourth flight, a sudden gust of wind rolled the machine over. Surfman Daniels, with Orville and Wilbur’s help, tried to rescue the machine from the wind. Daniels was bruised in the attempt to save the machine, and the plane was seriously damaged, so no more flights were possible that day. The Wright brothers left the wings with Adam Etheridge and returned to Dayton, OH, with their engine.

The top photograph is “Original Wright Brothers 1903 Aeroplane (‘Kitty Hawk’) in first flight, December 17, 1903, at Kitty Hawk, NC. Orville Wright at controls. Wilbur Wright at right (First flight was 12 seconds)” By Orville Wright and John T. Daniels, December 17, 1903 (165-WW-713-6); Records of the War Department General and Special Staffs; Record Group 165; National Archives.

For Further Reading:

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On this day in History November 26, 1922: Charles Schulz, American cartoonist and creator of the “Peanuts” comic strip, was born in Minneapolis, Minnesota. 

The first Peanuts strip appeared on October 2, 1950, in seven newspapers nationwide. The final original Peanuts comic strip by Schulz would be published on February 13, 2000, the day after he passed away peacefully in his sleep. 

For Further Reading:

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On this day in history August 4, 1944: Acting on tip from a Dutch informer, the Nazi Gestapo captures 15-year-old Jewish diarist Anne Frank and her family in a sealed-off area of an Amsterdam warehouse. The Franks had taken shelter there in 1942 out of fear of deportation to a Nazi concentration camp.

Annelies Marie Frank was born in Frankfurt am Main, Germany, on June 12, 1929. She was the second daughter of Otto Frank and Edith Frank-Hollander, both of Jewish families that had lived in Germany for centuries.

On her 13th birthday in 1942, Anne began a diary relating her everyday experiences, her relationship with her family and friends, and observations about the increasingly dangerous world around her. Less than a month later, Anne’s older sister, Margot, received a call-up notice to report to a Nazi “work camp.” Fearing deportation to a Nazi concentration camp, the Frank family took shelter in the secret annex the next day.

For two years, Anne kept a diary about her life. On August 1, 1944, Anne made her last entry in her diary. Three days later, 25 months of seclusion ended with the arrival of the Nazi Gestapo. They were sent to a concentration camp in Holland, and in September Anne and most of the others were shipped to the Auschwitz death camp in Poland.

In the fall of 1944, with the Soviet liberation of Poland underway, Anne was moved with her sister Margot to the Bergen-Belsen concentration camp in Germany. Suffering under the deplorable conditions of the camp, the two sisters caught typhus and died in early March 1945.

The young girl’s diary of her time in hiding was found after her death and published. The Diary of Anne Frank remains one of the most moving testimonies to the invincibility of the human spirit in the face of inhuman cruelty.

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On this day in history September 7, 1822: On the banks of the Ipiranga River in São Paulo, Crown Prince Regent Pedro declared Brazil’s independence from Portugal.

The article Brazil’s Independence Day - September 7: Independência ou Morte by Bonnie Hamre from the Go SouthAmerica About webpage briefly describes some of the events that led to Brazil’s Declaration of Independence by Prince Regent Pedro:

With Napoleon and the Peninsular Wars, and the invasion and occupation of Spain and Portugal, Dom João VI, the seventeenth king of Portugal, fled Lisbon and established his court in Rio de Janeiro, where for the next 13 years, he ruled Portugal’s Asian, African, and American colonies. Although Dom João VI (1769-1826) never ruled over an independent Brazil, historians call him the “Founder of the Brazilian Nationality.” One of his major contributions to the growth of Brazil was opening the colony’s ports to free trade with friendly nations, thus signaling a marked change in trade and the resulting improved consequence of Brazil. Additionally, Dom João VI spearheaded the founding of the Academia Naval (Naval Academy), Hospital Militar (Military Hospital), Arquivo Militar (Military Archives), Jardim Botânico (Botanic Garden), Intendência Geral de Polícia (Police Commissariat), Real Biblioteca (Royal Library), the Banco do Brasil (Bank of Brazil), and the gunpowder factory. With the defeat of Napoleon in 1815, he thought it safe to make Brazil another kingdom equal to Portugal. He also decided to remain in Brazil.

The Portuguese government disagreed with both decisions and in 1820 sent troops to assist his relocation to Portugal where the army headed a revolution designed to bring about a constitutional government with Dom João as the constitutional monarch. Dom João returned to Portugal, leaving his 23-year-old son Pedro as prince regent of Brazil. Pedro actively engaged in enlisting support from both able advisors and the people of Brazil.

With revolutions and the desire for independence active in other Latin American countries, Pedro realized Brazil would soon wish for the same. With the support of the Brazilian people and the Brazilian Senate who had bestowed on him the title of Defensor e Protetor Perpétuo do Brasil, Protector and Perpetual Defender of Brazil, he defied an order to return to Portugal. When the Portuguese parliament wished to return Brazil to colonial status, Pedro seized the moment. On September 7, 1822, after receiving orders from the Portuguese parliament limiting his powers in Brazil, Pedro declared Brazil’s independence near the Ipiranga River in São Paulo. Tearing the Portuguese blue and white insignia from his uniform, Pedro drew his sword, and swore: “By my blood, by my honor, and by God: I will make Brazil free.” Their motto, he said, would be Independência ou Morte, Independence or Death! This statement is known as the Grito do Ipiranga.

Pedro de Alcântara Francisco Antônio João Carlos Xavier de Paula Miguel Rafael Joaquim José Gonzaga Pascoal Cipriano Serafim de Bragança e Bourbom, became Dom Pedro I, the first emperor of Brazil and ruled for nine years.

Brazil’s independence was officially Britain and Portugal via the Treaty of Rio de Janeiro on August 29, 1825.

For Further Reading:

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On This Day in History February 7, 1964: the Beatles (John Lennon, Paul McCartney, George Harrison and Ringo Starr) arrived in the United States for the first time on a ten-day tour, giving rise to Beatlemania.

For Further Reading:

On This Day in History October 3, 1904: With a $1.50 to her name, Mary McLeod Bethune (July 10, 1875 – May 18, 1955) opens the doors to the Daytona Literacy and Industrial School for Training Negro Girls in Daytona Beach, Florida. Faced with a lack of funds, substandard facilities and the threat of the Ku Klux Klan, Bethune was able to transform the school that started out in a dilapidated cottage to the institiute of higher learning known as Bethune-Cookman University.

For Further Reading:

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On this day in History August 5, 1962: Norma Jeane Mortenson more famously known as Marilyn Monroe (06/01/1926-08/05/1962) was found dead while in bed at her Los Angeles home. Marilyn was laid to rest in the Corridor of Memories at Westwood Memorial Park in Los Angeles.

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On this day in History December 7, 1941: The Empire of Japan initiates an attack on the United States’ naval base of Pearl Harbor on the Hawaiian island of Oahu. The Japanese Imperial Navy launched planes to cripple the United States Pacific Fleet which was berthed at Pearl Harbor. 

In total 20 American naval vessels were destroyed, including eight battleships, along with close to 200 airplanes. More than 2,000 Americans soldiers and sailors died in the attack, and another 1,000 were wounded. 

This act against the United States would lead to a formal declaration of war against Japan by the United States on December 8, 1941.

For Further Reading:

2

On This Day in History October 2, 1967: In a continuation of my post of August 30th, was sworn in as an associate justice of the United States Supreme Court. Marshall became the 96th Supreme Court Justice and the first African-American to serve on the high court. Marshall would serve on the Supreme Court until he stepped down in October 1991.

For Further Reading:

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On this day in History November 22, 1963: President John F. Kennedy was assassinated while riding in a motorcade in Dallas. Suspected gunman Lee Harvey Oswald was arrested. 

The end of the innocence of the Camelot era came swiftly. This country would never be the same again.

For Further Reading:

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On this day in history July 11, 1804: United States Vice President Aaron Burr kills former Secretary of the Treasury Alexander Hamilton in a duel with pistols. The duel was held in Weehawken, New Jersey, ironically occurring on the same spot where Hamilton’s son had died defending his father’s honor two years before. As his son, Hamilton would die the next day from his injuries.

Burr became one of the most hated men in America. He would later plot to overtake the lands of the Louisiana Purchase and would be arrested for treason in 1807. Burr would be acquitted on a technicality and fled to Europe.

On This Day in History January 19, 1807: Robert Edward Lee (January 19, 1807 - October 12, 1870), the commander-in-chief of the Confederate armies, was born in Stratford, Virginia.

For Further Reading:

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January 4th was also a “popular” day for the passing of Nobel Peace Prize winning authors.

On This Day in History January 4, 1960: Nobel Prize-winning French author Albert Camus died in a car accident at age 46. Camus won the Nobel Peace Prize for Literature in 1957.

On This Day in History January 4, 1965: Poet T.S. Eliot died at age 76. Eliot won the Nobel Peace Prize for Literature in 1948.

For Further Reading:

Albert Camus

T.S. Eliot

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On This Day in History November 7, 1911: Marie Curie becomes the first person to win multiple Nobel Prizes when she was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize for Chemistry. The award was described as such on the Marie Curie page of the Nobel Peace Prize website:

“in recognition of her services to the advancement of chemistry by the discovery of the elements radium and polonium, by the isolation of radium and the study of the nature and compounds of this remarkable element”.

Her award in Chemistry came eight years after being awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in Physics that she earned jointly with her husband Pierre Curie and Henri Becquerel. Marie Curie is the only woman with multiple Nobel Peace Prizes and only person to receive the award in two science categories.

For Further Reading: