Where Lions Once Lived - And Where They Live Today
Note: lions were gone from north of the Mediterranean by about 5000 years ago, save an isolated population in the Balkans which survived until the 100s BCE. Humans were too numerous and too good at killing lions in Europe.
day in 1944, a group of Allied prisoners of war staged a daring escape
attempt from the German prisoner of war camp at Stalag Luft III. This
camp, located in what is now Poland, held captured Allied pilots mostly
from Britain and the United States. In 1943, an Escape Committee under
the leadership of Squadron Leader Roger Bushell of the RAF, supervised
prisoners surreptitiously digging three 30 foot tunnels out of the camp,
which they nicknamed ‘Tom’, ‘Dick’ and ‘Harry’. The tunnels led to
woods beyond the camp and were remarkably sophisticated - lined with
wood, and equipped with rudimentary ventilation and electric lighting.
The successful construction of the tunnels was particularly impressive
as the Stalag Luft III camp was designed to make it extremely difficult
to tunnel out as the barracks were raised and the area had a sandy
subsoil. ‘Tom’ was discovered by the Germans in September 1943, and
‘Dick’ was abandoned to be used as a dirt depository, leaving ‘Harry’ as
the prisoners’ only hope. By the time of the escape, American prisoners
who had assisted in tunneling had been relocated to a different
compound, making the escapeees mostly British and Commonwealth citizens.
200 airmen had planned to make their escape through the ‘Harry’ tunnel,
but on the night of March 24th 1944, only 76 managed to escape the camp
before they were discovered by the guards. However, only three of the
escapees - Norwegians Per Bergsland and Jens Müller and Dutchman Bram
van der Stok -
found their freedom. The remaining 73 were recaptured, and 50 of them,
including Bushell, were executed by the Gestapo on Adolf Hitler’s
orders, while the rest were sent to other camps. While the escape was
generally a failure, it helped boost morale among prisoners of war, and
has become enshrined in popular memory due to its fictionalised depiction
in the 1963 film The Great Escape.
“Three bloody deep, bloody long tunnels will be dug – Tom, Dick, and Harry. One will succeed!” - Roger Bushell
Vikings hoarded precious metals, especially silver, to a great degree; for example, in Viking Scotland alone, there are thirty-one Viking age hoards containing silver - and those are just the ones we know about - while Viking Ireland has nearly double that! Silver necklaces of all sizes were often included in hoards, and functioned as a wearable form of currency.
I once discussed with some rightwinged people about ethnicity. And they said that blacks were a "subhuman" race because they are "obviously" less intelligent than other ethnic groups and that they never invented something or had a culture as Europeans or Persian cultures. But I honestly didn't have a good answer. Do you have some resources on why blacks haven't made such things in comparison to other ethnic groups?
I’m not going to pretend that I’m surprised or shocked to hear this because I, too, live in America, and have encountered this from Conservative Republicans aka Conservative Christians aka Evangelicals aka oblivious racists who claim they aren’t racist because they either have a black friend or have / “know” (talk to, from time to time) some black people in their lives (who have absolutely no idea how racist they are because the don’t actually “know” them, they simply hold basic, watered-down conversations with no substance that allows said white person to be chummy without actually divulging anything about themselves. That being said…
See how the mixing of prehistoric human genes led the way for our species to survive and thrive around the globe. Archaeology, genetics and anthropology cast new light on 200,000 years of history, detailing how early humans became dominant.
Nothing is more fascinating to us than, well, us. Where did we come from? What makes us human? An explosion of recent discoveries sheds light on these questions, and NOVA’s comprehensive, three-part special, “Becoming Human,” examines what the latest scientific research reveals about our hominid relatives—putting together the pieces of our human past and transforming our understanding of our earliest ancestors.
Featuring interviews with world-renowned scientists, each hour unfolds with a CSI-like forensic investigation into the life and death of a specific hominid ancestor. The programs were shot “in the trenches” where discoveries were unearthed throughout Africa and Europe. Dry bones spring back to life with stunning computer-generated animation and prosthetics. Fossils not only give us clues to what early hominids looked like, but, with the aid of ingenious new lab techniques, how they lived and how we became the creative, thinking humans of today.
A five-episode, 300 minute, science documentary film presented by Alice Roberts, based on her related book. The film was first broadcast on BBC television in May and June 2009 in the UK. It explains the evidence for the theory of early human migrations out of Africa and subsequently around the world, supporting the Out of Africa Theory. This theory claims that all modern humans are descended from anatomically modern African Homo sapiens rather than from the more archaic European and Middle Eastern Homo neanderthalensis or the indigenous Chinese Homo pekinensis, and that the modern African Homo sapiens did not interbreed with the other species of genus Homo. Each episode concerns a different continent, and the series features scenes filmed on location in each of the continents featured.
Related review of Alice Roberts’ book by the same name of which this program was adapted, here.
With referenced material from BBC Incredible Human Journey, BBC Ascent of Man, BBC Life of Mammals, BBC Human Planet, BBC Walking With Cavemen, and excerpts from various lectures, ‘Children of Africa’ is a musical celebration of humanity, its origins, and achievements, contrasted with a somber look at our environmentally destructive tendencies and deep similarities with other primates. Featuring Jacob Bronowski, Alice Roberts, Carolyn Porco, Jane Goodall, Robert Sapolsky, Neil deGrasse Tyson and David Attenborough.
Of course, I could go on and on and on referencing various resources to provide people who have unintentionally “inherited” this perspective or who are stuck in a feedback loop within their echo chamber of ignorance, but let’s be honest, the only thing that can actually influence impactful change into a racist person’s mind is the will to self educate, and personal human experience obtained from intimate conversation with diverse ethnicities and cultures. I do hope this helps.
Roman Glass Evil Eye Beads, 1st-3rd Century AD or Earlier
Imagery of the Evil Eye was first recorded by the Mesopotamians approximately 5,000 years ago in cuneiform on clay tablets. Some scholars believe that it may actually have originated as early as the Upper Paleolithic Age. Evil Eye iconography has been found in Jewish, Christian and Muslim cultures as well as Buddhist and Hindu societies; however, each culture ascribes a similar meaning to it. The evil eye is believed to be a curse cast by a malevolent glare that is typically directed at a person who is unsuspecting and unaware. Many cultures believe that the evil eye can bring about misfortune, injury, or bad luck. For this reason, talismans and beads like these traditionally have been created to protect the wearer against the evil eye given their powerful apotropaic properties against the evil eye.