historic cases

In Tangled and Tangled: The Series, Rapunzel is the sole heir to the crown as the only child of her father, Kind Frederic. Rapunzel’s position as a future queen seems to have raised many questions in the fandom. Because I’m a history enthusiast, I wanted to make some points clear for all fans and fanfiction writers.

Originally posted by disneyfeverdaily

Rapunzel will become a queen of her own right, a queen regnant. This means she will inherit her power and become the sovereign ruler of Corona. This differs greatly from her own mother, Queen Ariana. As king, King Frederic is the sovereign ruler of Corona. As his wife, Ariana is actually a queen consort, being the wife of a king. This means that Queen Ariana shares her husband’s rank and title but not his sovereign power. The series actually confirms this, as about all decisions this far have been made by Frederic alone; King came down hard on crime, King enacts a martial law that forbids Rapunzel from leaving Corona, King will decide what happens to Eugene after his confession to the queen…

But the biggest question in fandom seems to concern Eugene and his status after Rapunzel becomes queen. And no, he will not become a king. This is both a historical fact according to European tradition (while Corona is a fantasy land, it is definitely in Europe) and something Eugene himself points out at the end of Tangled, where he says that Rapunzel ruled her kingdom with wisdom and grace. Not they and their kingdom, Rapunzel and her kingdom.

Eugene becomes prince consort. This means that he will not have sovereign power. Husband of a queen is not called a king unless he has inherited sovereign right to rule himself. Husband of the queen will not share her rank and title. This is because of male primogeniture; male heirs are given privileges before females. King means a male ruler who has inherited his right to rule and so ideally, queen would actually be queen consort. However, Rapunzel is an only child so she will definitely become queen regnant instead. Eugene will not hold any royal power. Instead, he will most likely act as counsel and guide for his wife, Rapunzel.

Originally posted by dj066rapunz3l

I know it may seem strange for many fans that Eugene will not become king or hold any actual power. This is because traditionally, Western stories have loved to glorify male heroes by giving them power and titles. I don’t see many people wondering what Cinderella or Tiana will do after their princes become kings and I think that is because it’s just so easy to imagine a heroine as simply a wife but it’s harder to imagine a hero as simply a husband, with position depending completely on his partner. I personally take Tangled as a great opportunity to get used to and celebrate a heroine finally having power in her own right and becoming a great female ruler.

This has been some interesting historical and not so historical trivia for today. Rapunzel will become an amazing queen and Eugene will be there to support her all the way through.

As a sidenote, Rapunzel will never become Rapunzel Fitzherbert. Royalty in Europe do not need last names even today. And even so, Rapunzel is clearly higher in rank. It would be unwise to give up her father’s name after marriage as she will inherit his title and power. Actually, historically in such cases husbands could take their wife’s name instead. I think Eugene was either using his commoner thinking or simply making cute rhymes in Tangled Before Ever After when he sang about her becoming “Mrs Eugene Fitzherbert”. Modern fics are a different matter, of course. But taking your husband’s name is not the only way to be cute and romantic so I’m sure their marriage is just as sweet anyway.

  • Napoleon: All that running around doesn't leave enough time for my best friend over here, though.
  • Laurence: We're not best friends, Napoleon.
  • Napoleon: Right. I'm your nemesis. We love each other but we've got some history.
  • Laurence: You're not my nemesis!
  • Napoleon: We are! We're nemesisis...is. We're rivals who are also totally obsessed with each other. Fremesises.
  • Laurence: Napoleon, this is all in your head.

(Lachesis melanocephala) black-headed bushmaster
Has potent proteolysins; envenomation causes intense pain, swelling, & necrosis (often extensive) at the bite site, sometimes followed by gangrene. Bites from this species in Panama & Atlantic lowlands of Costa Rica have historically had a high case fatality rate.

weirdling  asked:

I have zero experience with witchcraft and have known no one personally who has. However I am incredibly curious and would love to begin experimenting, although from lurking the subject looks vast and cryptic. Where would I begin?

Considering you have no previous experience with or knowledge of the contemporary practice of witchcraft, I would suggest you first begin by reading and surveying literature that examines the history of witchcraft beliefs and practices. I realize, for many who are new to exploring witchcraft, there is a strong temptation to delve directly into the practical aspects with a desire to experiment a little. There are any number of practical-oriented books and online resources that are helpful in this area; however, these are generally written from the author and practitioner’s perspective, relying heavily on personal insights and intuitions. Developing a familiarity with the historical background of witchcraft, up through the modern period, will allow you to approach those practical materials with a more discerning and critical eye, helping you determine the credibility of a source and sift out from a text what is suitable to your needs and purposes.

I recommend starting with academic and scholarly resources, ethnographies, and texts or records of historical value. I compiled a short list of some recommended reading:

Books / Resources

For good measure, I’ve included a few texts below that serve as practical examples of early modern to contemporary witchcraft and cunning folk practices:

  • Mastering Witchcraft (1970) by Paul Huson. An early book of practical contemporary witchcraft; considered by many to be a classic.
  • The Grimoire of Arthur Gauntlet, editor David Rankine (2011). “a 17th Century London Cunning-man’s book of charms, conjurations and prayers”. Sloane MS. 3851: compiling elements of folk magic, the Heptameron, the writings of Agrippa, the Arbatel, Discoverie of Witchcraft, the biblical Psalms, etc.
  • Crone’s Book of Charms and Spells (1998) by Valerie Worth. This book details various charms, amulets, and herbal preparations. Some suggested materials for use are rare or exotic.

anonymous asked:

I think that, media acceptability-wise, there's also been a lot more interracial relationships shown over the past decades than genuine queer relationships. Maybe it's changing now, but that hasn't historically been the case. I obviously don't think that the concepts are opposed, and there should definitely be more interracial relationships, but I really don't like it when one marginalized group says that another group's representation is less important than the first one's.

Like I’m gonna have to disagree here. 

My stance is white queer representation is less important than interracial couples because of the whiteness. Now if this was a conversation about straight interracial couple and a queer interracial couple I’d be on the side of the queer couple.

mod v

anonymous asked:

So even though i have always been gillovny af ive always been skeptical of if they are actually together together. But this story about David being on set of the fall, gillians tweet, and gillians doodle vid with her talking in an american accent and saying david is in the shower has got me feeling like a detective who has finally solved their greatest case

I’m so happy we’ve finally solved the Gillovny mystery today thanks to @altaircolin. Today is Historical!

rebel-with-cause  asked:

What the hell is hamilkin?

Kin for example when people who claim to be, say “wolfkin”, “dragonkin”, fictional characters or in this case historical figures believe they posses the soul of that specific being and/or are they absolute reincarnation or ARE THEM.

So Hamilkin is basically people taking characters from Hamilton–let’s say: Alexander Hamilton, Aaron Burr, Angelica Schuyler etc.–and believing that they are actually them and have their memories.. so and so.

Take the multiverse theory. Basically, there are limitless parallel universes in the world there and so potentially if you think about it there is one where our fictional characters are real. If this were true, the characters you’re thinking of could live and die, and then be reborn into another universe.

These people act as if they even have memories from said character and think they are 100% them and act as if they are them. (Do not get this confused with RP blogs–it is way different!).

Time for You to Get a Watch AU

Time traveling seemed like a great idea, especially when Character A was running from the cops. Unfortunately for them, Chracter A hadn’t anticipated the future will have created much better ways to catch criminals, or everything that can go wrong with a time machine.

Ending One (Past Route): Character A is trapped in the past. Their time-machine has no source of power without the help of other humans, and Character A doesn’t speak the local language which causes people to think that Character A is from outer space. Character B, an alien enthusiast, proves that Chracter A is not an alien because “look at the way it speaks; that is not accurate alien.“ 

Ending Two (Malfunction): The time machine malfunctions and Character A is caught by the police. Character A has to explain to their lawyer, Character B, why they stole the fire alarm (of all things) from a museum, and what on earth that strange malfunctioning contraption (Character A’s time machine) was.
Bonus points if Character B has been waiting to escape to the future/past and they both race against the clock to fix the time machine, escape crime, and ultimately save the world.

Ending Three (Future): Character A arrives in the future and is immediately recognized by an artificial detection unit and sent to jail anyway. Evidently, half of the people in jail were arrested post time-travel, so Character A enlists the help of Characters B, C, and D  (who were all arrested for “meddling with the time-space continuum”) in order to escape.
Bonus points if the first escape attempt fails hilariously.
Bonus points again if Character B was arrested for something really, really stupid (i.e going far back in time to engrave “I saw a dragon today” on a stone in modern-day English, and then leaving another stone a few feet away with “Psych.”)

So dcuniversewatchtower just asked me some questions about applying to grad school (school psychology or clinical psychology specifically) and I hope you don’t mind me making the answers public, because I feel these are questions every grad school hopeful asks and I would love to help out as many people as I can!

How do you think I should approach my professors when or comes to letter of recommendations? Is an email good or should I make an appointment with them? Any tips for applying to grad school? I’ve researched the schools I’m interested in and I meet the requirements except the GRE which I haven’t taken yet. My GPA isn’t excellent but it isn’t bad either.

Letters of Rec

  • Email is fine. Professors are oftentimes hard to catch during the day. But make sure the professor knows who you are! You may want to jog their memory by reminding them of any special projects you did for them, if you TA’d, or volunteered in their lab, etc. If all you did was sit in lecture and get good grades, the professor won’t know who you are. And you also want the professor to know you well so they can write a genuine letter. You can also let them know what qualities you would like them to highlight in your letter. For example, if you helped them design exam questions for a special projects, ask them to describe your critical thinking and attention to detail, and experience in teaching. The more you outline your letter of rec for them, the happier they’ll be. 
  • Attach to your email the following things: your resume/CV and your personal statement. The personal statement is important because they can tailor their letter to what your goals and aspirations are for grad school. 
  • Then let them know if they’re willing to write a letter of rec for you, instructions from each university’s application will come via email. Grad school applications aren’t like common app for undergrad; every school is a separate application. And on it will be instructions for you to fill out 3 or more names and contact info for letters of rec. The application will then email those professors, and in turn the professors will submit the letters electronically. It helps to give your professors a list of the schools you’re applying to, so they can check off letters they’ve submitted.
  • Send out your requests for letters at least 3 months before the applications close. This will give your professors plenty of time to write the letters. Professors are very busy people. If you approach them 1 week before the deadline, they’ll be very angry and most likely won’t write the letter. 
  • It’s okay to email your professors reminders as the application deadline nears and they still haven’t submitted the letters. You’ll be able to see on your application who’s submitted letters and who hasn’t. 2 weeks before the application closes, send a courtesy email to those professors who haven’t submitted theirs yet. Professors are just like us and will forget things all the time, so trust me that they appreciate your reminders. 
  • Be sure to thank them afterwards with a quick email or thank you card. And also let them know if you got admitted to any schools! Professors love to be proud of their previous students :)
  • More tips: make sure at least one (though all would be better) of the professors writing you letters of rec is in the field you’re applying to. They know what it takes to succeed in that specific program, so a recommendation from them shows the school you’re legit stuff. Also, those writing you a recommendation should have a graduate degree themselves. This also shows authenticity in their words. 

General application tips

I have a few on my grad school blog here, but I can jiggle a few more out of my brain!


  • Word Power Made Easy by Norman Lewis is the sole reason I did so well on the reading part of the GRE. It has fun worksheet-style activities that help you learn vocabulary a gazillion times better than any flashcards. I highly recommend it. 
  • When writing the essays, keep your words and sentences concise, and try to argue both points for the argumentative essay (have your main opinion but also be able to see it from the other point of view at the end, followed by a very strong rebuttal). And focus on facts; not emotion. Do not do what I did the first time and treat it like writing a novel and slapping all sorts of descriptive flowery junk to my sentences. 
  • That being said, try to pick up as much random factoids as you can. If you can slap in a date or name or a specific court case or historical event into one or both your essays, then man oh man will the graders love it. 

The personal statement (my experience is only in personal statements for science programs. so this may not apply to everyone)

  • Focus on your previous experience in the field to highlight why you’re a good fit for the program. This should be the main chunk of your essay. In undergrad we could get away talking about practically anything. Can’t do that anymore! The purpose of the grad school personal statement is to show the following: a) your commitment to the field, b) reasons why that particular school and program is a good fit for you, and c) what you can contribute to that particular school and program. Point A should be the most important, and talk about what you learned from that experience too, and how it expanded your knowledge and passion for the field. 
  • But of course also pay attention to the prompt. It may ask that you don’t talk about your specific past experience at all, and highlight other things. 
  • If you published any scientific papers, or presented any posters at conferences or showcases, be sure to include that!
  • Revise revise revise! Never send in your first draft as your final. Give it to others to proofread and give feedback. It helps the most if you give it to other grad students already in the program or similar as they know what works. 


Because every school’s application is separate and unique, the process can become pretty chaotic! Here’s how you can better keep track of everything. 

  • Make an Excel sheet with all the schools, and create separate columns for their deadlines and requirements that you can check off as they get done. This is an easy all-in-one place to check statuses of letters of recs and deadlines. Also helpful to put your usernames and passwords here too for logging into applications. 
  • Have a separate folder on your computer for each school, so when you go to submit documents online, you don’t accidentally send University A’s personal statement to University B. 
  • Some schools require hardcopies of transcripts to be mailed to them, while others are okay with electronic scans. Be sure to keep track of this. And keep in mind requesting official transcripts costs $$ and may take a few days. 
  • Back up all your personal statements/etc onto an external hard-drive, or electronic backing system such as Google Docs or Dropbox frequently. Nothing worse than losing all that 2 weeks before the deadline!

I think that’s all I can think of regarding application tips. As for your GPA, I wouldn’t worry too much as long as you meet the required overall GPA and science GPA (if the schools ask for it). Undergrad grades aren’t as important as previous experience for grad school. I got a C in 2nd semester OChem and I still got into grad school :) During interviews, no one asked me about my grades at all. They just wanted to know about my previous lab experience and why I wanted to go to that particular school. 

I think the most important thing about applying for grad school and even getting through grad school is to always have faith in yourself. Even if there are others who doubt your skill, you should always pay attention to your own voice first. After all, you’re doing this for you. This is your life. Not theirs. It will never be theirs. So this degree you’re seeking, this opportunity to further your education, to one day help others with your experience–this is all yours. And if you believe in yourself, and work hard to achieve it, then no one else can ever keep you from achieving your goals. 

I had an orchestra director in high school who told us something one day in class that’s always stuck with me. She said: “People were always telling me that as a black woman, I should be staying home and having kids, not going to college. Well you know what, I proved them all wrong. I got my Bachelors. I got my Masters. And then I got my PhD.” 

I wish you all the best, and if you have any further questions, or just need someone to listen to you or believe in you, you know where to find me :)

The uniqueness of Donald Trump most saliently manifests itself in this way: By law, pattern and constitutional framework, the president of the United States largely sits above the law, and in some fundamental ways cannot even be checked by Congress. Instead, what has historically been the case is the very character, sensibility and morality of the chief executive confining him within a particular behavioral boundary. It is here that Trump is proving himself to be an aberration. Consistently, he has shown that he has very few if any qualms and will stress-test every custom and tradition. What then happens when the norms, not strict laws, that have guided the republic for over two centuries are suddenly done away with by a president with the power to do so? It is here that I wonder if he has displayed the vulnerability and flaw of the American system and the need for reform, or whether a mere doing away with him from the office will bring back a return to custom by a more normal person.

i just tried to explain the show’s plot and characterization to someone without using the details of historical names, detective work, cases, or the Conan Doyle canon. TRY IT it’s fun.

I wish there was a way to just like talk to your favorite fictional (or in this case historical) characters like

imagine casually texting lafayette about how excited he is for the upcoming holidays or getting a long ass paragraph from hamilton after just asking how his day was like yes pls

Obviously, the idea of Scrooge stories being set in the modern day (as most of them are) can’t really be reconciled with Barks’ specific historical background for the character anymore. Apparently that doesn’t stop some writers from trying, though! In the story “Himalayan Hideout” (U$ 19/423), we have Daisy using a laptop:

Yet Scrooge discusses selling books in 1904!

I’m not sure whether that “World’s Fair” line was in the original Swedish story, or if it was added by English dialog writer Gary Leach – but at least in the English version of the story, the guy must be over 100 years old!

I suppose one could always take Scrooge’s historical anecdotes in cases like this as “tall tales”, much in the vein of the exaggerated claims about his own history that Scrooge would make in some Barks stories:

Alternatively: maybe laptops and cellphones are not signs of a 21st-century setting at all, but merely that Duckburg is – as Barks himself occasionally characterized it – The City Of The Future!

Either that or Scrooge is just immortal. Your choice!