historical region


Traditional costumes of Sorbs (also known as Wends, Lusatians, Lusatian Sorbs or Lusatian Serbs) - Western Slavic minority in the territory of Germany. They live predominantly in the historical region of Lusatia - in the modern states of Brandenburg and Saxony. They speak Sorbian languages (Wendish, Lusatian) - closely related to Polish and Czech, divided into two main groups: Upper Sorbian and Lower Sorbian. Collection of archival photographs from vintage postcards.


Today being the last day of classes before exams, I decided to go treat myself this afternoon. This involved going to the linguistics section of one of my university libraries and reading for an entire afternoon instead of studying for my finals. 

There was lots of cool stuff, though, so it was totally worth it.

Tourists ride in hot air balloons near the town of Goreme in Cappadocia, Nevsehir Province, Turkey on April 17th 2016. Cappadocia, a historical region in Central Anatolia dating back to 3000 B.C. is one of the most famous tourist sites in Turkey. Listed as a World Heritage Site, and known for its unique volcanic landscape and some of the best hot air ballooning in the world. Credit: VCG via Getty Images

anonymous asked:

So how are Caesar's Legion like ISIS?

Alright pay attention @azureleon @unfitninjuh and maybe you will learn something for once in you’re lives (unless this is one of you)

We have a region which is devastated by a bunch of wars both between centuries old Tribal feuds and resource wars. 

Eons before anybody was alive (except Mr. House) this area was once a unified powerful Empire but no more

One group is a hypocritical militaristic expansionist corrupt democracy that claims to be an egalitarian welcoming country but in practice are racist, insensitive, and only after resources.  They claim legitimacy based on a dubious connection to a previous regime 

The local warlords are greedy, ruthless, and totally amoral and without regard for anybody other than themselves but at least least some degree of stability. 

Resources are scarce and what there is becomes hogged by those with weapons.

And then a group of radical militants are like “We claim to have a direct legacy to this much earlier historical period that our region was never actually part of but our culture constantly claims heritage too.”  And then we have them all dressing up like an era that has been dead for over a thousand years, pretending like everything that has happened between just hasn’t happened.  And they total fucking posers running around with this really shallow understanding of the culture that they are co-splaying as, like if you actually want to study the 4 Righteously guided Caliphs you’d study mostly tax policy and internal family politics (again all 4 of them were assassinated) and Rome was an empire that focused on interrogation and cultural assimilation not nationalistic totalitarianism.  

So we look at the Legion which likes


Mass Sex Slavery

Hyper Macho Gender roles

LARPing in this really lame way 

Lots of Beheading 

Not actually understanding their own culture history

And constantly misquoting (seriously ISIS is really bad at quoting the Quran, its kind of a running gag)

And extreme violence 

Any time you have nostalgic fertilization of your own culture its bad enough, when it gets to another culture you are only distantly linked to by over a thousand years, it gets weird.  Like look at all the Roman shit with the Alt Right or how people who haven’t read any of the Western Canon talk about “Western Civilization” 

Regional Portuguese Costumes

The denomination of “regional” clothing is based in the notion of diversity according to social and geographic conditions, and other elements such as materials and practices, in way it contributes the comprehension of these specific types of clothing.

They are officiating clothes, linked to specific days or events and intractably connected to the idea of celebration. They bear a symbolism that walks hand-in-hand with religious practices, reflecting the culture of said region in a combination of elements that become easily distinguished between regions.

These costumes present themselves as a mythos, or a profound mythology, with its relation to a praxis connected to Catholicism. But they bear roots from the immense diversity of Portuguese history, from Muslim art forms that survived, and strived, through centuries, to ancient beliefs or superstitions, rooted in ancient pre-roman cultures, still alive today in many villages. They can be divided (1) in two great zones based on its polychromatic characteristics: as we get closer to the sea, women «enhance its polychromatic characteristics and complicate their clothing», as opposed to serranas, women from the ridges of the interior, that bear a more monochromatic way of dressing. This is evidenced through the wearing of the scarf, connected to the role of women in society: in serrana societies, of the interior, or the hillside of the country, women cover their forehead, whereas the coastline and south regions, where the sea is in direct relation toin the way of living, the forehead is released, evidencing more liberties of the role of women in its society. 

Traditional costumes from Serra da Estrela, a type of serrana.

Costumes for romaria, male and female, from Póvoa de Vazim, a fishing town.

Five great elements can be pointed in Portuguese costuming overall (2):

1. The representation of affection, often a symbol crafted in some decorative element of the costume or adornment to be worn with the costume itself3. This affection doesn’t limit to representations of love, but also of grief in a much demarcated tradition of mourning, rooted in catholic liturgy (4). 

A lovers’ handkerchief, or lenço dos namorados.

2) The proliferation of the usage of gold. Two elements play a part here, the first considering the financial security gold represented for lower-class people, since it could be pawned in a more desperate situation. It also secured the gold-bearer, usually the women being the most ostentatious ones, as the matron of the household, in a competitive spirit between neighbors. The usage of gold is so popular and traditional it maintains today, despite social class. The second element is of an intricate catholic inheritance, which we can trace back to the baroque era: the need to “distort” the body, which is to eliminate the sensual curves of the female body. As in the Iberian fashion of the 17th century women (5) found heavy gold and jewel decoration to cover parts of the body usually defined as sensual, such as the chest, this tradition passed on to popular costuming. A fine example of this gold usage is the minhota costume, where a certain “iconography” reads in a certain symbolism that traces back to the rocaille, particularly to queen D. Maria I, whose promise of raising a basilica if she bore a baron to the kingdom, resulted in Basílica da Estrela, a church to Sagrado Coração de Jesus, the Sacred Heart of Jesus, a symbol today popularized in minhota golden earrings with an asymmetrical heart. Many of these golden adornments can be traced back to interpretations or direct importations of jewelry wore by queens for different periods.

Example of heart-shaped arrecadas. Arrecadas are known of a few dominant shapes, mainly in gold (silver became popular only later, in a touristic fashion), of which the most beautiful in craft and better known are the Brincos à Rainha, the queen-style earrings.

3) Preference for linen and wool. Both materials are a strong symbol of a working class people, who both seek the best materials to guard them from the cold and find more accessible. Although silk was popular to a degree, it prevailed in nobility and aristocracy.

Two examples of a minhota costume: on the left, a bride and groom; on the right, a lavadeira (washerwoman). Notice the heavy gold wore by the bride on her chest.

4) The afore mentioned chromatic division between coastline and interior. While the colorful costuming of coastline societies reflected the festive spirit, the darker colors of the men and women living in the ridges translated the hardship of the work and lifestyle, as well the colder and aggravated climate.

A nazarene widdow costume, with the embuçada, the mourning veil.

5) Religiousness in costume ornamentation. Conceived mostly in accordance to the liturgical calendar, in a society where there is a saint for every day of the week and where birth, baptism, marriage and death were the most important moments of someone’s life, competition was vivid in festive costumes. During romaria (6), one dressed themselves to be seen.

The study of these costuming have only recently been more focused on from a scientific and anthropologic perspective. Through the eye romanticism, from Almeida Garret’s Viagens na Minha Terra (7) to the first naturalist and realist painter’s perspective, these costumes appear as a nationalistic embodiment of a people that withdraws its original intentions and usages from their context and gives them new ones. With the New Estate and the dictatorship, they were held as the prime example of the true Portuguese soul. But despite their interpretations, with new eyes on their study, they are cherished in their uniqueness and beauty, within the context of their creation, which translates the diversity of a festive spirit that is very different from region to region.

(1) According to Luís Chaves.
(2) As proposed by Madalena Brás Teixeira.
(3) As an example, in Minho exists a great tradition of adding hearts to one’s costume, particularly of bride and groom, of which the better known are the heart-shaped arrecadas, or heavy golden earrings made of filigrana, as well as the lenços de namorados, or “lovers’ handkerchiefs”, a white handkerchief with love declarations written in colorful embroidery (notable for being written with spelling mistakes, since they were made by illiterate people).  Some of these elements even represent a sexualized tone, such algibeira de minhota, the “minhota pocket”.
(4) As the costumes typical from Nazaré are an example of. These mourning practices, taken with extreme seriousness, were common in fishing communities, where often the man of the household would travel for months for fishing and their house depended on such. As a demonstration of perpetual grief, the embuçadas appear in this region, a covering of the face up until the eyes, of evident Islamic influence.
(5) An example of such is the portrait of Queen Catherine of Braganza’s mother, queen Luíza de Gusmán. It was predominant in both Spain and Portugal.
(6) Romaria is a devotional procession to a church or parish. Time, however, gave the word a connotation of “religious festivity”.
(7) Published in 1846, the book travels along the deep Portuguese regions such as Santarém, exploring with a romanticized eye the peoples and their costumes in a realist tone, as, similarly, Eça de Queiroz will later do.


Traditional costumes of Sorbs (also known as Wends, Lusatians, Lusatian Sorbs or Lusatian Serbs) - Western Slavic minority in the territory of Germany. They live predominantly in the historical region of Lusatia - in the modern states of Brandenburg and Saxony. They speak Sorbian languages (Wendish, Lusatian) - closely related to Polish and Czech, divided into two main groups: Upper Sorbian and Lower Sorbian. Collection of archival photographs from vintage postcards.

the agrestes and that book

so ive seen like 2592 posts about volpina but not too many on THIS SHOT and i think it’s probably one of the more important parts of the episode so if nobodys gonna talk about it im gonna here we go 

  1. Even if the mothlair isn’t behind catmom’s portrait, stuff concerning Miraculous’ is. He’s got it padlocked. This doesn’t get us any closer to being certain he is a miraculous holder, but based on what we see here, we’re getting way closer to assuming his wife was. 
  2. Stuff’s up in Tibet? A book? A ticket? A hotel brochure? Why did Gabriel keep that stuff, or who’s is it? Tibet is in southeast China. It’s the world’s highest region &. is historically known for being a key location in the development of Buddhism. Is this where Fu’s from? The miraculous’? With that “an ancient Chinese secret, just like yours”? Maybe Mom Agreste had ties with southeast Asia, which is why Adrien ~*coincidentally*~ began learning Chinese. 
  3. The Peacock Miraculous is vigil. Origin spoilers, but we know that when a Miraculous holder removes their miraculous, the kwami disappears – but based upon the accidental removal of Chat’s ring in Lady Wifi, we can guess that it’s not just a physical removal, but a mental one. The chosen has to not want to be a superhero anymore. If the Peacock Miraculous’ chosen still wanted to be a holder, the kwami would still be there – but it isn’t. Does this mean Catmom Agreste was the Peacock Miraculous? Did she remove her miraculous for good and run away? What prompted her to do so? 
  4. This is a bit of a sidenote, but it seems like it’s Fu’s responsibility to hand out miraculous’. That being said, he knew at least one of Adrien’s parents have possession of at least one of the other two missing stones(Peacock & Papillon) when he gave Adrien the ring. i guess that’s just sort of interesting, esp if we’re assuming his “one mistake” was giving Gabriel Nooroo. (or was it giving Catmom the Peacock?) 
  5. That book is a big deal, and it’s Gabriel’s. Tikki acted like it was insanely important, so much so that she risked being seen in an attempt to get it back, and legit encouraged Marinette to steal it, which she normally isn’t really all about. It’s definitely the same book in the opening of origins, meaning it contains information about the Miraculous’ lore, and that part about how to combine Ladybug and Chat Noir’s to achieve ultimate power. Tikki says it’s dangerous in the wrong hands. But how did Gabriel Agreste, an apparently no-miraculous-user get it? 
  6. Plagg drops the subject as soon realizes what the book is. He seems like he puts some dots together &. he immediately tries to distract Adrien from the whole thing, especially when Adrien gets to the part about Papillon. cheez cat knos smth 
  7. Therefore, Gabriel is definitely knowledgeable about Miraculous’. He might know more about the lore and history than either Adrien or Marinette do. Whether this means he’s a holder himself is still sort of up in the air, but he knows stuff our mains don’t. This probably means that he knows very well what Chat Noir’s ring looks like, making it more possible now than ever that he’s extremely aware Adrien is Chat Noir.
  8. “His rage will be worse than Papillon’s” is more like … terrifying foreshadowing son u need to RU N. What WILL Gabriel do? If it’s so important that he’s got it hidden and locked up, what’s he gonna do when he finds out it’s missing? Assuming Gabriel Agreste is Hawkmoth, what sort of strings is he going to pull to get it back? If he’s beginning to suspect his son is Chat Noir, what will he do to Adrien when he finds out somebody knows about his affiliation with Miraculous’ and has been through his stuff? Will the hunt for LB & CN’s Miraculous’ turn into that plus a hunt for his missing book? Will he try recruiting new villains? More permanent ones? How about that “you haven’t seen the last of Volpina” thing ..?

BASICALLY. volpina was cool and stuff, but if we want hints to what season 2′s gonna look like, it’s here. Gabriel is very knowledgeable on Miraculous’, and it makes him powerful whether he’s Papillon or not. Tibet is a key location. The Agreste’s have history with the Peacock Miraculous, but it’s owner, who appears to have been Catmom, ditched it, and we’ve gotta figure out why. Papillon will be pissed when he finds out the book is missing. Volpina might be a bigger villain than this season 1 ep let on. Adrien might be in trouble, his position gets more and more complicated as it goes on. Papillon’s planning something he’s dubbing a “Big Day” which super villain speaking is probably not great. season 2 is gonna be,,  heavier. 

TBH I’m disappointed there’s no theories that Ronan is the Raven King alluded to in the fourth book’s title. Or at least, as far as I see, people seem to think the Raven King is Gansey.

He left a note for himself in Cabeswater at some point in the future, in Latin, in case he no longer recognized his own handwriting, implying that either a future or past Ronan has been in Cabeswater and wants current Ronan to know something.

Ronan is “the most Raven” of the Raven Boys.

Glendower had magic powers and ravens, too.

If Adam and Ronan are meant to be together, then Adam and Ronan can be framed together as Glendower and his Court Magician. Their powers even compliment! Ronan creates, Adam transforms.

Ronan has a roman nose and Celtic features, a historical & celtic region-appropriate vibe to his appearance.

Ronan’s fantastical birth descriptions parallel Glendower’s introduction to the Shakespeare Play Henry IV, in which Glendower appears and talks of the earth shaking when he was born.

So basically I’m pretty sure that if anyone other than Literal Dead Welsh Dude turns out to be Glendower, it’s Ronan Lynch.

Umbria is a region of historic and modern central Italy. It is the only Italian region having neither a coastline nor a border with other countries. It includes the Lake Trasimeno, Cascata delle Marmore, and is crossed by the River Tiber. The regional capital is Perugia. Umbria is known for its landscapes, traditions, history, artistic legacy, and influence on culture. The region is characterized by hills and historical towns such as Assisi (a World Heritage Site associated with St. Francis of Assisi, the Basilica of San Francesco and other Franciscan sites, works by Giotto and Cimabue), Norcia (the hometown of St. Benedict), Gubbio, Perugia, Spoleto, Todi, Città di Castello, Orvieto, Castiglione del Lago, Narni, Amelia, and other small cities.

Where the trail ends, by paraschivdragosh

The Transfăgărășan (trans [over, across] + Făgăraș) or DN7C, also known as Ceaușescu’s Folly,[2] is a paved mountain road crossing the southern section of the Carpathian Mountains of Romania. It has national-road ranking and is the second-highest paved road in the country after the Transalpina. It starts near the village of Bascov, near Pitești, and stretches 90 kilometres (56 mi) to the crossroad between the DN1 and Sibu, between the highest peaks in the country, Moldoveanu and Negoiu. The road, built in the early 1970s as a strategic military route, connects the historic regions of Transylvania and Wallachia.


James Cochran House by Joseph
Via Flickr:
The opulent Victorian James Cochran House in Dawson, PA was built in 1890 for a local coal and coke magnate. The Youghiogheny Valley near the western ridge of the Alleghenies has been a historically significant mining region.

I feel like the new songs on the record have kind of receded entirely from the world of theater, and have walked off the stage, and walked outside and have become almost hysterically in and of the world, and of myself, and my own world. And even if there’s any metaphor or historical or regional reference they all feel very benign, and almost irrelevant to a narrative that is very, very personal and real. (Sighs) in some ways it doesn’t even feel like art to me. Whereas the BQE to me is just utterly conceptual… and totally unreal.
—  Sufjan Stevens