history of communism

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i’ve screencaped these posts and made an original post as to not derail the posts in question or come across as calling out anyone in particular, as that is not at all my intention behind this post, but…

i’ve been seeing these flags (and variations of them) floating around both Tumblr and Twitter for over a year now and every time i do, i can’t help but think to myself…

people who are not American and thus would not be familiar with US history aside, do [young] people these days not recognize the symbol on these flags as being a re-purposed Black Power Fist….? do [young] people not know that this fist has been a common symbol of black power specifically since the Black Panther Party popularized it in the 1960′s…? that something that symbolizes power for black people is not going to be synonymous with symbolizing power for all people of color because not all people of color are black…?

has anyone stopped to consider that not all people of color– be they black or not– will feel comfortable with this symbol being used in this way…? that not all people of color will even feel represented by this symbol because the added brown palette of stripes does not divorce this symbol from its decades of history being used specifically for / by / about black people…?

not here to accuse anyone of anything or argue who can and can’t use this symbol; it is not at all my place to do so. i’m just genuinely confused by what seems to be a common trend these days– things that are specific to American black history and / or the black community in America being used blanketly in reference to people of color in general.

On This Day: July 23
  • 1803: An attempt by the United Irishmen led by Robert Emmet to win Irish independence was suppressed by the British army.
  • 1846: Henry David Thoreau jailed for refusing to pay his $1 poll tax in protest of slavery and US involvement in the Mexican War.
  • 1870: Karl Marx completes what will become known as his “First Address.
  • 1892: Alexander Berkman attempts to assassinate Henry Clay Frick in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.
  • 1905: Leopold Engleitner born in Strobl, Austria. He was a conscientious objector who survived Buchenwald, Niederhagen & Ravensbrück concentration camps.
  • 1913: Northern Michigan copper miners struck for the 8 hour day, higher wages and union recognition.
  • 1923: Revolutionary General Pancho Villa assasinated in Parral, Mexico.
  • 1936: The Unified Socialist Party of Catalonia is founded through the merger of Socialist & Communist parties.
  • 1942: Communist leader & resistance organiser Nikola Vaptsarov executed by fascists Sofia, Bulgaria.
  • 1944: Austrian anarchist and historian Max Nettlau died in Amsterdam of stomach cancer. He wrote biographies of many famous anarchists, including Mikhail Bakunin, Élisée Reclus, and Errico Malatesta. He also wrote a seven volume history of anarchism.
  • 1961: The Sandinista National Liberation Front (FSLN) is founded in Nicaragua.
  • 1967: Detroit Riots: A dispute with police erupts into the worst outbreak of urban lawlessness of the century to date: 43 deaths, 467 injuries, over 7,200 arrests, and the burning of over 2,000 buildings to the ground. Detroit has yet to fully recover.
  • 1970: Amadeo Bordiga dies in Formia, Italy. He was a Marxist who called Stalin “gravedigger of the revolution” and helped found the Communist Party of Italy.
  • 1980: Russian-American anarchist Mollie Steimer dies of heart failure in Cuernavaca.
  • 1988: General Ne Win, military ruler of Burma since 1962, resigns after pro-democracy protests.

Fact: Bisexual women and lesbians used to give each other violets to symbolize their love in the early 20th century, referencing a poem by Sappho. Gay and bisexual men used to wear carnations, a trend started by Oscar Wilde. Gay and bisexual communities have always been intertwined, sharing in each other’s love and struggles and creating history together. 

Imagine living in a city where there are no monuments, no buildings from before 1970, no proof that you had grandparents or parents, no history at all. Wouldn’t that make you feel like you were just a passing fad, that you could be blown away like leaves?… for any community to feel substantial and able to change without losing themselves, a history is absolutely crucial.
—  Emma Donoghue, talking about LGBT history and LGBT historical fiction

I think people really underestimate how huge of an impact the Internet has had on the LGBTQIA+ community as we know it today. This is also why it saddens me that people make the excuse of “x community only formed in the late 90’s/early 2000’s” to exclude certain communities.

The Internet started bringing people together, introduced people living in more rural areas to the larger community, and allowed for more detailed discussions about gender and sexuality between strangers who may never have met each other otherwise. It’s no coincidence that so many new communities and identity labels began to spring up at around the same time. Always remember that community formation did not begin or end with Stonewall.

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04.10.17 // hello!1!! first day back from spring break and it’s been pretty gud tbh. these are some pictures of a mind map i did for history and to help prep for a test :))

The Singing Revolution

From 1987 to 1991, the people of Estonia fought for their freedom. By singing. Yes, you read that right: crowds of people, hundreds of thousands large, would gather and sing patriotic songs to show their desire for independence. Even the Soviets couldn’t figure out how to arrest them for just…singing. It started spontaneously. Five patriotic Estonian songs were played during the Tartu Pop Music Festival in May 1988, and people linked their hands and started singing along.  In June another music festival decided to play patriotic songs after the official part of the festival. And a movement slowly began to gain momentum.

Unarmed people facing down tanks; people singing forbidden songs under the eyes of Soviet authorities; incredibly clever parliamentary and street theater maneuvers that vexed Moscow at every turn. By the way, one of those parliamentary maneuvers included working within the Soviet system to officially make the hammer and sickle an illegal symbol in Estonia, implemented while still occupied by the Soviet Union! In 1991, Estonia’s legislatures declared a legally an independent country and a last-ditch coup attempt by Soviet hardliners was stopped. The singers had freed themselves.

Daily reminder that the United States is prosperous and existing as it is today only because of the exploitation, destruction, and theft of resources, governments, and people from Central American, Carribbean American, South American, Indigenous North American, African, Southwest, Southeast, and Eastern Asian countries, nations, confederations, and tribes all throughout North American history to today.

America only became great from the destruction, enslavement, and manipulation of others.

And no matter who’s in charge of the nation, this trend will always continue.

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“NIKOLA TESLA FOR THE FIRST TIME DESCRIBES HIS NEW SYSTEM FOR SUPPLYING WIRELESS POWER TO RUN ALL THE EARTH’S INDUSTRIES.”

By a series of discoveries and inventions just perfected, Nikola Tesla, the electrical scientist, has upset what has hitherto been regarded as one of the fixed laws of nature. “Every effect diminishes with distance,” is the way the textbooks have expressed it. Tesla now says that instead of decreasing like other forces, electricity may be made to increase in intensity with the distance traveled.

The full significance of this discovery may not be at once apparent. It is obvious, however, that it annihilates space. There can be no limit to the power of the electric wave which increases in intensity the further it travels.

For nearly 20 years Tesla has been working on his plan, he calls it his wireless “World System.” If it is put into successful execution it will convert the earth into a gigantic conduit, which will pass power for all earthly activities, and make possible communication with other planets.

From time to time Tesla has made partial announcements as his work progressed. This, however, is the first comprehensive account of his system as a whole that the inventor has consented to give to the world.

“Through ages past man has anyways attempted to project in some way or other energy into space. In all his attempts, no matter what agent he employed, he was hampered by the inexorable law of nature which says every effect diminishes with distance, generally as the square of the same, sometimes more rapidly.

“I saw at once that space was annihilated in all the three aspects; in the transport of our bodies and materials and in the earth, transmission of the energies necessary for our existence. You can imagine how profoundly I was affected by this revelation. Technically, it meant that the earth, as a whole, had certain periods of vibrations, and that by by impressing electrical vibrations of the same periods upon it, it could be thrown into oscillations of such nature that innumerable benefits could be derived.

“It is difficult to convey an idea of these inventions without resorting to technical terms. The first and best known of these is my transformer, which enables the production of electrical vibrations of transcending intensities. I have already attained activities of many millions of horse power; but this is nothing compared to those which I am expecting to get with my improved apparatus.

“The second is what I have termed my magnifying transmitter, which I look upon as my best electrical invention, and with which any distance can be bridged. I have already passed of this wonderful instrument and am confident that a message can be flashed to such a distance as the planet Mars.

“Some technical men would be disposed to look upon such statements as those of a dreamer, but it is only because they have not had opportunities to see experiments which I have actually performed. The third invention I have designated as the “Art of individualization,” which enables the transmission of an unlimited number of messages through a wire or wireless, without the slightest interference. Not before this improvement is universally adopted will the world fully realise the benefits of telegraphy and telephony. The fourth invention is my receiver, which concentrates the energy transmitted over a wide area into the operating device.”

What would the voltage in your transmitter be?

“In the transmission of telegraphic and telephonic messages I shall employ from five to ten million volts, but in transmitting power in great quantities, as much as one hundred million volts will be used.“

How will your “World System” compare with those now in use as regards to cost?

“We could easily afford to offer a transmission of telegraphic and telephonic messages to any terrestrial distance for five cents a word. In a short while no one will think it anything out of the way to dictate or to write a long letter across the Pacific.”

How long does it take for the transmission of a message, by your system, around the world?

“The exact time is, according to my measurements, 43-1000 of a second, which is a speed about 50 per cent greater than that of light.

“The impulse starts from my magnifying transmitter with infinite speed, slows first rapidly and then at a lesser rate until, when it has penetrated to a distance of 6000 miles from the transmitter, it proceeds with approximately the speed of light. From there on it accelerates, first slowly and then more rapidly, and reaches the opposite point of the globe again with infinite speed only to rebound and pass through the same phases on its way back to the transmitter.

“This movement of electricity through the Earth, which takes place strictly in accordance with a mathematical law, and enables a great number of accurate measurements and determinations to be made, which are of immense practical and scientific value.”

Is your universal marine service based upon this principle?

“Largely so. In setting up and maintaining stationary waves in the earth its entire surface is subdivided in perfectly definite zones of electric activity, so that any observer of all those data which are of importance to navigators as the latitude and longitude, the position with reference to a given point, the speed of travel, and the course followed. This method is quite exact and reliable, and once introduced will be instrumental in a great saving of time, life and property.”

When your system of time distribution is introduced what kind of devices will be used for indicating the hour?

“They will be ever so much simpler than the ordinary clocks or watches, being entirely devoid of wheel work. For personal use a small case will be provided resembling that of a watch which would indicate precisely the time and require no more attention than a compass for instance. The large clocks on towers and public edifices in general will be replaced by extremely simple devices operated on the same principle.

“All these will be ‘tuned’ to a wireless wave sent out at a certain time. This will automatically set the hands of every ‘tuned’ time piece.”

In operating stock tickers, will the present instruments have to be replaced by others?

“Not at all, they will remain intact. A great financier told me that this should be one of the most valuable and practical applications of my system, inasmuch as the instantaneous operation of such instruments all the world over will go far toward allaying panics and failures which are at present mostly due to the inadequacy and stagnation of channels of information.”

“A business man will be able to dictate in his office a letter which will appear in type at any other place he wishes without loss of time in the transmission. It will be exactly as though he had his stenographer close by. In the same manner it will be practicable to send a handwritten letter or even a check, and what is more important, it will not be possible to falsify the signature.”

Will the transmission of complex musical productions require complicated apparatuses?

Not at all. The apparatus at any of the master plants, transmitting a great number of musical compositions, will be of necessity complicated, but the subscriber will need only a telephone receiver, and, if he desires exclusiveness, and individualizing device in connection, which, however, will be rarely required. He will be none the less able to listen to the most complex opera played in some remote party of the world. What is more, he can carry the entire outfit with him on his walks and travels, and whenever he desires to listen to the music he can do so.

The wireless system which I have developed does not contemplate competition with established lighting systems in densely populated districts, but it offers an ideal solution for the illumination of isolated places. The light will be furnished by exhausted glass tubes, bent in all sorts of ornamental shapes, and is of surpassing beauty, resembling closely the daylight. The lamps will last forever. The entire apparatus for lighting the average country dwelling will contain no moving part whatever, and could be readily carried about in a small valise. It will be quite immaterial in which region of the earth the house to be lighted is located. Distance will not affect the charge.“

How far from the Earth’s surface can power be transmitted by this wireless system?

“To any distance; in fact, the greater the elevation above the ground that easier it is to supply the power to the vehicle, such as an airship crossing the ocean.”

What do you consider the most important application of your system?

The transmission of power, of course. The operation of aerial machines alone will be of a revolutionizing influence, in as much as it will afford a perfect solution of this important problem. Another great field will be the irrigation and fertilization of the soil by wireless power. The time is not distance when a farmer will have installed on his place an apparatus for continuously manufacturing, from the gases of the atmosphere, nitric compounds which will be used to fertilize, while a motor will pump the water and perform other duties; all the energy being supplied from a plant perhaps thousands of miles away. This system can be extended so as to make productive vast tracts of now barren lands located in various countries. I believe that the export of wireless power will be one of the chief resources of the United States and other fortunately situated countries in times to come.“

By Marcel Roland. New York American, September 3, 1911.