Pokémon Sun and Pokémon Moon are already
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part of history. There’s even a free Special Demo Version
in the Nintendo 3DS eShop for you to try first.
Happy birthday to President Theodore Roosevelt! As President, Roosevelt established 150 national forests, 51 federal bird reserves, four national game preserves, five national parks and 18 national monuments on over 230 million acres of public land. His words and actions were a massive contribution to the conservation movement and solidified his legacy as a champion of public lands.
Photo of Theodore Roosevelt at Yellowstone National Park courtesy of the Library of Congress.
Photo of Theodore Roosevelt National Park by Gary Anderson, National Park Service. Photo of President Roosevelt and John Muir at Yosemite National Park from Yosemite National Park’s archives.
The first in a series of 85 essays by “Publius,” the combined pen name of Alexander Hamilton, James Madison and John Jay, appeared in the Independent Journal, a New York newspaper, on this day in 1787. Publius’ essays urged New Yorkers to support ratification of the U.S. Constitution, which had been approved by the Constitutional Convention in Philadelphia on Sept. 17.
Hamilton, who led off the series, wrote: “After an unequivocal experience of the inefficiency of the subsisting federal government, you are called upon to deliberate on a new Constitution for the United States of America. The subject speaks its own importance; comprehending in its consequences nothing less than the existence of the Union, the safety and welfare of the parts of which it is composed, the fate of an empire in many respects the most interesting in the world.”
The advocates of the newly drafted Constitution held that a central government was essential to ensure the commercial and geographic expansion of the fledgling nation. Only a strong, adequately funded national government, they argued, could effectively negotiate with foreign countries, ensure free and open trade among the states while provide for a stable currency.
The essays addressed widespread concerns that a national government would soon fuel an era of despotism. In responding to such fears, the essays argue that the Constitution, by distributing power broadly across three branches of government, underwrites the needed checks and balances to skirt such dangers.
The essays, although written primarily to muster support within a skeptical New York constituency, were picked up and reprinted by newspapers around the country. A bound edition of the essays, first published in 1788, played a key role in the campaign to win over New York and Virginia. In theory, the Constitution could have been ratified without the approval of those two populous states. In practice, however, the Founding Fathers knew that their approval would be crucial to the success of the new government.
During the Normandy Allied Invasion, a Scottish Piper played his bagpipes walking upright while the carnage erupted. He later asked captured German prisoners why they hadn’t shot him. They said they thought he was crazy.
The oldest writings in the Sanskrit language are the Vedas. They include hymns, prose essays, sacred philosophical works composed as dialogues between a teacher and student, and two epic poems, the Mahabharata and the Ramayana. Together, the Vedas form the theological core and spiritual heart of today’s Hindu religion. The Vedas were thought to be written down over a thousand years, starting around 1,400 BCE. They likely existed as oral traditions for centuries or millennia earlier. Based on the language in the written versions, historians speculate that the Vedas were first told, in some form, around 4,000 BCE. Hindu tradition says the Vedas were composed in 3,500 BCE when Krishna, an earthly incarnation of the Hindu god Vishnu, was living. That is not too far off from the historians’ guesses.