history of the ancient world

Great Wall of China - Jinshanling, China 

The section of the Great Wall at Jinshanling is 10.5km long, and features 5 passes, 67 towers and 3 beacon towers. Parts of the wall in Jinshanling have been restored to its original condition, while other parts have deteriorated to its natural state. 

This part of the great wall is great for hiking, and is less crowded than other sections. The walk from Jinshanling to nearby Simatai takes approximately 4 hours. There is a cable car which takes visitors up to the walls highest point.

History of Eos

Thank you Twilight Mexican for the full fleshed-out version! 

History of Eos

The history of FFXV’s world can be roughly divided into the “ancient calendar” era when the gods were active, and the “modern calendar” era centered around mankind. The story of this work begins shortly before the signing ceremony of a ceasefire agreement is to be carried out in the modern calendar year 756.

Main Events of the Ancient Calendar Era (A.E.)

Ancient Times/Age of Myth

•The ancient civilization Solheim thrives

•Its prosperity as a technological civilization includes airships and Magitek Armor.

•The Six reside in the world

•The gods’ Great War of Old breaks out due to Ifrit’s betrayal

•Solheim is destroyed

•As those chosen by divinity, some humans with unique attributes (special abilities) hold political authority

•Along with political power, the “King” has such powers as being able to summon weapons, and the “Oracle” has powers such as the Covenant and healing.

•In addition, the Oracle possesses the ability to converse with the gods, establishing a dialogue between The Six and mortals.

Approximately 2000 years ago

•A plague spreads due to a parasite; the population drops sharply

•The Crystal and the Ring of the Lucii are brought from the gods, who went to sleep; the King at that time founds the Kingdom of Lucis

•The gods forge the Ring of the Lucii, give it to the King of Lucis along with the Crystal produced by the planet, and command the royal family to protect the Crystal.

•The Kingdom of Lucis constructs 12 humanoid statues

•The 12 statues were made as caskets into which the souls of the dead kings come to reside. Within these caskets, the successive generations of kings continued awaiting the emergence of the “King chosen by the Crystal.” In addition, these statues have the role of protecting the Crown City as the Old Wall (Knights of the Round).

•The plague is suppressed through the efforts of the Lucian king

Approximately 2000 years ago to 755 years ago

•The world stabilizes and several nations are founded

•In successive turn came Tenebrae, governed by the Fleuret Oracle family; the communal alliance of Accordo, with its parliamentary system and commercial prosperity; and the Niflheim Empire, where the Aldercapt family sought to reconstruct the ancient civilization.

Main Events of the Modern Calendar Era (M.E.)

First year of the Modern Era (755 years ago)

•The four nations of Lucis, Tenebrae, Accordo and Niflheim establish a common calendar

M.E. 358 (398 years ago)

•The Niflheim Empire initaties military aggressions

M.E. 359 (397 years ago)

•The Niflheim Empire conquers Tenebrae territory to within sight of Fenestala Manor, wherein reside the Fleuret family

M.E. 501 (255 years ago)

•The imperial army discovers daemons, mysterious creatures they treat as a new lifeform

M.E. 606 (150 years ago)

•The Niflheim Empire commences aggressions against both Lucis and Accordo

•The outcome of this war is that the allied forces of Lucis and Accordo are defeated. Lucis takes the measure of erecting a second Wall around the circumference of its Crown City, Insomnia. In addition, as the existence of the first Wall is generally a secret, the second Wall comes to be referred to simply as the Wall.

M.E. 722 (34 years ago)

•Ardyn Izunia enters the Niflheim Empire. He proposes the development of the Magitek Troopers

M.E. 723 (33 years ago)

•The Niflheim Empire begins mass producing Magitek Troopers

M.E. 725 (31 years ago)

•[2/22-4/1] The Kingdom of Lucis and the Niflheim Empire are at war

•Lucian King Morse (Noctis’s grandfather) – being pushed back and defeated by the imperial army, who introduced the Magitek Troopers to the battlefield – is forced to take action in light of the Empire’s troubling advance. He is able to resume resistance with renewed intensity by scaling back the Wall, which had enclosed the general Cavaugh region outside Insomnia, to just the city’s ramparts. Regis, who was prince at that time, was fighting on the front lines alongside Cid, Clarus, and Weskham, but withdrew because the Lucian army was defeated.

M.E. 729 (27 years ago)

•Morse, Lucis’s 112th king, dies. Regis, the 113th king, is coronated

M.E. 732 (24 years ago)

•Lunafreya is born in Tenebrae

•At the same time, Gentiana begins residing with the Fleuret family.

•Regis marries his childhood friend, Auraia

M.E. 736 (20 years ago)

•[8/30] Noctis is born in the Kingdom of Lucis

M.E. 741 (15 years ago)

•Regis is informed by the previous kings of Noctis’s destiny

•Regis establishes a personal defense squad, the Kingsglaive

M.E. 744 (12 years ago)

•Noctis is attacked by the daemon Marilith and receives a severe injury

•Fenestala Manor is set ablaze in an attack by the Niflheim Empire. The Oracle Sylva dies

•The Niflheim army attacked the palace, targeting Regis, who was staying in Tenebrae for the purpose of Noctis’s recovery. Amidst the tragic unfolding, Lunafreya’s mother, Sylva, lost her life. Moreover, this event was publicly treated as a simple accidental fire.

M.E. 745 (11 years ago)

•Shiva, the Glacian, awakens in the Ghorovas Rift of the Vogliupe region, and attacks imperial territory

•The imperial army fought back and killed Shiva. The imperials lost the majority of their forces, and so began developing Magitek Troopers that would specialize in opposing gods.

M.E. 748 (8 years ago)

•Lunafreya, who was under imperial surveillance, is inaugurated as the youngest Oracle in history (16 years old)

M.E. 755-756 (one year ago to the present)

•The Kingdom of Lucis and the Niflheim Empire agree to a peace treaty signing. Noctis and Lunafreya are announced as engaged

•Shortly before the ceasefire signing, Noctis departs from the Crown City, Insomnia, along with Gladiolus, Ignis and Prompto, and heads for Altissia in preparation for the wedding. Regis’s intention is for this to allow Noctis to escape from the country. Regis, who recognizes that the Empire’s intentions with the treaty are merely ostensible, secretly plans to counter them.

M.E. 756

•[5/16] The Niflheim army attacks Crown City Insomnia on the day of the peace treaty signing ceremony

•Regis entrusts the Ring of the Lucii to Lunafreya, and is then killed by General Glauca.

•[5/17] It is reported that the Crown City, Insomnia, has fallen

•At the same time, the deaths of King Regis, Prince Noctis, and Lady Lunafreya are reported.

Alexander The Great in front of the tomb of Achilles.

This painting in the Louvre Museum is a work of Hubert Robert (1733 -1808) done around 1754.

The subject taken from the Greek rhetorician Claudius Aelianius or Aelian (Varia Historia, XII, 7), writing in the second century CE, and shows the Macedonian king having the tomb of Achilles opened in order to pay a homage to the Greek hero of the Trojan War.

Achilles’ relationship with Patroclus is a key aspect of his myth. Its exact nature has been a subject of dispute in both the classical period and modern times. Thus in 5th-century BCE Athens, the relationship was commonly interpreted as pederastic. Nowadays some see it as a love relationship of an egalitarian homosexual couple. It is the same case as the relationship between Alexander the Great and Hephaestion. The relationship between the Macedonian king and his dearest and closest friend and confidant, lasted their whole lives, and was compared, by others as well as themselves, to that of Achilles and Patroclus. Hephaestion and Alexander grew up in a time and place where homosexual affairs were seen as perfectly normal. Roman and later writers, taking the Athenian pattern as their example, have tended to assume either, that their sexual relationship belonged to their adolescence, after which they left it behind, or that one of them was older, the lover (erastes) and the other was the beloved (eromenos). Claudius Aelianus takes the latter view when he uses just such an expression when describing the visit to Troy: “Alexander laid a garland on Achilles’ tomb and Hephaestion on Patroclus’, indicating that he was Alexander’s eromenos, as Patroclus was of Achilles.” No other circumstance shows better the nature and length of their relationship than Alexander’s overwhelming grief at Hephaestion’s death. The many and varied ways, both spontaneous and planned, by which Alexander poured out his grief are overwhelming. In the context of the nature of their relationship however, one stands out as remarkable. Lucius Flavius Arrianus “Xenophon” (Arrian of Nicomedia, ca. 86 – 160), in his work Ἀλεξάνδρου ἀνάβασις says that Alexander “… flung himself on the body of his friend and lay there nearly all day long in tears, and refused to be parted from him until he was dragged away by force by his Companions.

This painting by Robert (known as Robert des Ruines) is close to Panini, who was his teacher during his long stay of 11 years in Rome, and it is considered to be one of the first productions of the French artist in that city. In the painting by the French vedutista, an architectural fantasy, we see a pyramid similar to that of Caius Cestius in Rome, the ruins of a temple with Ionic columns inspired by the temple of Saturn in the Roman Forum and a round temple, after the Roman temple of Vesta, or the temple of the Sybile in Tivoli. The statue standing at the left-hand side of the canvas is the so-called Antinous of the Belvedere, or Antinous Admirandus, the famous statue in the Pio-Clementino Museum of the Vatican. This statue, correctly identified as a Hermes in the 19th century, was long taken to be a depiction of the beautiful Bythinian lover of Emperor Hadrian, one of the great “eromenos-erastes” relationship of the antiquity.

Bronze gladiator’s helmet. Roman, 1st century. Excavated at Pompeii, said to have been found in the gladiator’s barracks at Pompeii.

Helmet has a grille of linked circles to protect the face, and a broad brim to protect the back and the sides of the head. At the front of the helmet is a medallion of Hercules. Height: 48.26 centimeters.

British Museum.

The World’s First Female Author, Enhedu’anna

This ancient clay tablet from Babylonia is inscribed in Sumerian cuneiform and dates to the 20th-17th centuries BC. It mentions King Sargon’s daughter Enhedu'anna as the author of a hymn to the goddess Inanna. The tablet has lines written first by the teacher in the first column, with 2 students repeating the hymn in columns 2 and 3.

Enhedu’anna was the daughter of King Sargon of Akkad (2334-2279 BC), founder of the first documented empire in Asia. Enhedu’anna emerges as a genuine creative talent, a poetess as well as a princess, a priestess and a prophetess. She is, in fact, the first named, non-legendary author in history. As such she has found her way into contemporary anthologies, especially of women’s literature.

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The Known World: the regions of Westeros

It is best to remember that when we speak of these legendary founders of realms, we speak merely of some early domains—generally centered on a high seat, such as Casterly Rock or Winterfell—that in time incorporated more and more land and power into their grasp. If Garth Greenhand ever ruled what he claimed was the Kingdom of the Reach, it is doubtful its writ was anything more than notional beyond a fortnight’s ride from his halls. But from such petty domains arose the mightier kingdoms that came to dominate Westeros in the millennia to come.

                              - [The World of Ice and Fire] Ancient History: The Age of Heroes

Lakonian Black-Figure Kylix
Artist: Attributed to the Hunt Painter (Greek (Lakonian), active 565 - 530 B.C.)
Greek,Sparta,Lakonia,Greece, about 530 B.C.,Terracotta

A bird sign appeared to them, flying high and holding to the left and carrying in its talons a gigantic snake, blood-colored, alive still, and breathing, it had not forgotten its warcraft yet, for writhing back it struck the eagle that held it by the chest and neck, so that the eagle let it drop groundward in pain of the bite, and dashed it down in the midst of the battle and itself, screaming high, winged away down the wind’s blast. And the Trojans shivered with fear as they looked on the lithe snake lying in their midst, a portent of Zeus.

In the Iliad, the poet Homer described an omen seen by the Trojans as they were attacking the Greek forces. Signifying the eternal conflict of the forces of the earth and the sky, the motif of the battling eagle and snake was used throughout antiquity. On this Lakonian black-figure kylix or cup, the Hunt Painter filled the interior with an eagle flying to the left, gripping the neck of a snake in its beak and clutching the serpent’s long, undulating body in its talons. Stylized leaves and rays between bands decorate the exterior of the cup.

Source: The J. Paul Getty Museum

Marble portrait of Alexander The Great

Youthful image of the conqueror king

Hellenistic Greek, 2nd-1st century BC, Said to be from Alexandria, Egypt

Literary sources tell us, though perhaps not reliably, that Alexander (reigned 336-323 BC) chose only a few artists to produce his image, and famous names such as the sculptor Lysippos and the painter Apelles were associated with his portraiture. Though none of the famous images have been recovered, many sculptures in different materials, as well as portraits on gemstones and coins, survive. These were mostly produced long after Alexander’s death and while the portraits follow similar general characteristics, they also vary in style.

Alexander was always shown clean-shaven, which was an innovation: all previous portraits of Greek statesmen or rulers had beards. This royal fashion lasted for almost five hundred years and almost all of the Hellenistic kings and Roman emperors until Hadrian were portrayed beardless. Alexander was the first king to wear the all-important royal diadem, a band of cloth tied around the hair that was to become the symbol of Hellenistic kingship.

Earlier portraits of Alexander, in heroic style, look more mature than the portraits made after his death, such as this example. These show a more youthful, though perhaps more god-like character. He has longer hair, a more dynamic tilt of the head and an upward gaze, resembling his description in literary sources.

This head was acquired in Alexandria, the city founded by Alexander in 331 BC, and the location of his tomb. Alexandria was also the capital of the longest surviving Hellenistic dynasty, the Ptolemies. From the time of the reign of Ptolemy I Soter (‘Saviour’) (305-282 BC), Alexander was worshipped as a god and the forefather of the dynasty.

Source: British Museum

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The seven wonders of the ancient world by Te Hu
Hanging gardens of Babylon (Iraq)

Great pyramid of Giza (Egypt)
The lighthouse of Alexandria (Egypt)

Colossus of Rhodes (Greece)
Statue of Zeus at Olympia (Greece)

Temple of Artemis at Ephesus (Turkey)
Mausoleum at Halicarnassus (Turkey)

History of Occultism and The One World Movement.

“The communication of this Knowledge and other Secrets, some of which are perhaps Lost, constituted under other names, what we now call Masonry - the present name of the Order and its titles, and the Names of the Degrees now in use were not then known. But, by whatever name it was known in this or other country, Masonry existed as it now exists, the same in Spirit and at Heart, not only when Solomon build the Temple, but Centuries before, before even the first colonies emigrated into Southern India, Persia and Egypt, from the Cradle of the Human Race.”

- “Morals and Dogma of the Ancient and Accepted Sccotish Rite of Freemasonry”, by Albert Pike.