high stakes tests

silver-and-ivory  asked:

Please tell me about how No Child Left Behind has negatively impacted students!

One of the biggest ways is the emphasis on standardized testing! The intention’s not terrible at first glance- like, on one hand, it seems like a good idea to have standards that our students should be held to, that kinda puts everyone on an equal playing field, etc. But the implementation has screwed things up royally. Basically, it asks students to be familiar with standards, but not master skills, tasks, or concepts. This means that the teachers are basically backed into the corner of teaching the test- there’s frequent test drills that leave no time for creative work. It also means that all students are judged on the same standards- the problem here being that many students aren’t at grade level when it comes to reading comprehension, math skills, etc. They haven’t had the time to master these skills because the teacher’s been obligated to teach the test! They haven’t gotten to work on critical thought, writing, reading for enjoyment- they just get to see that the only measure of academic success is their raw test scores. So students who are struggling are held to the same standards as the honors students- everybody is expected to compete at the highest level. It favors one type of learner over all the others, and it often comes at the expense of the youngest children’s biological needs. Little kids aren’t supposed to sit at a desk all day- they need to run and play and get physical activity so that their bodies develop and they learn how to use their muscles! Students who are allowed to take breaks and play learn not just academic curricula but also social skills, which is a super important part of elementary school. But in elementary schools across the country, we see recess being cut. Funding for these schools is partially based on these test scores, so schools that are struggling often end up struggling more. Alternatives have been proposed to varying degrees of success, but so far it looks like our public schools are only going to get worse and worse- essentially, high stakes testing is pulling up the root to see how your plant is growing.

NCLB- particularly its prevalence of standardized tests- is also ableist and classist/racist by nature. Students with learning disabilities often have a very hard time with the standardized test format. So do students with physical disabilities- the scantron format is only friendly to those students who can sit for long periods of time and perform repetitive wrist/hand motions. While educational accommodations do exist, the fact is that many students do not get them. This is especially true of under-funded inner city schools and under-funded rural districts! The racial element of NCLB has been explored in great detail- basically, it favors the kind of information that your average middle class white student would know and have grown up hearing. It assumes a reading level that many students do not have- students whose first language isn’t English, for example. And because of that “familiarity, not mastery” thing, these students often don’t have a chance to catch up. Education isn’t a one size fits all thing, and the way elementary, middle, and high schools are managed has a massive impact on how college (what I teach) works. College can be a great thing- it can be a step up- but it can also drag you down. By being thrown from a system that just “teaches the test” into one that demands creative skills and critical thought, students who weren’t lucky enough to go to a really good public school (or a private school) are basically shoved off a high dive into what can turn into a literal ocean of debt. 

Now, NCLB has many, many more problems than that- people who actually study education and the politics of teaching can certainly tell you more than me! But this is how I see it as a college instructor- NCLB has created a generation of young scholars who don’t see learning as a process of exploration- rather, they basically just see it as highly punitive factory work.

bi-gert  asked:

wait hat's wrong with no child left behind, isn't that a good thing? granted,i don't remember much about it other than PSAs about it on KERA as a kid but wasn't it like, supposed to help keep kids in school by making public school more accessible or something?

Nah, it was exactly the opposite of that. Misleading name to get people to support it, policy that’s actually crap and hurts most everyone. 

No Child Left Behind was intended to get all schools in America up to the same “high standards”, regardless if they were rich or poor. The idea was that kids from poor (read: usually minority-majority inner-city) schools were not getting the same education as kids from rich (white, suburban) schools. Therefore, in order to Not Leave Them Behind, we’d hold all schools to the same standards, make sure they had a similar curriculum, and test kids to make sure they were getting the same education. 

(This is where the phrase “soft bigotry of low expectations” comes from, for the record. The idea was that liberals were actually keeping poor not-white kids down by not expecting them to meet the same standards white kids were meeting. But it’s pretty hard to meet the same standards when you have no money and your students are getting one meal a day.) 

And … well, in theory, it was not a bad plan, but in practice… hoo boy. 

First off, NCLB is why there’s so much testing in schools now. “High-stakes” testing- meaning, ‘how the students perform on these tests determines how much money your school gets’- was a cornerstone of NCLB.  They turned getting school funding into a contest- the schools that were doing ‘best’ would get a bigger chunk of federal education money, and the schools that were doing worst would get less. SURVIVAL OF THE FITTEST, LEONARD. 

Because of this, education actually got a lot less accessible. See… if your school gets money based on how students perform on tests, it is a disincentive to properly educate disabled students, because disabled students will not be able to compete in a high-stakes testing environment. The government did give schools some money for taking severely disabled students- like, intellectually-disabled, Downs’ Syndrome, nonverbal-autistic, kind of disabled.

But what that meant is - if you weren’t severely intellectually disabled, but you were disabled enough to have trouble getting good grades and participating in high-stakes testing, you were kind of scroomed (a word which, gentle reader, means ‘both screwed and doomed’.) 

What would happen is, the school system would try to figure out how they could milk the most money out of your existence. If you were functional enough to be able to get good grades and participate in high-stakes testing, they’d try to ‘mainstream’ you- put you in the ‘normal’ classes with the ‘normal’ kids and give you the minimum accommodations you needed to be able to get good grades on the tests. If you weren’t, you’d be put in the program with the intellectually disabled kids, even if you weren’t severely ID, because they could get more money out of you that way. (In the words of my former vice-principal: “eh, just put them in the monkey room.” )

So… basically, NCLB made school into a Game of Teacher Thrones. You get high enough test scores for your students, by any means possible- or you don’t have any money to educate your students. School became less accessible for any student who couldn’t pass tests, and more of a hassle for parents and teachers alike.

Thankfully, NCLB is being phased out, replaced with (among other things) Common Core. Hopefully this will be at least a little better for everyone.

smallandannoyingbumblebea  asked:

I was just wondering, with a lot of people talking about public schools in the US 'not keeping up to standard' does the US not have anything like Ofsted? In the UK all public and private schools are assessed yearly by Ofsted using a rating system. The school gets to advertise that score for the next year or so, meaning more students come to their school, meaning they improve in quality because they are then given more money in grants. It encourages schools to improve and keeps a level standard.

We have that as well, yes. But that’s not the issue. 

The whole rhetoric of “US schools are failing” started in the 80s with Reagan, pushing a voucher agenda. It has always been a dialogue aimed at delegitimizing public schools and then used as a justification to fuck schools over even more. To try to hand education more and more over to the private sector to make a profit on it. 

High stakes testing was justified with this “failing schools” rhetoric, and then schools that don’t perform as well (ie schools in poor neighborhoods) are given LESS FUNDING as a result, which only compounds the problem. (added to the fact that schools, at least in Texas where I live, are funded through property tax, poor neighborhoods get the poorest schools. Rich kids in rich towns go to rich schools.)  

And those tests? Test companies (like Pearson) make millions of dollars every year writing and scoring those tests, making and selling prep materials for those tests, and training teachers to administer those tests. And every time schools start to show improvement? They raise the pass-score. 

It’s a rigged system and the goal is to take poor public schools and turn them into profit mills for corporations and move the high performing kids to private for-profit schools at the same time.

anonymous asked:

If you don't mind me asking, what do you think the problems with common core are? I see a lot of complaining about the math, but it doesn't seem that confusing to me. The problems take a minute to understand, but I figured that was because I was unused to doing them that way

For starters, many people have misconceptions about what “the common core” actually is. The Common Core State Standards are just that - standards of what students in K-12 should be expected to be able to do in Mathematics and English Language Arts. They do not mandate specific teaching methods or problems solving strategies that kids must learn, and there are a variety of “common core aligned” teaching materials and curricula out there. 

What most people react to are simply alternative strategies for solving math problems, which, as you said, usually appear difficult only because you haven’t been taught how to do math that way. But just because you weren’t taught that way doesn’t mean there’s no benefit to doing it.

As for the actual problems with the CCSS, for starters, the standards weren’t really created by teachers:

In sum, only 3 of the 15 individuals on the 2009 CCSS math work group held positions as classroom teachers of mathematics. None was a classroom teacher in 2009. None taught elementary or middle school mathematics. Three other members have other classroom teaching experience in biology, English, and social studies. None taught elementary school. None taught special education or was certified in special education or English as a Second Language (ESL).

Only one CCSS math work group member was not affiliated with an education company or nonprofit.


In sum, 5 of the 15 individuals on the CCSS ELA work group have classroom experience teaching English. None was a classroom teacher in 2009. None taught elementary grades, special education, or ESL, and none hold certifications in these areas.

Five of the 15 CCSS ELA work group members also served on the CCSS math work group. Two are from Achieve; two, from ACT, and one, from College Board.

Overall, the standards were primarily designed by and meant to benefit educational and testing corporations such as Pearson and College Board, rather than being designed to meet the needs of students.

Actual problems resulting from this include developmentally inappropriate expectations, overemphasis on non-fiction over fiction, overemphasis on college preparation over civic and humanitarian education, and increasingly high-stakes testing (a feature, not a bug, though a problem that predates common core).

Former US Assistant Secretary of Education Diane Ravitch gives an overview of some of her reasons for opposing Common Core here, which is a good starting point if you’re interested in the topic. This WaPo article from 2014 also details how the development of the CCSS and the push for states to adopt them were both largely bankrolled by Bill Gates.

But teaching kids how to make 10 from 8 and 5 is actually a useful skill.

[[malaysia is an inbuilt YA dystopia]]

So I’ve been either reading or reading about YA dystopia, and lately there seems to be a common thread:

Teenagers, already in highly segregated societies, are arbitrarily streamed into specific lifepaths based on mandatory testing.

The Hunger Games has the Districts and the mandatory Reaping. Uglies has everyone go through plastic surgery at age 16 and even then there are subdivisions. DivergentThe Selection, Matched: similar. (hell even Harry Potter does this to some degree.)

I’m sitting here thinking: this sounds just like Malaysia.

There’s the cultural antagonism against teenagers and the need to control them: every so often the Government and the media (which the Government controls) go off on some moral panic or other about Zomg The Teenagers - black metal, drinking & promiscuous sex, pink biker gangs. Always some problem or other.

Then there’s the structural racial segregation (Malay/Chinese/Indian/Other), the segregation of access to resources based on that, the intersecting class divides.

Then you have the multiple national exams, which are specifically designed and promoted as determining your path in life. There’s the UPSR at 12 which determines which secondary school you go to, then the PMR at 15 which determines which set of subjects you can take the next two years (is that still a thing?), then the SPM at 17 which determines your success in life, supposedly. Get Straight As? Go to med school and the world is yours. Fail even one paper? DOOM. (Oh, and you must take Bio/Physics/Chem, never the Arts subjects, oh no those are for stupid people.)

After our PMR results were announced (I don’t recall if this happened at the end of Form 3 or the start of Form 4) we were streamed in Assembly based on our PMR scores. 4A and 4B took the standard set of SPM subjects plus Biology, Physics, Chemistry, Add Maths, and Accountancy; 4C and 4D had the same except for Accountancy; 4E had General Science, Commerce, and Accountancy I believe; 4F had General Science, Art, and Malay Literature. It was also the class where the students who didn’t do so well in the PMR exams were placed.

I was placed in 4C. I wanted to take English Literature but no one in my school would teach me (they needed a minimum of 10 people; only I and one other person were interested and she moved soon after anyway). In front of everyone I walked out of the 4C line and placed myself in the 4F line.

I caused an uproar for the next two years: “You’re wasting your grades!” “Are you in the right class?”

Some years later I returned to my school and talked to my juniors about Life After School, which no one had ever talked about. Essentially I told them that the grades didn’t have to determine your life path, that they had a lot more freedom than they think even if they fail, they’re still worthy people. The students cheered; the teachers glared.

Apparently I am Katniss Everdeen.

(I think my headmistress was somewhat fond of me though; she welcomed my proposal to speak to my juniors, had offered that I take the year off when I was diagnosed with panic disorder the year of my SPM exam - an option I stupidly refused - and had told my dad that after my defiance over Form 4 classes a lot of the high-achieving juniors followed my lead and took up the Arts. Win.)

I’m wondering if there are any YA dystopian stories of this kind set in Malaysia or Singapore or Japan or other places where high-stakes testing is already inbuilt into the system. You wouldn’t need to tweak much - just make the consequences of the testing more overt. Make it harder for someone like me to rabble-rouse. Make it sound so Poe that I would beg you to not give the Malaysian Government any more ideas.

If they do exist, please tell me; if they don’t, I might have to think about writing one.

Why I Prefer Portfolio Assessments

TL;DR: I oppose standardized testing and prefer portfolio assessments for a number of reasons.

I cannot stand standardized testing. But I will save my rage against standardized testing for its own post. This post is about my preference for portfolio assessments.

•What is a portfolio assessment?

It is a way to document student learning by gathering together a series of student created artifacts (projects, writing pieces, etc). It is supposed to be graded on its own merits rather against other students like in the case of high stakes testing. The point is to prove a student met a series of goals for that content area and that they understand what worked for them, what didn’t work for them, and why.

•How does a portfolio assessment work?

The beauty of a portfolio assessment is that there isn’t one correct way to do it. It can be implemented as a school/teacher sees fit. The major thing is that the portfolio is graded solely on the student’s own work and ability to demonstrate achievement of learning goals, in any way that works for the student. So each student might submit a different combination of pieces for their portfolio, based on what helped them reach their goals. Portfolio assessments also need a clear and objective rubric of what is expected to be included in the portfolio.

•So why are high stakes tests used instead?

It’s easier on a school/district/state/other government body to administer one test to every single student. Portfolios take longer to grade and don’t lead themselves to comparing schools against each other.

•Who would portfolio assessments particularly benefit?

Students with IEPs and ELLs would particularly benefit from portfolio assessments, as the high stakes tests are often written for them to not do well either because the reading level is too high for the student’s ability, the cultural references are foreign to the students, and/or the instructions/test questions are too vague and confusing with multiple possible right answers. Some states in the US offer this option to certain students with IEPs. It should be expanded to at least all students with IEPs and all ELLs if not to all students. Also art classes are usually graded on portfolios as are some IB classes graded partly on a portfolio (i.e. IB Music and the IB foreign language classes).

So let’s use a fictional autistic student as an example:

A high stakes/standardized test can be very stressful. They are trapped in a room, expected to sit still and not stim for hours on end (as it is possible that the student has time and a half or double time, depending on their IEP). These tests were written for neurotypicals and may include references that this autistic student can’t understand, leading to more frustration. The environment may be bothering them sensory wise (for example; some autistics don’t do well in silence, also the room may be too hot or too cold).

But a portfolio assessment could help this student. The rubric should be written with clear and specific instructions that the student can reference back to when needed. The assignments can be submitted over the school term/year as to not have that “all or nothing” pressure adding to their possible anxiety. Their assignments submitted would reflect how they actually learn vs how they are expected to learn.

I would love the high stakes/standardized testing system abolished for a portfolio assessment system.

This can’t be another rant about “new math” or “common core!” Yes, it can.

The attached picture is from a friend of mine, brought home from school by her seven-year-old daughter. As anyone can clearly see, all of her work is correct. And yet, it is all marked up with red and points taken off. Now, it may be that there is some new method being taught here that wasn’t followed by this very bright and independent child, but a correct answer is a correct answer. The kid knows his numbers and digit places. Her answers are RIGHT!

Further, if they want to teach the method and force kids to learn it, marking correct answers in red is not the right approach, unless your goal is to have them lose faith in education itself. Nowhere on this page does it let the child know that she was correct, even if she didn’t use the desired method. This young girl, who is off-the-charts brilliant, now hates math. Not because of this one assignment, but because of the cumulative effect of others like it. She’s smart. She “gets” what is being asked intuitively, but because she didn’t follow some new method, she’s being given the message that she actually DOESN’T know what she’s doing, her instincts are wrong, and she’s not good at math.

Please know that I am not quarreling with whatever method was supposed to be applied here. After all, I can’t for the life of me figure out what that method is and it is unwise to quarrel with something one doesn’t understand. What I do take serious issue with is the implementation of these new math teaching methods that, whatever their merit, are doing great harm.

This…. THIS is why confidence in our education system is so low. THIS is why basically zero parents support common core and high-stakes standardized testing. Because no one bothered to explain what the hell this new math is to the parents that are supposed to be involved in their kids’ education. Because no one thought that active, engaged parents will be helping kids with their homework and then be perplexed, frustrated, and tell the kids that it’s just wrong or the teacher is bad, or worse.

My friend is a super involved mother. She doesn’t have to help her very smart child, but she does check her work and talk about it with her. Well, she used to. She has no idea what to even tell her child about this page, and the school sent no resources home about whatever method this is.

Can anyone out there help? If you are also confused, please SIGNAL BOOST THIS and let’s see if some K-8 teachers or administrators can enlighten us as to what is going on here, if for no other reason than to help my friend try to rescue her daughter’s waning love of math.


If I Knew Then: A Letter to Me on My First Day Teaching

In honor of teacher appreciation week, SoulPancake and Edutopia asked teachers to write a letter to themselves on their first day teaching.

This really resonated with me as I watched it on my lunch break during the first day of our high-stakes standardized testing…after being at school until 10 pm the night before. 

I’m still in my first year (though I’m nearing the home stretch!) and I feel like I could already write a novel to the person I was just nine months ago.

To all of my teacher friends here on #Education, I appreciate you for all that you do. I appreciate you always, but today I shout it out for all to hear - you matter, you are making a difference in your students’ lives, and you are doing great things. 

Never forget that.

Common Core

As I sit in a classroom dodging the Common Core English Regents I am refusing to take I search the internet for the complaints against the new system. My argument is that the high stakes testing causes the restraint of creativity and teacher autonomy in the classroom. It equates intelligence and success to memorizing and not critical thought. It is stressing children so should be playing, not studying, and it is limiting real educational opportunity. However, after seeing others arguments, I see why some form of common core is necessary.
These conservatives are up in arms about the new standard of having to teach actual facts in their classroom. They are no longer allowed to teach false sex-education, they must teach evolution in science classes, and they must teach the true damage that colonialism had on native populations (no more stories about how Christopher Columbus was a hero and how the Pilgrims were best friends with the Indians.)
We need to have some standard mandating the teaching of facts rather than myths that perpetuate ignorance and hate. However, there must be some way to do this without the crazy high stakes testing that permeates every subject and grade, taking all autonomy away and wiping out critical though.
That is my contest to the Common Core, it’s flawed, but not completely wrong. I believe what we must do is learn from other around the world. When we look to the best educational systems in the world we see very little state testing, high paid and well educated teachers, and fulfilled and well rounded children. Are we so insistent on getting the best scores and numbers that we must sacrifice true education for some rank of “best in the world”.
When I look at the way our educational system is going I am chillingly reminded of the system of 1800’s Germany. A system documented in the play Spring Awakening which I was recently part of, and therefore did research on. This high stakes test based system was renowned as best in the world. Students would leave the system knowing all the classics of Latin and Greek civilization and advanced algebra and trigonometry. However, these students knew nothing of critical thought, current events, or the state of their own government. This was documented in journal entries from students of the time. As well, the pressure put on these students was so great that any low test grade was a threat to the school itself. This lead to extremely high standards, no rest or play for the children, and eventually, very high teen suicide rates. Is this the kind of system we want on our country? One where we have suicide rates to match our test scores. I certainly don’t. History repeats itself, let us learn for once.

Hey guys, it’s Irin. I took the keys this morning to let y’all know that Shana is taking the bar exam TOMORROW (and the next day too.) Yes, that’s right, while holding down this place and, um, co-authoring a book, Shana has been juggling finishing law school and prepping for what anyone will tell you is a brutally unfun, high-stakes testing experience. So please send her good vibes in this space! Or tag your cheerful animals on Instagram with @notoriousrbg. By the way, she’s a dog person.

5 Reasons to Vote for Jill in 2016

1. Jill is against fracking and other harmful ways of extracting fossil fuels. As president, she would push for the United States to be using 100% renewable resources by 2030.

2. Jill is extremely progressive concerning social issues, being pro-gender equality, pro-racial equality, and pro-marriage equality.

3. As president, Jill would push for healthcare becoming a universal right, open to all. 

4. Jill would put a stop to high-stakes testing and the Common Core standards.

5. Jill would make attending college completely free, removing the shackles of student loan debt from America’s young people. 

Normally, I don’t talk policy...

But I’m going to now. 

Here’s an idea. What if… we held students accountable for their learning? 

GASP! (clutches pearls, straightens tie)

I mean it. 

What would happen if we truly promoted kids based on what they learned instead of whether or not they showed up at school? 

There’s so much fucking bureaucracy in education. And what do kids complain about? The dress code. Cell phone policies. Attendance policies. 

What do teachers say the most? “I just want to teach.” 

What if those were irrelevant? What if the kid who didn’t show up in school failed? What if we had a class of 16 year olds who read on a 2nd grade level and received actual coaching for that instead of just shoving them along because you can’t have a 16 year old in 2nd grade. 


If you’re a teacher, you’re probably saying… kids won’t come to school. They won’t do their homework. Kids will drop out. They’ll fail. 

And if you’re an administrator, you’re probably losing your shit. Why are you reading this blog, anyway? 

Why shouldn’t there REAL consequences for their actions? And why can’t we help them choose to do the right thing? 

Why can’t a kid who drops out come back to school? Do we welcome them? Do we offer them an alternative for their problems? NOT RIGHT NOW WE DON’T. 

But do they come to school now? Their bodies are there, but their brains are not. Do they do their homework? Mine don’t, and they’re AP students. 

Have we always been perfect? Have we made mistakes? Have we had to fix those mistakes? 

Why don’t we help kids do that now? Learning how to overcome adversity, to resolve your problems, to achieve despite setbacks- isn’t that what school is about? 

Right now we have this “high stakes testing” bullshit, but it’s not high stakes for the kids. If they don’t score well, who does it hurt? Not them. They give exactly zero fucks. It hurts the school and you can tell because that’s who cares about the results. Not the students. 

What if those tests meant something? What if those tests meant you had to prove that you could accomplish a specific skill before you could move on? 

What if, what if, what if? What if education meant something for everyone involved? 

Jill Stein 2016

Yo yo yo! Listen up people of the United States on Tumblr!

Are you tired of the ‘bipartisan’ bullshit in our government?

Me too. Vote for Jill Stein and support the Green Party.

Here’s what she’s all about!:

“My Power to the People Plan creates deep system change, moving from the greed and exploitation of corporate capitalism to a human-centered economy that puts people, planet and peace over profit.

It offers direct answers to the economic, social, and ecological crises brought on by both corporate political parties. And it empowers the American people to fix our broken political system and make real the promise of democracy.

This plan will end unemployment and poverty; avert climate catastrophe; build a sustainable, just economy; and recognize the dignity and human rights of everyone in our society and our world. The power to create this new world is not in our hopes, it’s not in our dreams - it’s in our hands.” - Jill Stein

Key points of the Power to the People Plan:

A Green New Deal: Create millions of jobs by transitioning to 100% clean renewable energy by 2030, and investing in public transit, sustainable agriculture, and conservation.

Jobs as a Right: Create living-wage jobs for every American who needs work, replacing unemployment offices with employment offices. Advance workers rights to form unions, achieve workplace democracy, and keep a fair share of the wealth they create.

End Poverty: Guarantee economic human rights, including access to food, water, housing, and utilities, with effective anti-poverty programs to ensure every American a life of dignity.

Health Care as a Right: Establish an improved “Medicare For All” single-payer public health insurance program to provide everyone with quality health care, at huge savings.

Education as a Right: Abolish student debt to free a generation of Americans from debt servitude. Guarantee tuition-free, world-class public education from pre-school through university. End high stakes testing and public school privatization.

A Just Economy: Set a $15/hour federal minimum wage. Break up “too-big-to-fail” banks and democratize the Federal Reserve. Reject gentrification as a model of economic development. Support development of worker and community cooperatives and small businesses. Make Wall Street, big corporations, and the rich pay their fair share of taxes. Create democratically run public banks and utilities. Replace corporate trade agreements with fair trade agreements.

Protect Mother Earth: Lead on a global treaty to halt climate change. End destructive energy extraction: fracking, tar sands, offshore drilling, oil trains, mountaintop removal, and uranium mines. Protect our public lands, water supplies, biological diversity, parks, and pollinators. Label GMOs, and put a moratorium on GMOs and pesticides until they are proven safe. Protect the rights of future generations.

Freedom and Equality: End police brutality, mass incarceration and institutional racism within our justice system. Expand women’s rights, protect LGBT people from discrimination, defend indigenous rights and lands, and create a welcoming path to citizenship for immigrants. Protect the free Internet, replace drug prohibition with harm reduction, and legalize marijuana/hemp.

Justice for All: Restore our Constitutional rights, terminate unconstitutional surveillance and unwarranted spying, end persecution of government and media whistleblowers, close Guantanamo, abolish secret kill lists, and repeal indefinite detention without charge or trial.

Peace and Human Rights: Establish a foreign policy based on diplomacy, international law, and human rights. End the wars and drone attacks, cut military spending by at least 50% and close the 700+ foreign military bases that are turning our republic into a bankrupt empire. Stop U.S. support and arms sales to human rights abusers, and lead on global nuclear disarmament.

Empower the People: Abolish corporate personhood. Protect voters’ rights by establishing a constitutional right to vote.  Enact electoral reforms that break the big money stranglehold and create truly representative democracy: public campaign financing, ranked-choice voting, proportional representation, and open debates.

If this sounds nice and reasonable, spread her name, and vote Stein when the time arrives! <3 

It’s in our hands.