high gamma

AUDIO RECORDINGS OF ALL EIGHT KNOWN PLANETS (AND PLUTO)

Hey, space witches! Did you know that thanks to NASA’s Voyager missions in the 70s, we have up-close audio recordings off all the major celestial objects in our solar system. More accurately, they’re recordings of Sol’s electromagnetic waves reflecting off the planets and their respective atmospheres and magnetospheres, translated into sound. It’s great background noise for any cosmic ritual or meditation, esp if you’re trying to invoke a certain planet.

Mercury
https://youtu.be/894Aejo-R0U

Venus
https://youtu.be/-ewPtH31Xr8

Terra
https://youtu.be/NhAXIjJ56xE

Mars
https://youtu.be/8gUx2EQXf88

Jupiter
https://youtu.be/oWTC7P1Dprw

Saturn
https://youtu.be/X_JAvVjKeWI

Uranus
https://youtu.be/yXfJG1gs3b4

Neptune
https://youtu.be/MuODoF16Cck

Pluto & Charon (b/c of New Horizons, we have TONS of new audio)
https://youtu.be/a-D1BQNWm9g

And as if that wasn’t enough, thanks to the discoveries of Arno Penzias and Robert Wilson in 1965, we know that the Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation detectable across the whole sky emits a sound like a brutal howling windstorm. The CMBR is the leftover radiation from the big bang. Cosmic expansion has stretched these waves so far that they have been distorted from high-frequency gamma waves to moderately low-frequency microwaves.

This is audio of the universe’s creation:
https://youtu.be/WB5jmdJvQeU
 

From microwaves to megamasers

Phenomena across the Universe emit radiation spanning the entire electromagnetic spectrum — from high-energy gamma rays, which stream out from the most energetic events in the cosmos, to lower-energy microwaves and radio waves.

Microwaves, the very same radiation that can heat up your dinner, are produced by a multitude of astrophysical sources, including strong emitters known as masers (microwave lasers), even stronger emitters with the somewhat villainous name of megamasers, and the centres of some galaxies. Especially intense and luminous galactic centres are known as active galactic nuclei. They are in turn thought to be driven by the presence of supermassive black holes, which drag surrounding material inwards and spit out bright jets and radiation as they do so.

The two galaxies shown here, imaged by the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, are named MCG+01-38-004 (the upper, red-tinted one) and MCG+01-38-005 (the lower, blue-tinted one). MCG+01-38-005 is a special kind of megamaser; the galaxy’s active galactic nucleus pumps out huge amounts of energy, which stimulates clouds of surrounding water. Water’s constituent atoms of hydrogen and oxygen are able to absorb some of this energy and re-emit it at specific wavelengths, one of which falls within the microwave regime. MCG+01-38-005 is thus known as a water megamaser!

Astronomers can use such objects to probe the fundamental properties of the Universe. The microwave emissions from MCG+01-38-005 were used to calculate a refined value for the Hubble constant, a measure of how fast the Universe is expanding. This constant is named after the astronomer whose observations were responsible for the discovery of the expanding Universe and after whom the Hubble Space Telescope was named, Edwin Hubble.

Credits: ESA/Hubble & NASA, CC BY 4.0

This is the perfect human. Handsome, suave, sensual, genetically flawless. One could only wish in the infinite parallel universes and galaxies to find a man such as this. There is only one Carl. Scientists captured this image with ultra high tech gamma lenses and it still does not do the image justice. No camera could capture this man in his full unadulterated glory. No artist could even attempt to recreate the pure magnificence this man possess on a canvas. Many have searched across the galaxy for this man. Most have failed, but those who succeed instantly succumb to utter madness and kill themselves. In the moment a person perceives this man in his full glory, they understand that their life will never be as good as it was in that moment. Upon realizing this, there is no other option but to end what will undoubtedly be years of a life of suffering and longing for what once was, but cannot stay. Carl is the manifestation of serenity, of nirvana, of objective, universal love.

Unexpected Mutant (Steve Rogers x Reader)

Chapter 1

They all split into teams of two, Steve, Nat, and Bruce in search of these lower level Hell’s, and Tony, Thor, and Clint keeping the building secure, as best they could. Upon arrival, it was confirmed that whatever was going on, most of the building had no idea Harry Osborne was taken captive in his own father’s business. After managing to get into the building, finding the lower levels wasn’t as hard as they thought, but it was huge.

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washingtonpost.com
‘Thor: Ragnarok’ is 2017’s biggest superhero movie mystery
Every 2017 superhero movie offering has given us a first look except for Marvel Studios' God of Thunder.

Marvel Studios’ God of Thunder has yet to send us a new theatrical bolt from the blue.

Of all the cinematic superhero offerings this year will bring — including “The Lego Batman Movie” (Feb. 10), “Logan” (March 3), “Guardians of the Galaxy: Volume 2” (May 5), “Wonder Woman” (June 2), “Spider-Man: Homecoming” (July 7) and “Justice League” (Nov. 17) — “Thor: Ragnarok” (Nov. 3) remains the only one that has yet to release a trailer.

Over the summer, Marvel Studios released a quick and funny video during San Diego Comic-Con featuring Chris Hemsworth explaining why Thor was absent from “Captain America: Civil War,” but other than that we’ve seen nothing new in regards to the character.

With so many superhero trailers being released in 2016, perhaps Marvel Studios thought it would be best to hold off on releasing any new looks at “Thor: Ragnarok” because the film won’t arrive in theaters until later this year.

Another reason could be the high-profile gamma-radiated and green co-star who will fight alongside (or against?) Thor in “Ragnarok,” the Incredible Hulk. A CGI character with such a big role is probably quite time-consuming in the editing process and perhaps the Hulk’s parts in “Ragnarok” are still being tweaked.

The only thing we know so far about the Hulk’s presence in “Thor: Ragnarok” is that Mark Ruffalo will be reprising his role as Bruce Banner/Hulk and that the Hulk’s body armor from the “Planet Hulk” story from the pages of Marvel Comics (in which the Hulk becomes a warrior/champion on a distant planet) will appear. (This, too, was revealed at San Diego Comic-Con.)

The Hulk’s armor reveal so far is the biggest inside look we’ve had into “Thor: Ragnarok,” but it brings about more questions for the movie, such as:

  • How much of the “Planet Hulk” story can you fit into a movie that isn’t an “Incredible Hulk” movie? This is Thor’s movie, after all.
  • Now that Natalie Portman is no longer a part of the Thor movie franchise, will there be any romance? Will actress Tessa Thompson’s Valkyrie fill a romantic void in “Ragnarok?”
  • Will Thor go on a mission to find the Hulk? If so, will they be allies? Enemies? One of the most fun moments for fans in the first “Avengers” movie was when Thor and the Hulk traded punches with each other, a nod to the many times in the comics these two went at it to see who was the strongest there is in the Marvel universe. Can a movie featuring Thor and the Hulk provide another round of blows?
  • Will this be the last Thor movie? This is the third movie in the franchise, after “Thor” (2011) and “Thor: The Dark World” (2013). Will “Ragnarok” and the next two “Avengers” movies be it for Hemsworth as Thor?
  • Could this movie be a rebirth for the Hulk movie franchise, assuming Marvel Studios (who controls Thor) could work out a deal with Universal (who controls the Hulk) similar to the one they did with Sony to make “Spider-Man: Homecoming”? Also, is “Thor: Ragnarok” the start of a new movie format for Marvel, one that has the feel of Marvel Comics’ “Marvel Team-Up” comic books from the ’70s and ’80s?

Perhaps only Mjolnir knows. Until then, we continue to wait for our first look at “Thor: Ragnarok”

theatlantic.com
The Brains of the Buddhists
What happens when you put a monk in an MRI machine.

In 1992, the neuroscientist Richard Davidson got a challenge from the Dalai Lama. By that point, he’d spent his career asking why people respond to, in his words, “life’s slings and arrows” in different ways. Why are some people more resilient than others in the face of tragedy? And is resilience something you can gain through practice?

The Dalai Lama had a different question for Davidson when he visited the Tibetan Buddhist spiritual leader at his residence in Dharamsala, India. “He said: ‘You’ve been using the tools of modern neuroscience to study depression, and anxiety, and fear. Why can’t you use those same tools to study kindness and compassion?’ … I did not have a very good answer. I said it was hard.”

The Dalai Lama was interested in what the tools of modern neuroscience could reveal about the brains of people who spent years, in Davidson’s words, “cultivating well-being … cultivating qualities of the mind which promote a positive outlook.” The result was that, not long afterward, Davidson brought a series of Buddhist monks into his lab and strapped electrodes to their heads or treated them to a few hours in an MRI machine.

“The best way to activate positive-emotion circuits in the brain is through generosity,” Davidson, who founded the Center for Investigating Healthy Minds at University of Wisconsin, Madison, said in a talk at the Aspen Ideas Festival. “This is really a kind of exciting neuroscientific finding because there are pearls of wisdom in the contemplative tradition—the Dalai Lama frequently talks about this—that the best way for us to be happy is to be generous to others. And in fact the scientific evidence is in many ways bearing this out, and showing that there are systematic changes in the brain that are associated with acts of generosity.”


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Txch This Week: Lab-On-A-Chip Gets Big Boost And The Lemon-Shaped Moon

by Annie Epstein

This week on Txchnologist, we felt a tug on our heartstrings when we read about Lyman Connor’s story. After a fall, Connor spent some time in the hospital and met a small boy who had lost his hand. Inspired by the boy’s plight, he set out to make a low-cost, app-controlled bionic hand. The engineering part has been a success. Now he just needs to find the boy again.

A Swiss team is hard at work creating a new way to filter water at the speedy rate of almost a liter per minute. Their personal water treatment technology uses an advanced polymer membrane with nanoscopic pores that block bacteria, viruses and other microbes from passing through. The device screws on to any plastic bottle and can filter 300 liters of contaminated water, one person’s hydration requirements over the course of a year. 

Manufacturing has begun on parts for the world’s largest experimental nuclear fusion reactor, expected to begin operating in 2020. The international project, now estimated to cost around $20 billion to construct, involves cooperation between Europe, the U.S., Russia, Japan, China, South Korea and India. If it works, the reactor is expected to generate 500 megawatts of power, and one gram of hydrogen fuel will generate as much power as eight tons of oil.

Finally, agricultural scientists are making potatoes for Millenials. Using the age-old method of selective plant breeding, researchers are coming out with tubers colored like raspberries and others splashed with purple accents. Move over bland russets, potatoes with flair will be making their way to markets soon.

Now we’re bringing you the news we’ve been following this week in the world of science, technology and innovation.

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NASA's Fermi mission expands its search for dark matter

Dark matter, the mysterious substance that constitutes most of the material universe, remains as elusive as ever. Although experiments on the ground and in space have yet to find a trace of dark matter, the results are helping scientists rule out some of the many theoretical possibilities. Three studies published earlier this year, using six or more years of data from NASA’s Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope, have broadened the mission’s dark matter hunt using some novel approaches.

“We’ve looked for the usual suspects in the usual places and found no solid signals, so we’ve started searching in some creative new ways,” said Julie McEnery, Fermi project scientist at NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland. “With these results, Fermi has excluded more candidates, has shown that dark matter can contribute to only a small part of the gamma-ray background beyond our galaxy, the Milky Way, and has produced strong limits for dark matter particles in the second-largest galaxy orbiting it.”

Dark matter neither emits nor absorbs light, primarily interacts with the rest of the universe through gravity, yet accounts for about 80 percent of the matter in the universe. Astronomers see its effects throughout the cosmos – in the rotation of galaxies, in the distortion of light passing through galaxy clusters, and in simulations of the early universe, which require the presence of dark matter to form galaxies at all.

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This scale that compares the length of different electromagnetic radiation waves to marine creatures and objects might be helpful to people studying or teaching basic physics. 

A high-energy gamma ray’s wavelength is shorter than an atom’s width. A high-frequency, lower energy radio wavelength, meanwhile, can fit three blue whales lined up from snout to fluke. At the longest end of the spectrum sit extremely low frequency radio waves, which can have a wavelength more than 6,000 miles long and are naturally produced by lightning and stars. These can penetrate ocean water and have been used to communicate with submarines.

See a larger version of this graphic here. Courtesy of brookhavenlab, which uses high-energy X-rays to explore materials at the nanoscale.

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NASA’s Fermi mission expands its search for dark matter

Dark matter, the mysterious substance that constitutes most of the material universe, remains as elusive as ever. Although experiments on the ground and in space have yet to find a trace of dark matter, the results are helping scientists rule out some of the many theoretical possibilities. Three studies published earlier this year, using six or more years of data from NASA’s Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope, have broadened the mission’s dark matter hunt using some novel approaches.
“We’ve looked for the usual suspects in the usual places and found no solid signals, so we’ve started searching in some creative new ways,” said Julie McEnery, Fermi project scientist at NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland. “With these results, Fermi has excluded more candidates, has shown that dark matter can contribute to only a small part of the gamma-ray background beyond our galaxy, the Milky Way, and has produced strong limits for dark matter particles in the second-largest galaxy orbiting it.”

Dark matter neither emits nor absorbs light, primarily interacts with the rest of the universe through gravity, yet accounts for about 80 percent of the matter in the universe. Astronomers see its effects throughout the cosmos – in the rotation of galaxies, in the distortion of light passing through galaxy clusters, and in simulations of the early universe, which require the presence of dark matter to form galaxies at all.

The leading candidates for dark matter are different classes of hypothetical particles. Scientists think gamma rays, the highest-energy form of light, can help reveal the presence of some of types of proposed dark matter particles. Previously, Fermi has searched for tell-tale gamma-ray signals associated with dark matter in the center of our galaxy and in small dwarf galaxies orbiting our own. Although no convincing signals were found, these results eliminated candidates within a specific range of masses and interaction rates, further limiting the possible characteristics of dark matter particles.

Among the new studies, the most exotic scenario investigated was the possibility that dark matter might consist of hypothetical particles called axions or other particles with similar properties. An intriguing aspect of axion-like particles is their ability to convert into gamma rays and back again when they interact with strong magnetic fields.

These conversions would leave behind characteristic traces, like gaps or steps, in the spectrum of a bright gamma-ray source.

Manuel Meyer at Stockholm University led a study to search for these effects in the gamma rays from NGC 1275, the central galaxy of the Perseus galaxy cluster, located about 240 million light-years away.

High-energy emissions from NGC 1275 are thought to be associated with a supermassive black hole at its center. Like all galaxy clusters, the Perseus cluster is filled with hot gas threaded with magnetic fields, which would enable the switch between gamma rays and axion-like particles. This means some of the gamma rays coming from NGC 1275 could convert into axions – and potentially back again – as they make their way to us.

Meyer’s team collected observations from Fermi’s Large Area Telescope (LAT) and searched for predicted distortions in the gamma-ray signal. The findings, published April 20 in Physical Review Letters, exclude a small range of axion-like particles that could have comprised about 4 percent of dark matter.

“While we don’t yet know what dark matter is, our results show we can probe axion-like models and provide the strongest constraints to date for certain masses,” Meyer said. “Remarkably, we reached a sensitivity we thought would only be possible in a dedicated laboratory experiment, which is quite a testament to Fermi.”

Another broad class of dark matter candidates are called Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs). In some versions, colliding WIMPs either mutually annihilate or produce an intermediate, quickly decaying particle. Both scenarios result in gamma rays that can be detected by the LAT.

Regina Caputo at the University of California, Santa Cruz, sought these signals from the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC), which is located about 200,000 light-years away and is the second-largest of the small satellite galaxies orbiting the Milky Way. Part of the SMC’s appeal for a dark matter search is that it lies comparatively close to us and its gamma-ray emission from conventional sources, like star formation and pulsars, is well understood. Most importantly, astronomers have high-precision measurements of the SMC’s rotation curve, which shows how its rotational speed changes with distance from its center and indicates how much dark matter is present. In a paper published in Physical Review D on March 22, Caputo and her colleagues modeled the dark matter content of the SMC, showing it possessed enough to produce detectable signals for two WIMP types.

“The LAT definitely sees gamma rays from the SMC, but we can explain them all through conventional sources,” Caputo said. “No signal from dark matter annihilation was found to be statistically significant.”

In the third study, researchers led by Marco Ajello at Clemson University in South Carolina and Mattia Di Mauro at SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory in California took the search in a different direction. Instead of looking at specific astronomical targets, the team used more than 6.5 years of LAT data to analyze the background glow of gamma rays seen all over the sky.

The nature of this light, called the extragalactic gamma-ray background (EGB) has been debated since it was first measured by NASA’s Small Astronomy Satellite 2 in the early 1970s. Fermi has shown that much of this light arises from unresolved gamma-ray sources, particularly galaxies called blazars, which are powered by material falling toward gigantic black holes. Blazars constitute more than half of the total gamma-ray sources seen by Fermi, and they make up an even greater share in a new LAT catalog of the highest-energy gamma rays.

Some models predict that EGB gamma rays could arise from distant interactions of dark matter particles, such as the annihilation or decay of WIMPs. In a detailed analysis of high-energy EGB gamma rays, published April 14 in Physical Review Letters, Ajello and his team show that blazars and other discrete sources can account for nearly all of this emission.

“There is very little room left for signals from exotic sources in the extragalactic gamma-ray background, which in turn means that any contribution from these sources must be quite small,” Ajello said. “This information may help us place limits on how often WIMP particles collide or decay.”

Although these latest studies have come up empty-handed, the quest to find dark matter continues both in space and in ground-based experiments. Fermi is joined in its search by NASA’s Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer, a particle detector on the International Space Station.

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After years of delays, Russia is preparing to launch a Soyuz 2-1a rocket from the new Vostochny cosmodrone near the Chinese border.

Vostochny was built to eventually ease reliance off the historic Baikonur cosmodrome, which is located on Kazakhstan land leased to Russia.

The inaugural Soyuz has been undergoing prolonged prelaunch checkouts in the new spaceport’s facilities, making sure both they and the vehicle are properly working. Rollout occurred March 21, and the vehicle returned to its integration hall a week later.

Launch is tentatively scheduled for April 25 and will loft a satellite aiming to study high-energy cosmic rays, gamma rays and the magnetosphere.

My parents believe that I’m the only teenager that: is lazy, stays up late, has a messy room, is constantly emitting high energy gamma rays & levitates in midair while chanting in an unknown language

anonymous asked:

What are the best representations of the atomic theory? How are particles actually measured and visualized? What is the smallest particle we can see, with aide? What is the best evidence that proves the existence of the atom? I use particle, atom, electron here interchangeably for your answering purposes.

Can’t you just ask why clouds are white…

  • What are the best representations of the atomic theory? 

The best rep. of the atomic theory is the current theoretical model of the atom which involves a dense nucleus surrounded by a probabilistic cloud of electrons.

  • How are particles actually measured and visualized? 

If they’re heavy enough you put them on a scale and do some other measurements and then some very simple math. 

But if we’re dealing with subatomic particles its a little bit more complicated. Usually they are measured by their relationship with energy and momentum (Einsteins famous equation)

For example if you wanted to measure a proton, you put it in a mass spectrometer. Accelerating it to a known electric field gives it kinetic energy proportional to its charge, causing the proton to move in a circular path in a uniform, well-calibrated magnetic field allowing the momentum to be measured quite precisely.

Visualizing them is another thing. 

Believe it or not, this is a color photograph of a single trapped barium ion held in a radio-frequency Paul trap. Resonant blue and red lasers enter from the left and are focused to the center of the trap, where the single ion is constrained to orbit a region of space about 1 millionth of a meter in size.

another great way is when Gerd Binnig and Heinrich Rohrer won the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1986 for inventing the Scanning tunneling microscope. An instrument for imaging surfaces at the atomic level. IBM made a movie with it called a boy and his atom. (below you see carbon monoxide molecules moved frame by frame to make a movie, gif made by me)

  • What is the smallest particle we can see, with aide? 

My educated guess would be the photon. If we were to take it’s size by wavelength we could probably detect high energy gamma photons which could be considered the smallest particle we could see with the use of an instrument. 

The smallest particle…or sub-particle by mass would be the neutrino, we havn’t measured a the correct mass of a neutrino yet, but we know that its the particle with the least mass out there we can detect (or not, i don’t really know, google it)

  • What is the best evidence that proves the existence of the atom? 

Is this a joke? I hope it is. Because almost everything you see with you naked eye is made out of atoms, and there are countless experiments proving the existence of the atom AS I HAVE SHOWN ABOVE… Believing anything else would be blasphemy in the eyes of science.

You can litterally see atoms these days, and some sub atomic particles too, take for example an alpha particle which is just a helium nucleus. We can see those in a cloud chamber.

(gif taken from my post: Background Radiation in a cloud chamber)

I hope my answers satisfy your questions. Cheers

-rudescience