historics 2013

The Country Music Hall of Fame and Museum unveiled its new exhibit dedicated to Jason Aldean … Items highlighting Aldean’s rise include CMA and ACM award envelopes, a set list from Aldean’s historic 2013 concert at the University of Georgia stadium, and a handwritten note from Kelly Clarkson thanking him for “thinking of me” for the award-winning ‘Don’t You Wanna Stay’ duet

Zero Dark Thirty (2013)

‘Zero Dark Thirty’ was one of those films that I was really only familiar with because of how controversial it apparently is; I’ve heard and read literally everything about the film, ranging from ‘Zero Dark Thirty’ is absolutely emotionless, ‘Zero Dark Thirty’ has no conscience and ‘Zero Dark Thirty’ delves into senseless violence.

It’s so much truly conflicting information that in the end, you’ve just got to see it and draw your own conclusions. One of the reasons that I’ve been wanting to watch it is Jessica Chastain. I’ve been watching more films with her lately and Maya in ‘Zero Dark Thirty’ is supposed to be one of her best roles up to date, if not the best.

Now after having seen the film, I quite frankly didn’t know what to think for a few days, ‘Zero Dark Thirty’ is as many have said clinical, cold and distant and it never takes a clear side. But it’s not emotionless. 

When the film’s main enemy dies, there is no sense of joy and release. the question that came into my head was: and now what? You could have made an entire film about the traumas and the psychological damage war leaves on people.

And the film does this to some degree, which makes it more than a chirurgical reconstruction of a chain of events. But it couldn’t focus solely on that. The children at the end of the film, deserve a film entirely of their own, there are very few scenes that have chilled me and at the same time moved me more.

In the final raid on Bin Laden’s hiding place *not really a spoiler* the children have basically just watched their entire family be murdered, of course, they’re upset… One child, in particular, won’t stop crying, one of the soldiers says “shut that kid up.”

But you do get to see some kind of humanity, the soldiers realize the children are innocent and really have nothing to do with it all, and they calm them down, by talking softly to hem or playing around with them for a bit. And I wish there were more moments like these in the film…

Lots of things can be said about ‘Zero Dark Thirty’ but not that it’s forgettable, the film leaves a strong impression, I’ve been thinking about it, ever since I saw it. One question I’ve pondered over is did I like what I saw?

The answer to that I’m still not quite sure off, I liked what I saw on a technical level, ‘Zero Dark Thirty’ has been executed impeccably, gorgeous cinematography and confident direction (the final raid, is probably one of the best scenes Bigelow has ever directed) and an entrancing performance by Jessica Chastain, she’s magnetic to watch here, you impossibly could keep your eyes off her.

But did I like what I saw content wise? Not really.  As I said the film really gave me no big sense of release at the end, after Zero Dark Thirty, military jargon for the time of Bin Laden’s death.

No matter how you interpret it, ‘Zero Dark Thirty’ can become anything but emotionless in my eyes; as even, the seemingly most hard, insensitive people in it have flashes of humanity.

You could term the film cowardly for staying away from a clear political standpoint, according to some even as military propaganda. I guess it truly depends on how you wish to interpret it.

But the fact is that I found that the film gave us no overly macho CIA agents, ready to sling their guns at any moment, in fact, you don’t get to see all that many guns in the film…

The film punches hard without much need for big effects and fancy toys, to amuse the audience. There are those famed torture scenes at the beginning, granted very unpleasant but I lived through them.

So controversial because it brought up questions of whether the makers of the film and the CIA really stood by torture as an effective method, but let’s not get political, each can think of that what they wish when they watch the film. 

Perhaps the only thing I found distasteful is how it opens with audio footage from 9/11, you hear the harrowing words a woman says to a woman: “you’re doing fine, they’re coming to get you.” Followed by that same woman whispering “my god…”

It’s chilling to hear, as it kind of feels like you’re listening to some kind of ghost recording, it’s just really creepy… it’s got to do something to you unless your heart is carved out of stone.

The film very adeptly gathers sympathy here, but then it immediately goes to a rough interrogation, well torture would be the term you’re looking for… Waterboarding, heavy metal, sleep deprivation, naturally, all those lovely things are here.

But it actually later shows it’s inefficiency and that humane treatment in war establishes a much better way to obtain info. 

The man they torture for information at the beginning of the film is so worn out and so mentally shaken up, that even the threat “you lie, I hurt you” doesn’t make a difference, he can’t  possibly utter anything that even makes sense anymore. It’s only when they treat him humanely, when they talk to him as a person, that he opens up and tells them exactly what they want to hear. 

It wasn’t filmed in an explicit way (I’ve seen much worse) but I felt bad and uneasy, many people saw this as straight up propaganda for torturing, I found it rather raises the morally uncomfortable question of “does one evil justify another?” I found that the CIA agent in question took a little too much pleasure in it, and my conclusion of that character was “he’s a fucking sadist!”

But we later see that same man wants to get out of there because he can’t mentally take much more of the same. In Maya the female CIA agent played by Chastain who it’s all about, we also see an interesting evolution.

At the beginning of the film, she’s cowering in a corner, as a colleague performs the waterboarding technique. And she’s informed there’s no shame in watching from a monitor.

A smart moral wink; watching violence and making decisions of life and death is much easier from a screen, and the line of moral consciousness becomes somewhat thinner. Watching from a monitor would bring a distance and would make Maya feel like she’s not as directly involved. But she declines and holds out.

As she becomes more consumed in her mission of capturing and killing Bin Laden, so consumed that she doesn’t even give herself proper time to grief at the loss of her only friend; she merely briefly breaks down in her office.

She becomes more and more ruthless, perhaps as bad as the bad guy. She threatens her colleagues and doesn’t step out of the way of some, how do they so elegantly put it? “enhanced interrogation techniques”, that I think Freddy Krueger or Patrick Bateman would approve of.

But anyways that’s not the point here, the point is that it has transformed her, her obsession has climbed into her mind and her heart.

What it then illustrates is that war always leaves an impression on those involved; it damages and breaks a person sometimes irreparably, it’s capable of completely transforming a person’s character.

Maya has committed acts all in the name of the greater good and her country, that would break anyone and they do. In the final shot after she has tracked down Bin Laden and had him ordered killed she has finally achieved her big goal: the man, she hunted after so relentlessly that it consumed and tortured her mentally and physically is dead.

She gets on the military plane as the only passenger, the pilot asks her: “where do you want to go” in a few last heartbreaking moments, it’s both a plain and terrible question, she never answers because she doesn’t know or doesn’t like the answer to that question…

She finally reached her breaking point. And overwhelmed by stifling sorrow can only silently, uncontrollably sob… the pain, guilt and probably moral doubt are overwhelming.

It made me think of a Tolkien quote: “How do you go on when in your heart you begin to understand… there is no going back? There are some things that time cannot mend. Some hurts that go too deep.” No matter that the consequences of what happened are ultimately good,  it has destroyed Maya as a person possibly forever, she’ll always be haunted and won’t ever fully recover, and her home no longer feels familiar; and she much less feels like a war hero.

It’s a primary example of Shell Shock: (Shellshock (also called bullet wind, soldier’s heart, battle fatigue, and operational exhaustion) is a phrase coined in World War I to describe the type of PTSD many soldiers were afflicted with during the war (before PTSD itself was a term).  It is a reaction to the intensity of the bombardment and fighting that produced a helplessness appearing variously as panic and being scared, or flight, an inability to reason, sleep, walk or talk.)

‘Zero Dark Thirty’ also brilliantly explores how digital warfare allows for more distance as I mentioned earlier; Maya watches and orchestrates everything from behind a screen, she’s the master brain behind many of the soldier’s ultimate actions, she takes decisions of life and death on a whim of a second, at the push of a button and seems to feel absolutely nothing, a blank expression sits on her face…

It allows for a greater moral flexibility, it’s almost exactly like watching someone play or playing video games, only guess what? every single character is a real one, you kill actual people.

And the point that I found that ‘Zero Dark Thirty’ makes is that even if those people are “evil” and deserve to die, you are perhaps scooping to the same level at certain points, thus what it shows is that there is no black and white and ambiguity in war, it brings out the worst in people, blackens their hearts destroys them and haunts forevermore.

In the case of ‘Zero Dark Thirty,’ it breaks it’s heroine, even in her apparent victory there is no absolution, no rest. There is only a broken spirit and heart.

Maya is one person and she’s fictional but there’s been much more Maya’s throughout history, what it reflects is that there is a lot of hurts even in victory, that there are wounds left that shall not ever be healed.

According to some ‘Zero Dark Thirty’ glorifies the military, but unlike so many military films, it doesn’t show off military complexes and cool gadgets, it’s much more emotional than those as it showed how it destroyed one woman, it doesn’t make war into something beautiful or poetic.

It ultimately shows the senselessness of it all, after Bin Laden’s death, many people were joyous and celebrated. But in the film, while others are joyous Maya is left all alone and no one is by her side, she is not once asked if she wants to talk, because it’s assumed she can cope and is expected to as well.

While I find it an excellent film, ‘Zero Dark Thirty’ was not a pleasant watch for me, I felt as I said no sort of release at all, at its finale it simply showed how war can at times either take away or invoke humanity, depending on the circumstances.

But as it illustrates here the price some people pay is simply too great and no one ought to pay that price. ‘Zero Dark Thirty’ offers no further deep digs, the rest is a simple reconstruction of events.

It in my opinion neither defends, promotes or critiques war and that’s what was for some probably so frustrating and infuriating, there’s no big “look how great we did”, or “how awesome I am moment”, there is only an emptiness inside of a fleeting victory. 

The moment when the three bullets are chased through Bin Laden’s body - the three bullets engraved by immeasurable loss and sorrow, the excuse for an invasion war and billions of military charges - passes emotionlessly and almost unnoticeably. 

When a war ends and the world cheers and rejoices in the death of an enemy, Maya remains broken.

As we all know humans have a tendency to continue to wage war thus the same process is repeated and repeated and the same wounds inflicted time and time again and again! To quote Anne Frank: 

“Don’t believe the war is simply the work of politicians and capitalists. Oh no, the common man is every bit as guilty; otherwise, people and nations would have re- belled long ago! There’s a destructive urge in people, the urge to rage, murder and kill. And until all of humanity, without exception, undergoes a metamorphosis, wars will continue to be waged, and everything that has been carefully built up, cultivated and grown will be cut down and destroyed, only to start all over again!”

That heartbreaking knowledge is condensed in that one suffocatingly sad final shot, it gave me quite literally goosebumps, so emotionless ‘Zero Dark Thirty’?, I don’t think so…

I think brave, it dares to stare the war on terrorism, the horrors and the effects of war on people (even if it’s largely digital) and the fact that it can transform us,  straight in the face. The fact that it makes you uncomfortable, as it enters territory that’s morally confronting and can make one shift in their seat, I think is only proof of the fact that it’s a good film. ‘Zero Dark Thirty’ is a beautiful film (an aesthetic stunner, the lighting, and colours my god!) about an ugly, painful truth. 

There were characters I at times loathed and found disgusting even it’s protagonist at times, later I was filled with compassion and sadness for her. She’s one of the most complex film heroines (not even a heroine, she’s good, she’s bad, she’s hard, she’s compassionate and warm, she’s emotional, distant and closed off, weak and strong all at once, she’s simply a woman) I’ve ever encountered. I both hated and loved the film, it gave me an even bigger repulsion of war than I already had, not too many films have done that, so I’m impressed, to say the least.

C.I.A. Director: Who are you?
Maya: I’m the motherfucker that found this place. Sir.

“But in the end, everybody breaks.”

The White Queen (2013 miniseries), Episode 2 “The Price of Power”

There’s a seat here, Anne. If you’d like it.

23 of My Favorite Korean Movie Recommendations

This is Esther, also known as areumdw, at your service!! Although it took quite a while, my movie recommendation list is here~ I TRIED to pick movies that are less well known, and I also TRIED to mix up the genres and release years a bit. I know I’m lacking in some areas, but please take a look and choose a movie to indulge in! I promise they are all worth watching! If you have any questions feel free to message me, and I would ABSOLUTELY LOVE IT if you could send me a message after watching a movie I’ve recommended. Well then, have fun~~

1. 과속 스캔들 (Speedy Scandal) 2009 : Comedy, Family

This movie is one of my favorite movies, as it is my go to comedy! The storyline of a top star having a hidden child keeps you on the edge with thrill, yet the love within the family warms your heart like no other~ (the interactions between Cha Tae Hyun and Wang Suk Hyun are just hilarious)

2. 광해: 왕이된 남자 (Masquerade) 2012 : Historical, Drama

I remember when this movie was on it’s way out, I just couldn’t wait. The storyline isn’t something new (a commoner taking the place of/impersonating a person of the higher social level), but the Lee Byung Hun’s flawless acting of two different personalities just won me over. It was really hard to believe that the two different characters were played by the same man.

3. 변호인 (The Attorney) 2013 : Drama, Law

Okay, I’ll be honest, I had no interest in this movie, and only wanted to watch it, because Siwan was in it, but guess what? I freaking loved it. He actually isn’t the main character, but all of the actors’ acting in this movie was on point (as were the tears). It really just takes your breath away and leaves a hole in your heart. **This movie may make you sad and angry

4. 국가대표 (Take Off) 2009 : Sports, Drama

Ah yes…this movie… This was one of the first movies I watched in a Korean theater, and I walked out with a warmed heart. The story follows a man and his national ski-jump team on self improvement, trial and error, and success, but trust me — this movie is quite heart warming (I still get the flutters in my heart when I listen to the OST). The actors were very on point here. 

5. 써니 (Sunny) 2011 : Comedy, Drama

I first watched this, because my aunt was raving about it, but soon, it was me who was raving. The storyline was originally meant to target people in their middle ages, but the actors and comical storyline soon filled the hearts of many generations~

6. 포화속으로 (71: Into the Fire) 2010 : War, Action

Yes, TOP is like one of the main characters, but that is not why this movie is on this list (mostly). Remember when everyone was crying over “Taegukgi”? Well I was crying over this one. If “Taegukgi” was about brotherly love, this was more about friendship and youth. **This movie may make you sad

7. 월컴 투 동막골 (Welcome To Dongmakgol) 2005 : Drama, Comedy

The story centers around soldiers from both South and North Korea living amongst common villagers during a war, yet the comical relief is added with one of the villagers being an insane girl (Yes, Haru’s mom!). I watched this movie when I was pretty young, but I still remember it being lots of fun~ **This movie may make you sad

8. 관상 (The Face Reader) 2013 : Historical, Drama

Did I say Lee Jong Suk? Well yes, he’s a character in this movie, but what you should really be interested in is Son Kang Ho (also the main character in “The Attorney”). All the actors in this movie are a class A, and they do a wonderful job of portraying a story of what happens when you try to mess with destiny. (Did I mention that the antagonist here is freaking scary?…Maybe it was just me..) **This movie may make you sad

9. 늑대소년 (A Werewolf Boy) 2012 : Drama, Romance, Fantasy

Yes, the typical story of a werewolf falling in love with a human girl, but even if you’re sick of it, please help yourself one last time, and watch thisNot only are the visuals like a fairy tale with Song Joong Ki and Park Bo Young (also in “Speedy Scandal”), but the storyline is also heartwarming and at the same time heartbreaking. **This movie may make you sad

10. 도가니 (Silenced/ The Crucible) 2011 : Drama

Now this is one heck of a serious movie revolving around tragic truths. I originally watched the movie because of my love for Gong Yoo, but came out as a person wanting to be fully aware and educated about the injustices in the world. The movie is about trying to save hearing imparied children from being physically and sexually abused, so please refrain if you’re uncomfortable with such graphics. **This movie may make you sad and very very angry

11. 오직 그대만 (Only You/ Always) 2010 : Romance, Drama

Once again, what got me interested in this movie were the actors, and yes, I wasn’t disappointed. The melodrama revolves around an ex-boxer and a girl who starts to lose her sight, highlighting the struggle to keep the love and relation ongoing and unfading. It’s just simply a very beautiful, lovely watch~ (seeing rough So Ji Sub act all soft for Han Hyo Joo was just…really hot)

12. 앤티크 (Antique) 2008 : Drama, Comedy, Thriller, Romance

Yes, this one’s a little hard to label under a category, but never the less, it is still a good film. It’s about a man who was traumatized as a child, and as a result, opens up a bakery in order to cope (his recollections bring up the thrill part in the movie). It was based off a Japanese manga, and it really isn’t hard to tell. From the breathtaking pastries, to the scary thrill, to the awkward yet funny comedy, to the gay romance, this movie has it all (did I mention the cuties?)

13. 집으로 가는 길 (Way Back Home) 2013 : Drama

I first watched this movie, because my parents suggested I should. The plot seemed a bit too much on the boring scale to me, but I was wrong. It was my first time seeing Jeon Do Yeon acting, and she did a wonderful job of portraying the heartbreaking story of a woman trapped in a foreign country without a way home. Being an immigrant, I could highly relate to this frustrating plot, and it made me realize how important having your family by your side is. **This movie may frustrate you

14. 비상 (Flight/Fly High/Emergency) 2009 : Romance, Action, Drama

Okay, either you’ll love this, or you’ll hate it. In my opinion, it’s a really nice romance with the right amount of action and tragedy. Being a person that loves all things sad, I loved the storyline of an innocent guy falling in love with a girl at first sight, and tainting himself as he tries to help the girl recover from an accident. If your favorite character from “Boys Over Flowers” was So Yi Jung, you will most likely fall for this movie (like I did). **This movie may make you sad

15. 7번방의 선물 (Miracle In Cell No. 7) 2013 : Family, Comedy, Drama

The plot of this movie revolves around a quite serious issue relating to the false conviction of a mentally impaired man, but it is done with the perfect amount of comical relief, that you have to remind yourself that it isn’t a comedy movie. The flashbacks are done so seamlessly that they blend in perfectly, and I don’t even have to go into how amazing all the acting was. Each character has such a big impression that my family and friends were imitating them for weeks after the movie. **This movie will make you very very sad (This is the famous movie EXO was crying to during Showtime)

16. 클래식 (The Classic) 2003 : Romance, Drama

Ah yes, this is quite the classic of Korean romance movies. The storyline is of a girl who one day coincidently opens up a box of her mother’s love letters, and discovers the story of her first love. The setting constantly switches from present to past, but what’s really cool is that both the mother and daughter are played by the same actress. The twist at the end is just immense, so go ahead and watch the so-called Korea’s version of “The Notebook”!

17. 명량 (The Admiral: Roaring Currents) 2014 : Historical, Drama, Action

Walking out from this movie, I felt like I needed to be very proud of being Korean. The levels of my patriotism skyrocketed, and the same happened to all those who had also watched. Having been oppressed by the Japanese back in the days, Korea highly respects General Lee Soon Shin, who played a major role in battles against the Japanese. This movie perfectly outlined not only his wise tactic and strategies, but also his great qualities as a leader. The tension is great in this movie, as is the visuals and amazing cast!

18. 크로싱 (Crossing) 2008 : Drama

This story is the story of a father and son, whose paths keep messing up. A North Korean father leaves to find money for his family, but while he’s gone, his wife dies, leaving his son to set foot on his way to find him. Although I watched this movie quite a while back, I still remember the heartbreaking moments that were reflected in the film. Although it’s probably not nearly as much, this films shows a small bit of the hardships of North Koreans. **This movie may make you sad

19. 말아톤 (Marathon) 2005 : Drama, Family

Following the personal journey of an autistic man, and his struggle to overcome his illness, “Marathon” does a great job of touching your heart. For the main character of this movie, running is his life. The film takes you on a life journey, and takes you behind the struggles of a man, who eventually overcomes his setback, with the support of his family and his coach. Although this topic can be a bit heavy and sad, the director does a great job of adding in the comical relief, and the acting skills of the actors are sure to have you sucked in.

20. 어린신부 (My Little Bride) 2004 : Comedy, Romance

Some people have fantasies of arranged marriages, but unfortunately in this movie, it’s a nightmare. The main character (who is still in high school) is forced to marry a man in his twenties, because of a grandfather’s wish. The poor girl goes to hide the fact that she has a husband, and even tries to date a fellow senior at school, but slowly she begins to realize that she actually does love her husband.

21. 아저씨 (The Man From Nowhere) 2010 : Action, Thriller

I’m sure many of you know this famous movie, but I just wanted to include it incase some of you don’t. I personally love it when men go through a bunch of obstacles and hardships to protect/save women, and although in this case it was a little girl, it was still more than satisfying. Won Bin’s actions were beautifully justified in this movie, enough that almost everyone was aching for an ahjussi in their lives after the release of the film. On top of his acting, Sae Ron also did a fabulous job on her part, amazing me how well such a young girl could act. 

22. 오싹한 연애 (Spellbound) 2011 : Romance, Horror, Comedy

If you haven’t realized already, the one genre I cannot do is horror, and this movie is as close to horror as I will ever get. The main character constantly sees ghosts during a day to day basis, which prevents her from having a normal life. She loses the joy in her life, yet goes to see a magic show regularly, hoping she will find some joy. Here, the magician putting on the show is left to wonder why this woman never smiles, and let’s his curiosity drive himself to her. This movie does an amazing job of combining the three genres of romance, horror, and comedy, perfecting the thrill with the jump scares, and the laughs with the comical reliefs.

23. 집으로 (The Way Home) 2002 : Drama, Family

Do you guys know of the really hot actor named Yoo Seung Ho? Well this was when he was a little boy of the age nine. Despite being so young, Yoo Seung Ho kills the acting of the spoiled city boy stuck in a country side with his mute grandmother (It’s almost as if it isn’t acting…). Although the grandmother does not say a word throughout the movie, her heart just speaks to yours through her actions, and as it melted her grandson’s heart, it will also find its way to melt yours. This story is so heartwarming, and it will help you to reflect on how you’ve been to your family, and see to it that you are grateful for the ones around you! 

thomasmxller  asked:

while i am waiting patiently for the next chapter, do you have any lams fics you would recommend?

10 Lams Fic Rec:

Okay, this took a while and I have no bookmarking system so this is missing so much and covers a lot of the obvious ones. My tagging/not tagging here is pretty random. Forgive me.

1. Ocular by @iniquiticity (historical/canon)

2. (and we’ll die in) the class we were born in by Quietbang (modern campaign au) WIP

3. Actions by @a-schuyler​ (historical lams get caught) WIP

4. interstate by @meadowlarkx​ (modern cute reunion one shot)

5. Lams AU by @publius-esquire​ and @madtomedgar (started 2013, WIP, historical/canon)

6. Elephant in the Room by Intergalactic_Asher (historical/canon 5 times Washington catches them)

7. the wicked oppressing now cease from distressing by @tobyzielgerintraining (modern thanksgiving in SC)

8. reprieve by peakgay (historical/canon worried Laurens, overworked Ham)

9. Notes Concerning Certain Performances of Hamilton by @scioscribe​ (all pairings really, but seriously amazing meta)

10. ink on his fingers and a smile on his face by scioscribe again with no shame (modern au photography 5+1)

Okay, after posting this I’m sure to remember a gazillion others I love but these are the ones that came to mind because I am Lams Trash. Enjoy. (there’s not actually that much pain here)

What was the Tarascan Government like? • /r/AskHistorians
What were its subdivisions? Were posts hereditary? Was it centralized or more of a tributary system? I couldn't find much information on each of these on the internet.

My fellow West Mexican grad student, Ucumu, answered this question today.

We have piecemeal information from historical and archaeological sources. It changed over time from a loosely organized hegemonic power to a centralized state with a large bureaucracy.

Before the Empire

Prior to the formation of the empire, P'urépecha governments were organized around units roughly equivalent to city-states. The indigenous term, according to Gilberti (1983) is ireta, and the ruler was known as the irecha. Each ireta was composed of smaller units variously called “barrios,” wards, districts, or neighborhoods. The indigenous term for these units was uapátzequa (singular), or uapatzéquecha (plural) (Gilberti 1983; Van Zantwijk 1967). The uapátzequa was a political unit below the larger city-state government that included both nobles and commoners. Membership in them was likely hereditary (it is among modern P'urépecha, see Van Zantwijk 1967). Lesser levels of the nobility may have been heads of the uapanéquecha. A key insight made by some colonial administrators in the Relaciones Geográficas is that the P'urépecha, like the Aztecs, may not have differentiated between rural and urban components of city-states. So a uapátzequa may be a neighborhood within a city, or a suburb, or a completely separate town on the outskirts of the city’s territory. Regardless, each had its own local council that managed local affairs such as marriages between residents or land disputes.

Smaller informal subdivisions likely also existed within the larger neighborhood-level units. Additionally, there were also likely some form of trade guilds that managed the production of certain crafts like stone masons and the weaving of reed mats. These kinds of organizations exist today within modern P'urépecha villages (Van Zantwijk 1967), and there are similar organizations implied in the Relacion de Michoacán (Acalá 2013).

The ruling dynasty of each ireta was inherited patrilineally. The royal lineage claimed much of their authority from control over sacred religious idols of the city’s patron deity (Beltrán 1982). The actual position of Irecha was likely elected among the dynasty’s heirs (Beltrán 1982). As depicted in the Relacion de Micoacán (Acalá 2013), the second most powerful ruler of the city was the petámuti or high priest. The priesthood was also hereditary (Warren 1985) and had their own bureaucracy, although the relationship between the priesthood and neighborhood institutions is poorly understood.

Keep reading


2014 Book Genre Challenge - January, Historical Fiction

Above are some of my personal favorites from the genre! If you don’t see any you might like, look below for some links to lists of historical-fiction novels!

  1. A Great and Terrible Beauty - Libba Bray
  2. Pride and Prejudice - Jane Austen
  3. The Book Thief - Markus Zusak
  4. A Countess Below Stairs - Eva Ibbotson
  5. The Season - Sarah MacLean
  6. A Spy in the House - YS Lee
  7. Scarlet - AC Gaughen
  8. Prisoners in the Palace - Michaela MacColl
  9. Grave Mercy - Robin LaFevers

Goodreads Lists

If you have any questions about the Book Genre Challenge or you want to join, look at this post HERE! Any questions, ask me HERE! I hope you find something you’ll enjoy reading and have fun doing the 2014 genre challenge!

-Renuka, eternal-books


Max: “In my religion… we’re taught that every living thing… every leaf, every bird… is only alive because it contains the secret word for life. That’s the only difference between us and a lump of clay. A word. Words are life, Liesel.”

The Book Thief . Brian Percival

He [Henry VI] is a traitor and an enemy to my rule! But God has brought him to us to show that my reign is just and true. We will keep cousin Henry in the tower apartments and show him a mercy he denied our father.

The White Queen, Ep. 2 “The Price of Power”