These incredibly refined chatris dating back to the 18th Century at the Digambar Jain Bhattarak ji Ki Nasiya were established with the marble Pād-Chin by the bhattrak ( a designation for cladded saints from Digambar Jain sect from Southern India) in reverence of their Guru.
India (Punjab or Rajasthan), Mughal, 18th - 19th century
Gold, precious and semi-precious stones and pearls
Pictorial representations and literary accounts of jewelry from the Mughal era abound, for the wearing and appreciation of jewels and gems was considered an art in itself. The memoirs of Jahangir, for instance, record his decisions to wear certain pearls or rubies for important occasions, but the practice was not limited to royalty alone—travelers to India noted the quantity of jewelry worn by all members of society. Because very few of these pieces survive, most seventeenth-century jewelry is known only from paintings and written descriptions; extant pieces from the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries are much more numerous. This particular necklace, composed of diamonds, rubies, pearls, and imitation emeralds set in gold, might represent work for a new class of patrons, the British in India.
I’ve mentioned before that I haven’t read any articles during Nueva España’s time, but it seems that one of the biggest problem in the Ph during the Spanish period was pirates.
I’ve noticed too that the usual solution when there is civil unrest was to send in the Catholic missionaries to appease the natives. I guess using religion to take advantage of a superstitious nation was a much better option than using violence.
Except in major cities, the priest is often the only European allowed to live in local communities. They have taken on a patriarchal role and the natives listen to and believe in everything they say (EVERYTHING), making them indispensable in the colony.