Study time. I was so lucky to find recently a beautiful facsimile of Juan de Yciar’s wonderful copybook from the 16th century. He was especially known for his big Rotunda exemplars (written with a metal nib), and his luscious border and initial designs. Also his Cancellaresca features quite interesting flourishing forms, I think! :: Wunderschönes Faksimile der “Arte Subtilissima” des Spanischen Kalligrafen Jusn de Yciar!
#calligraphy #kalligrafie #kalligraphie #historical #historisch #faksimile #woodcut #holzschnitt #flourishforum #federflugcalligraphy
Uniform of King Frederick the Great of Prussia from the 1st Battallion Guard with the Order of the Black Eagle from the 18th Century on display at the Deutsches Historisches Museum in Berlin
Frederick’s reign is remembered for it’s militarism which would go on to inspire unsavory historical figures such as the despot Adolf Hitler and many neo-Nazis. But he was a figure of the Enlightenment and liked to fill his court with free thinkers such as Voltaire and, quite controversially for the time, Atheists.
He was an open homosexual as well. After one particular defeat on the battlefield he wrote “Fortune has it in for me; she is a woman, and I am not that way inclined.”
Many cultures have had some form of a gun-blade combination due to the fact that they are extremely versatile out on the battlefield. The most famous form would be the bayonet that was used during the Crimean War and the American Civil War. The Germans were also known for their axe guns and a lot of these are preserved in the Historisches Museum in Dresden, as seen above.
Seal Rocks from Under the Cliffs, San Francisco, California Raymond Dabb Yelland - 1876 Deutsches Historisches Museum - Berlin (Germany) Painting - oil on canvas Height: 71.12 cm (28 in.), Width: 123.51 cm (48.62 in.)
Today I spent the entire day going through medieval garbage. That is to say, I went though boxes filled with remains of medieval and early-modern books, which were stored in the archives of Maastricht, in the south of Holland. The snippets and sheets were thrown out centuries ago, but were subsequently fished out of the bin because a new purpose was found for them: recycling. Many ended up in the dark inside of bookbindings, where they supported boards and backs. Not the example above, however, which was used for a more artistic purpose, likely in the late 16th century: the large blank space was perfect for doodling a castle on - and two of its inhabitants. A draft, no doubt, a practice run before the real deal was undertaken. Someone liked it enough, however, to hang on to, although the sheet ultimately shared the fate of his peers - the bin. It may have been recycled again, ultimately ending up filed in a box, and then, today, in my hands. I just love this well-traveled garbage castle.
Pic (my own): Maastricht, Regionaal Historisch Centrum Limburg, 18.A Nr. 208.
Uniform of the Prussian Infantry Regiment Graf
Dönhoff (7th East Prussian) No. 44 and Shako for a non-commissioned Officer of Austrian Infantry from the
Battle of Königgrätz in 1866 on display at the Deutsches Historisches Museum in Berlin
‘... the symbols of the Goddess Eostre were bunnies and eggs!’
NO. NO THEY WERE NOT. LET ME EXPLAIN WHY THEY WERE NOT.
Point one: our only source for Eostre mentions no symbols. Eostre is attested in one, and only one, source: De Temporum Ratione by the Venerable Bede. He does not mention any ‘symbols’ of Eostre. He says only this:
Eosturmonath has a name which is now translated “Paschal month”, and which was once called after a goddess of theirs named Eostre, in whose
honour feasts were celebrated in that month. Now they designate that
Paschal season by her name, calling the joys of the new rite by the
time-honoured name of the old observance.
No bunnies. No eggs. As the Oxford Dictionary of English Folklore states: ‘Nowadays, many writers claim that hares were sacred to the Anglo-Saxon goddess Eostre,
but there is no shred of evidence for this; Bede, the only writer to
mention Eostre, does not link her with any animal.’
Point two: we can pinpoint exactly where and how the ‘bunnies’ association arose, and it was pure speculation.
The folklorist and linguist Jacob Grimm, writing in Deutsche Mythologie (1874) speculated that a Germanic version of Bede’s Eostre might have existed, and called her Ostara.
Grimm attempted to make sense of the ‘Easter Hare’ tradition, i.e. the hare that left the Easter Eggs for children to find. He couldn’t explain it, so he had a wild guess: ‘The Easter Hare is unintelligible to me, but probably the hare was the sacred animal of Ostara.‘
Point three: we can clearly trace how Grimm’s speculation was picked up by later authors and mistaken for a statement of fact.
725 CE: Bede mentions Eostre. He does not associate her with hares. 1874 CE: Grimm, in Deustche Mythologie, postulates Ostara and states 'probably the hare was the sacred animal of Ostara’. 1883 CE: K.A. Oberle in Überreste germanischen Heidentums im Christentum, oder die Wochentage, Monate und christlichen Feste etymologisch, mythologisch,
symbolisch und historisch erklärt also states 'probably the hare was the sacred animal of Ostara’ echoing Grimm. 1890 CE: Charles Isaac Elton in Origins of English History states that Easter customs at 'Hare-pie Bank’
at 'Harecrop Leys’ 'were probably connected with the worship of the
Anglian goddess Eostre’ 1892 CE: Charles J Billson in Folk-Lore refers to Oberle’s association of the hare with Ostara as a conclusion, rather than as a speculation 1944 CE: John Lanyard in Lady of the Hare states that 'the Saxon Easter Goddess does seem to have been connected with the hare’. 1976
CE: Christina Hole in Easter and its Customs states that 'The hare was the sacred beast of Eastre
(or Eostre) a Saxon goddess of Spring and of the dawn.’
Please bear in mind that no new evidence arose during this time to change the speculative association into a definite one. The shift from 'probably the hare was the sacred animal of Ostara’ to 'the hare was the sacred beast of Eastre’ wasn’t based on any archaeological
discoveries, collected oral traditions or unearthed documents. It
appears to have been based completely upon authors borrowing from other
authors, and in so doing, shifting the goalposts of certainty until one
person’s speculation had become another’s unchallenged fact.
Point four: the popular story in which Eostre turns a bird into a rabbit can be traced to a New Age book from 1990, Mrs Sharp’s Traditions by Sarah Ben Breathnach, and no further.
It’s not an ancient pagan legend. It’s a modern New Age legend.
Point five: people only began adding ‘eggs’ as puported symbols of Eostre at the end of the last century.
The unsubstantiated conceit that Eostre had a hare companion had become common belief by the 1990s, when the BBC documentary Shadow of the Hare commented upon it and featured a song by Maddy Pryor in which the hare claims ‘I’m Eostre’s token’.
But eggs are an even more recent addition to the mix and seem to have come about purely as a result of Internet-based myth circulation. The intent is clearly to lay retroactive claim to popular, well-known Easter traditions in the name of paganism.
There is simply no evidence for these claims; furthermore, we can confidently point out how and when the claims arose in the absence of evidence.
Modern paganism does not need to be buttressed by this kind of bullshit.
Die Weinbergschnecke kommt in lichten Wäldern, Gebüschen und offenen Lebensräumen vor allem auf kalkreichen, nicht zu trockenen Böden vor, teils auch kulturfolgend in nicht zu intensiv genutztem Kulturland. Sie ist sehr wärmeliebend und standorttreu. Im Gegensatz zu anderen Schneckenarten ist sie fähig, sich verschiedenen Lebensbedingungen anzupassen. Weinbergschnecken sind im Westen bis nach Mittelfrankreich und Südengland, im Norden bis nach Südschweden und -norwegen, im Osten bis nach Estland, Weißrussland und die westliche Ukraine sowie im Süden bis Norditalien, auf der Balkanhalbinsel bis nach Mazedonien verbreitet, wobei die Verbreitung der Art in (früh)historischer Zeit durch den Menschen gefördert wurde (vgl. die englische Bezeichnung “Roman snail”).Sie ist damit die in Europa am weitesten verbreitete Art der Gattung Helix - neben der kleineren, im Mittelmeerraum sowie in Westeuropa vorkommenden Gefleckten Weinbergschnecke (Helix aspersa oder auch Cornu aspersum), deren Gattungszugehörigkeit jedoch strittig ist.
In freier Natur kann sie ein Alter von acht Jahren erreichen, bei Gehegeschnecken ist bei guter Pflege eine Lebenserwartung von 20 Jahren nicht selten.
Helix pomatia, common names the Burgundy snail, Roman snail, edible snail or escargot, is a species of large, edible, air-breathing land snail, a terrestrial pulmonate gastropod mollusk in the family Helicidae. It is a European species. In the English language it is called by the French name escargot when used in cooking (escargot literally means ‘snail’). Although this species is highly prized as a food it is difficult to cultivate and rarely farmed commercially.