high frog

if I watch any Disney movies with you then don’t expect that we’re just gonna “watch it”. no. we’re gonna sing the songs, know the choreography, memorize the lines, and I expect you to understand the references. Because once you agree to watch with me, there is no turning back.

Imagine Your Otp Once Again

Person A and B just did the (͡° ͜ʖ ͡°) and are going to sleep and Person B starts talking to themself like “ ‘Hey B nice job tonight’ 'Thanks me, I know, I’ve been practicing’ 'I especially like that one move you made’ 'oh please you’re too kind’ ” and they think A can’t hear them because they’re asleep but oh no A is very much awake and needs saving


The Ultraterrestrial/Interdimensional, Fairy, Missing 411 connection explained perfectly.

(I did not write this)

I am an avid fisherman and hiker living in Southern New England who also has an interest in the Fortean and occult. Needless to say when I was made aware of your body of work in relation to unexplained disappearances, my curiosity was piqued. Over this past winter I have read both the Eastern and Western installments of the North American Missing 411 series. The quality of the research you have accomplished is remarkable. Also, the efforts you have made in pushing the National Parks Service in relinquishing more information on these cases deserves a thank you. My understanding is that the amount of time you have devoted to this project is on par with that of  a full time job, and the quality of the work reflects that.

In addition to thanking you for your work, I am also writing you with some observations I have on the 411 phenomenon. The pattern outlined in the North American 411 books of sudden disappearances in rural settings, experienced outdoorsmen becoming inexplicably lost, clothing found missing or inside out, and survivors experiencing either no recollection or severely impeded recollections, fits a much older phenomenon. It is found in various folklores the world over. In each incarnation of it, it is described similarly, even among cultures separated by thousands of miles and hundreds of years.

There are countless stories and traditions centered around a race of non-human entities who occupy the world alongside us, outside our perception, yet occasionally pushing into it. They’ve been called fairies,  elves, dwarves, puccas, boggarts, djinn, “The Fair Folk” elementals and countless other names. They have likely been derided as demons and worshipped as gods. The late Fortean John Keel referred to them as “Ultraterrestrials”, visitors not from another planet, but from rather a facet of this one that we aren’t typically familiar with. It’s been posited that they actually account for the bulk of the ET phenomenon and are also behind the more biologically unliekly cryptids.

Regardless of the name, the description of their actions is always the same: mischievous  tricksters who specialize in abducting humans, confusing and leading travelers astray, having dominion over nature and the weather, being associated with particular locations and landmarks, and having a confused preoccupation human clothing. All of these factors combined makes the Ultraterrestrial phenomenon an interesting potential culprit in the Missing 411 cases.

Perhaps the most notorious trait of these beings is their penchant for abducting humans as well as tricking travelers. An excerpt from 17th century guide on the paranormal and the occult gives this description of it

“And many such have been taken away by the said spirits, for a fortnight or month together, being carried with them in their chariots through the air, over hills and dales, rocks and precipices, till at last they have been found lying in some meadow or mountain, bereaved of their senses.”

The fairy abduction phenomenon is best known in regards to “changelings”, human infants that are stolen away and are replaced with a stand in of some variety. However, there are many accounts of fairies abducting adults as well. Alleged reasons as to why fairies would abduct humans included punishment for perceived disrespect, interbreeding with fairies to strengthen their bloodline (a similarity to the modern UFO abduction phenomenon), and in some folklore accounts, to utilize human talents, such as musicianship, for fairy entertainment. One account of the phantom light phenomenon know as “Will O the Wisp” states that the lights hanging in some forests are the captured souls of humans abducted by fairies.

Fairies were said to carry humans away into their world by abruptly entering solid objects such as large boulders, crags, and earthen mounds. In many of the cases you outline, people go missing suddenly while a companion has their backed turned. Others are seemingly the victim of an abductor who infiltrates an area with impossible, almost supernatural stealth. Some are even discovered in areas thoroughly searched by SAR, as if placed there after the area was combed. And often, recovered victims’ conditions were far superior to than what weather would warrant, as if they were kept somewhere out of the elements. Also, tracking dogs are unable to pick up a scent in many of your cases, as if the victim has gone off the face of the Earth. Entities such as these that do not seem to be entirely physical and would be able to enter our “sphere of sensation,” reality as we know it, and then exit, bringing their captive with them, would potentially be able to achieve all of this.

Furthermore, upon returning, fairy abductees would have a very incomplete account of what happened to them as well as experiencing missing time. Abductees would feel as if they had been held captive for minutes, but in fact it had been hours or days. This matches the high incidence of hazy memories and missing time in living 411 recoverees.  

Related to their abduction behavior, fairies were said to hold great powers of influence over human perception and were adept at misleading travelers. Through an ability known as “glamour” fairies are said to be able to affect human perception to such an extent that they could make their victims hallucinate. Through glamour, fairies could make a pile of leaves appear to be a vast treasure or a banquet of food. Also, glamour could allow fairies to persuade humans to do dangerous and counter intuitive acts.

A great example of this is a tale from the Cherokee Indians of North Carolina regarding their little people, which they called the Yunwi Tsundsi. They were said to leave small human like prints in the snow, but were dangerous to follow, as the little people would throw stones at them or put them under a spell. The story goes that a Cherokee hunter followed the Yunwi Tsundsi tracks through the mountains until he found them dancing in a cave. He stayed with them for sixteen days while they fed him and cared for him. During this time, his friends had abandoned their search efforts, thinking him dead. Eventually, the little people brought him partly home, until coming upon a creek. They told him that his home was across the creek, and that he must cross. Halfway across, he turned to look back, and they were gone. The creek was very deep, and being the dead of winter, his legs were badly frozen, and he died shortly after.

Fairy glamour could also be used into confusing travelers and leading them astray. The Celtic-Anglo term for this phenomenon was “pixie-led.” While one was pixie-led, they may find that a familiar woodland becomes woefully confusing as they pass the same set of landmarks continuously as they travel in circles. Others may trudge into a treacherous bog, believing themselves to be walking on a dry trail. In some accounts, victims hear a disembodied laughter, or feel as if they’re being followed by a malevolent pursuer.

An account from 1935 in County Mayo Ireland tells of a girl who found herself pixie-led. The girl claimed an invisible force prevented her from passing, and would even turn her around to the direction that she came. This continued until dusk, when she could see searchers looking for her, although they could not see her nor could they hear her cries for help. Eventually, the barrier lifted as suddenly as it came on, and she was allowed to leave.

Throughout both the Eastern and Western installments there was the mind boggling recurrence of experienced outdoorsmen seemingly violating everything that their well informed judgement and common sense would tell them. 411 accounts were replete with abandoned firearms, crossings of icy rivers, trudging through feet of snow, small children walking miles uphill and thousands of feet in elevation. All stark violations of common sense, and all done as if something was compelling them or affecting their mental faculties. As can be seen from the extensive history of fairy lore, perhaps something was.

One of the most odd aspects of the pattern you have outlined in these cases is that bad weather strikes following these disappearances, hindering search efforts. This occurs with such regularity one would almost suspect that there may be an intelligence guiding these weather events. An aspect of some fairy lore ascribes unto them ability to control the weather. Some fairies are said to hold special dominion over the wind, while others were said to bring on rain and snow. In Russian folklore there is a forest steward known as the Leshiye, a sometimes ferocious protector of the woods who would intimidate humans with their control over the weather. While it is entirely possible that this is just folk superstition, it is certainly a trait that again shows correlation to the 411 pattern.

Another aspect of the 411 pattern is clusters, the fact that these disappearances are centered around certain areas, with sometimes similar cases happening mere miles from another. Just as how 411 cases are geographically concentrated, so too are faires. Fairies are not found everywhere, and they are said to favor certain locations more than others to the extent that some locations are infamously associated with them. Similarly, Ultraterrestrials are paired with the advent of high strangeness and “flaps” of Fortean activity. Weird critters, lights in the sky, and odd visitors seem to occur in some places far more than others, and often at once.

Specific rock formations, mountains, hills, burial mounds, effigy mounds, and bodies of water have all been said to be fairy hotspots. Iceland is a prime example of a modern culture in which the hidden folk are still revered, and there, this belief in fairy locations is so strong that highway projects are diverted to avoid disturbing elven ground.

Related to this is that it is often believed that human civilization and development have a repulsive effect on fairies. As such, it is said that they are far more frequently encountered in highly rural environments. This is also true of these very specific disappearances. Furthermore, our national parks would be especially fertile soil for them as they are intentionally undeveloped.

Many 411 locations have their histories of high strangeness and/or Ultraterrestrial/fairy legends. In Janet Bord’s book Fairies: Real Encounters With Little People there is an account of a woman witnessing a ring of dancing blue fairies on Mount Shasta. Glastonbury Mountain in Vermont sits in a high strangeness area known as the “Bennington Triangle” and according to Native American legend, is the home of a man eating stone. Crater Lake has the following reputation among some of the Klamath people:

“People were stolen and taken down into Crater lake by beings there. Some say they have found no water in the lake. Instead there were rocks as big as trees and deep tunnels in the bottom.

There are animals, snakes, and a sort of people who live at (or in) the ocean.”

And Alden Johnson went missing in Rehoboth Massachusetts in 1934, a town that makes up a corner of the high strangeness area called the “Bridgewater Triangle.” This swampy area of Southeastern Massachusetts has held court to UFOs, large hairy bipeds, thunderbirds, and a race of little people dubbed “Puckwudgies” by the Wompanoag tribe. Like every other race of little people, Puckwudgies were said to delight in kidnapping humans, tricking them, and leading them astray in the wilderness. They were also said to capture and use the lights of human souls to lure people into the woods, an alarming parallel to the Will O The Wisp of Anglo-Celtic lore.

Many 411 locations likely have had a historical reputation as a place where strange things happen and bizarre entities are encountered. As you yourself pointed out, the word “Devil” is recurring in many of the series’ place names. And although the word in some cases could be a reference to a rugged and unforgiving landscape, I do not think that this is the case for all.

Researcher Loren Coleman in her book Mysterious America has compiled a list of American locations belonging to the Devil, and many of them are sites of high strangeness. Examples in her research include Devil’s Lake in Wisconsin, Devil’s Kitchen in Illinois, Devil’s Den in New Hampshire and the Diablo Valley of California.

Also in her work she makes mention of the Algonquin word “Hockomock" which means “place where the spirits dwell” and its derivative “Hoccomocco” which means “evil spirit.” The most notable place to feature this term is the Hockomock Swamp of Southeastern Massachusetts, which is the heart of the Bridgewater Triangle. In an interesting coincidence, the English settlers had their own name for this swamp: “Devil’s Swamp.”

A note worth making on this is that in Ireland the word “Fairy” is used much in the same way our place names utilize “Devil” as is “Djinn” in the Middle East and “Boggart” in England.  

Lastly, there is another element to some 411 cases that leads me to think that there is something odd associated with these locations. In some of these cases, searchers or individuals close to the case acted in ways that would suggest that they had special knowledge of the area that no one else did. As if something odd may have been showing itself on a regular basis to those in the area.

Keith Parkins, age two, was found by an SAR member 12 miles from where he disappeared, grossly outside the standard search range, suggesting that the SAR member knew that something out of the ordinary was going on.

Rosemary Kunst went missing near Spirit Lake while attending a spiritual ceremony conducted by Chief Charlie “Redhawk” Thom. When asked about her disappearance, Redhawk opines that Rosemary likely ended up in an area called “Devil’s Backbone” a conclusion that he gives no explanation of as to how he reached it. Again, it seems as if he knew something unusual about the lay of the land.

The best example of this is the case of Betty Wolfrum in Moosehorn, Manitoba. Neighboring farmer Roy Rosin walks into the woods to find the girl, and does so seemingly effortlessly. When asked about how he knew where to find the girl Roy responded “I did not expect to come back alive, or if I did come back I would be all broken up.” There was something or someone in this area of Manitoba that was quite odd and fearsome it seems. It also seems that it was enough of a fixture that Roy Rosin was well acquainted with it.

Yet another parallel between 411 cases and fairies/ultraterrestrials is regarding specific wildlife. Fairies were noted for playing favorites when it came to not only certain locations, but certain plants and even animals as well. They have been held by many cultures to be the guardians and stewards of nature. There are even accounts of people asking fairies what they’re doing when manifested to hear them say “I’m helping the plants grow.” Furthermore, they were said to become deeply offended when they perceived humans to act disrespectfully to something in their stewardship.

I mention this here due to the number of 411 cases that involve people picking berries and hunting. In fact, from a certain perspective berry pickers and hunters could be placed under one category “harvesters of nature.” Perhaps an unseen onlooker perceived these people as being disrespectful of their protectorate.

An example of this association between supernatural abductors and specific plants can also be found in the legends of the Alsea tribe of Western Oregon. The abductor was known as “Asin” and her botanical association bares startling significance to the 411 pattern:

“Asin is a cannibal ogress from the mythology of the Alsea tribe. Like other monstrous ogres of the Northwest Coast, Asin preys on children and is often the subject of “bogeyman” stories told to frighten children into avoiding dangerous behavior. Asin was particularly associated with huckleberry plants, so Alsea people (especially children) did not touch or eat huckleberries. Hearing Asin’s cries was considered an omen of death.”

Given the pattern of many in these books disappearing while picking berries, there may be more to Asin than a mere bogeyman figure.

The clothing of the missing plays a significant role in the strangeness of the 411 cases. Many of the missing are found naked with their clothes piled next to their body or strown through the woods. Sometimes the clothing is found inside out. Sometimes it’s just the victim’s shoe or one of their shoes. Human clothing, and shoes in particular, are also oddly featured in both the fairy lore and the more modern Ultraterrestrial encounters.

Human clothing was said to have a baffling effect on fairies, and as such many superstitions to ward them off centered around it. Sleeping with one’s shoes pointing away from the bed was said to secure a fairy free sleep. When one was being led astray by a fairy, or “pixie-led” turning one’s clothing inside out was said to break their glamour, a possible theory being that it confused them. Furthermore, if one should try to rescue a person from a ring of fairies, the rescuer was instructed to pull the victim out of the ring by their clothing.

Related to this, in many accounts fairies were said to be either naked, or wearing a skin tight garment the same color as their skin (a parallel to many alleged ET abductors). While on the topic, in many ET abductions the contactee is stripped of their clothing.

What all this suggests to me is that these entities do not seem to have a complete understanding of human clothing, and/or it has some sort of inhibitory effect on them.

This befuddlement about clothing becomes more apparent when the modern Ultraterrestrial cases are examined, particularly when it comes to shoes. There’s a genre of paranormal case that’s been dubbed “Stranger Accounts” or as Charles Fort called them “the procession of the damned.” These have come to include grinning men, black eyed kids, black eyed adults, the men in black, and other near human but unnerving entities. The traits of all of these, subtly unhuman, appearing and disappearing at will, and their mischievous and sometimes belligerent behavior, places them within the Ultraterrestrial phenomenon and makes them modern day fairies.  

What’s odd is that these entities are capable of looking human with the exception of one clothing detail: shoes. Mysterious airforce men, a variant of the men in black, would appear at UFO witnesses’ homes in an airforce uniform but with tennis shoes. A tall gaunt looking figure was reported eating at a diner. Despite his strange proportions, his clothing was normal, except for his shoes that had a compartment for each toe as if they were gloves for his feet. And if they do get their human costume correct, it’s either a very generic imitation of a modern style, or a perfect depiction of a style that’s decades come and gone. This again suggests a sort of ineptness in regards to this aspect of human living.

Therefore there seems to be that this class of entity has a confused fixation on human clothing, making for a possible correlation with the bizarre treatment of victims’ clothes in the 411 cases. The particularly odd relationship with footwear potentially does the same with the numerous missing shoes of 411.

There is a theme scattered throughout these cases. It does not occur in every case, but it does appear multiple times in each book. It is a factor in these cases that is perhaps the strangest and most difficult to explain. It is also the factor that most clearly suggests that at least some of these cases are being carried out by non-human entities. Also, this factor cannot be explained by popular theories such as time slips. This factor is the strange abductors reported by living victims. I have broken them down into three categories: the dog/bear man, the odd couple, and the wild men. What is more, is that all of the bizarre kidnappers of 411 have corollaries in fairy lore and Ultraterrestrial literature.

A consistent quality of fairies and invisible races the world over is that when they do take on a form, they are adept shapeshifters, appearing as whatever they choose. The crux of the Ultraterrestrial theory in regards to high strangeness is that the light in the sky, the monster in the woods, and the guy in the black Cadillac who grilled you about it, are all the same thing. Or at least the same type of thing manifesting three different ways.  

Often, the form is reported to be either a particularly short or tall humanoid with distorted facial features and dark skin complexion. However, legend and Ultraterrestrial encounters are filled with other forms. Shaggy unkempt humanoids, grotesque hairy red-eyed monsters that wreak of sulfur, and various hybrids of human and animal form are all accounted for. An example would be the boggart of Longar Hede in Yorkshire, England, which was said to be a gigantic creature, the size of a calf and had long shaggy hair and enormous eyes. This description of the invisible folk creature the boggart correlates neatly with the big hairy monster (BHM) Ultraterrestials like Momo the Missouri Monster, the “White Things” of West Virginia, and the Popelick Monster.

There are several accounts in both 411 West and East where surviving children make mention of a “bear” or a creature that appears roughly humanoid but with features of a bear and/or wolf. Larry McGee, Janet Mcgee, and Steven Cross went missing in the Sante Fe ski basin and report being chased up the mountain by a bear and claim they were afraid to make their presence known to searchers due to fearing that they may have been “big gorillas.” Ida May Curtis went missing in the Kootenai National Forest of Montana spoke of being held by a “mother bear” in a crude shelter made of cedar slashings. Katie Flynn who went missing in Walhalla, Michigan described her abductor as “a big dog” who took her up in his arms, carried her off, and ate her hat. During her stay with the entity, it fed Katie wintergreen berries and kept her warm in a bed it made for her. The details of this cases appear closely again with Millard David who went missing in New York who claimed that a “big bear” had taken her.

The details of these accounts, a bear or wolf that takes children up in their arms and carries them off, makes it impossible that the creatures mentioned here are actually bears of wolves. It defies bear and wolf behavior, as it does bear and wolf morphology. Although both animals are capable of standing on two legs, it’s physically impossible for either to run on its hind legs, let alone do so while carrying a small child. And a species of undiscovered wolf or bear that has evolved to possess a humanoid morphology would be an improbable case of parallel evolution. Taking all of this into consideration, it becomes very unlikely that these creatures are biological entities.  

Paranormal researcher Linda Godfrey has sizeable body work dedicated to upright canines. Nestled in her expansive work is the opinion of a Ho-Chunk tribe elder who believed that these entities are visitors from a spiritual plane that take on a physical form temporarily. This fits the definition of an Ultraterrestrial to a tee. Godfrey has also noted a correlation between dogmen sightings and effigy mounds, which is similar to how fairies in the British Isles were long associated with similar mounds there. Also relating these entities to the Ultraterrestrial phenomenon is the category of UT’s dubbed “Big Hairy Monsters” whose physics defying antics like walking through solid objects, and sudden appearances and disappearances place them within the UT category.

The second category, the “Odd Couple” differs greatly to the dog man. These abductors appear in two 411 cases, Betty Wolfrum and Florence Jackson, and appear to be very human. The abductors either make up a couple or a family living deep in the woods and are unknown to locals, and after taking the child in, they let them free.

Betty Wulfrum went missing from the remote farming community of Moosehorn, Manitoba. She was found five days later by farmer Roy Rosin, who as mentioned earlier, inexplicably knew where to find the girl, and that what took her was potentially dangerous. Upon examining Betty, a physician determined that she had been kept out of the elements, to the extent that she was completely dry despite heavy rains, and had been given food and water. Also, during this time, a farmer’s cow had twice returned from the woods, milked. Betty spoke of meeting a mother and a daughter, a cat, and a man who pointed her in the direction of her home the morning that she was found.

Florence Jackson was found wandering naked near Indian Creek, Arkansas four days after she went disappearing in 1937. Upon questioning, Florence told of having slept in a log, “crying for mother to come” seeing a “strange man” and being abducted by a “black man and black woman.”

At this point I have demonstrated that the world over has no shortage of folk beliefs and accounts of strange woodland dwellers taking children away. These two cases clearly fit well within these folk descriptions of invisible abductors. An additional oddity in Florence Jackson’s case is the mention of the black man and woman. Although it could be argued that she was referencing an African American man and woman, this coloring coincides with that of many stranger encounters. The most notable modern examples would be the Men in Black and the Black Eyed Kids. In Hoodoo, the “Iwa” or spirit of the crossroads was also dubbed “The Black Man.” “The Black Man” was also the name of the entity that witches were alleged to have conversed in the wood with by the Puritans. Woodcuttings from New England during this time depict witches meeting with a man dressed entirely in black offering them familiar spirits.

“Wild men” is the third category of entity and are notable in the cases of Eloise Lindsey and Dennis Martin. Eloise Lindsey alleged that she was chased and harassed through the woods by unseen pursuers. Although both of these cases bear striking links to fairy lore and Ultraterrestrial encounters, the Martin case abounds with them.

The family of Dennis Martin was vacationing in the Great Smoky Mountains in 1969 when they coincidentally met another family by the name of Martin. The two families decided to share their vacation experience when at around 3:30 in the afternoon it was noticed that young Dennis had not been seen for approximately five minutes. During this time it was estimated that Dennis was no more than fifty feet from the families. About two hours later and seven miles away, the Key family heard a “sickening scream” and saw what at first seemed to be a bear, then a disheveled man hulking through the brush with something over his shoulder. The Keys noted that the man was noticeably attempting to hide from them, and by 8:30 pm a severe storm and the typical litany of 411 meteorology had moved into the Great Smoky Mountains. A historically intensive search ensued which included armed Green Barrettes.

Follow up interviews with both Dennis Martin’s father and NPS ranger and author of Lost!: A Ranger’s Journal of Search and Rescue, Dwight McCarter, rendered odd statements on the case. Martin’s father opined that the head of the parks service was a figurehead that seemed to share information in congruence with the desires of some other personnel. McCarter made mention of wildmen in the parks, but then unsolicitedly and overtly added that these “Wild Men” were of flesh and blood.

There are peculiarities related to these statements. The involvement of armed Green Barrettes in a search and rescue is odd, and like in other cases, suggests that someone had an inclination that something very unusual was going on. Also, if the parks service head is a figurehead who merely shares information at another entity’s discretion, there is an implication that something is trying be kept secret from the public. And finally, it is odd that McCarter explicitly stated that the Wild Men are corporeal men. No one floated any theories that they were anything but to him in relation to this questioning, meaning that this proclamation is unsolicited and unprovoked. This possibly suggests that McCarter either knows or suspects there is something odd about these Wild Men but is preemptively dispelling that possibility to limit public knowledge of it.

The Martin case is undoubtedly one of the oddest cases in both of the North American 411 books, and oddly enough, it is arguably also the one that has the most connections to Ultraterrestrials and invisible folk. Firstly, in John Keel’s works on Ultraterrestrials, he makes mention that encounters with these entities are often marked by instances of synchronicity, or odd coincidences. UFO’s will appear over two different cities with the same name, or abduct two individuals by the same name, or other such odd coincidences. Two families by the name of Martin meeting and then sharing an enormously odd turn of events certainly fits this. Also in Keel’s work is mention of a sound that occurs when these mysterious entities appear. The sound was said to be a deafening shriek, on par with “a woman being killed” and theorized by Keel to be the sound of air being displaced by the sudden introjection of the creature’s form into our reality. The sound reported by the Key’s moments prior to seeing the wild man is certainly similar to this sound.

Mistaking a shaggy human form, no matter how shaggy, for that of a bear, is somewhat unlikely, even by a small child. The disparity in the two asserted forms almost suggests an occurrence of transmogrification, a feat a long associated with reports of fairy entities. Not to mention, a shaggy, long haired, unkempt humanoid appearance was frequently associated with fairies. Ancient Brettons and Celts believed their standing stones were brought to their islands by a race called the Korred, wild looking little men covered in shaggy hair with dark skin. The Italian Salvanel are said to be reddish brown and covered in hair. Also, the Salvanel is said to delight in leading travelers astray and abducting small children, particularly young girls, who he raises lovingly as his own in caves deep in the woods. The French speak of a fair folk called the Follet, a wild variant of which is again, dark skinned, and covered in coarse hair.

And finally a report of a dozen Wild Men fairies dancing in the rain was made by W.E Thorner on the Island of Hoy off of Scotland around the time of the Second World War:

“These creatures were small in stature, but they did not have long noses nor did they appear kindly in demeanor. They possessed round faces, sallow in complexion, with long, dark, bedraggled hair. As they danced about, seeming to throw themselves over the cliff edge, I felt that I was witness to some ritual dance of a tribe of primitive men.”

Undoubtedly something very odd happened to Dennis Martin. Two families share a pleasant afternoon in the Great Smoky Mountains National Park, and a young boy disappears from under his father’s nose. In the same vicinity, a stranger is seen with something flung over his shoulder, trudging through the brush. As can be seen from the paranormal accounts of Wild Men, this stranger may have been far stranger than any of the witnesses realize.

In conclusion, it is my sincere theory the primary culprit behind the 411 phenomenon is abduction by Ultraterrestrials, classically referred to as “fairies.” As “fairies” in folklore and “Ultraterrestrials” in modern paranormal investigation, these entities revel in leading travelers astray, abducting humans, possess ability to influence the weather, are associated with particular locations, and having odd relationships with human clothing. As I have espoused in detail, these traits make Ultraterrestrials a likely source for the 411 disappearances.

As part of a final note on this issue, I have a related anecdote on this topic that comes from my girlfriend. As a young girl living in South Carolina, she was playing indoors with her cousin one evening while their parents entertained each other in a card game. Glancing up from her play to the window she saw a figure standing beneath the edge of the carport. It was tall, dark, impressionistic in shape, and slender, with large glowing red eyes. Its “head” just barely fit below the overhang of the carport, meaning it was approximately eight feet tall. It leeringly fixated on her, and no one else. She looked back down assuming that breaking her gaze and looking back at the carport, she would see nothing, as she assumed it was her imagination. Looking back, the figure was still there, leering just as before. Now not only could she feel it was fixating on her, but that no one else in the room seemed to notice it. She could also feel it imploring her to come outside and then become angered when she ignored it. She felt it want her, and no one else. Years later as an adult she asked a childhood friend who grew up in the area if she had ever felt that something wanted her to come out into the woods. Her friend affirmed that yes, she had that feeling while growing up there.

What we know as bio-phsyical reality is our sensory experience fitted into the contexts, categories, and expectations that we create through our experiences and cultural education. Our sensory experience is inherently limited and our cognitions often limit it even further still. The implication of this is that there is potentially and even likely facets of the universe that we are epistemologically tone deaf to. Over the span of centuries and in every culture, entire races of odd people are said to dwell here past our normal sensory perception. It is likely the case we are not the sole intelligence of this world. As John Keel so eloquently put it, our Earth is a “haunted planet.” Perhaps it is the case that in some corners of the Earth there still lay the stirrings and whispers and glimmers of an ancient and nearly forgotten force. And perhaps sometimes these brushes with the specters of our haunted planet are so close that they pose a danger. It seems that sometimes in these corners, in a whisper and a glimmer, we are whisked off somewhere, not destined for return.

You know, a lot of people don’t realize this but….

The animals at the zoo represent so many opportunities for biologists around the world to learn basic information about, well, animals! We get research proposals all the time from researchers, both among our own staff and globally, seeking permission to include the animals in their research. We approve the proposals that are of the greatest scientific value, that have potential to help us even further improve our qualities of animal care, and that are certain to cause no harm of any form to the animals. Recently two papers were published in major academic journals by scientists from regional universities that contribute some fascinating information to the global body of knowledge about animals.

Dr. Bonnie M. Perdue (Department of Psychology, Agnes Scott College) published: Perdue, B.M. 2016. The effect of computerized testing on Sun Bear behavior and enrichment preferences.            Behavioral Sciences 6, 19; doi:10.3390/bs6040019

The field of comparative cognition investigates species’ differences and similarities in cognitive abilities, and sheds light on the evolutionary origins of such capacities. Dr. Perdue realized that, while cognitive studies commonly are conducted with animals such as dogs, elephants, primates, and even giant pandas, many animals have never been studied. So, she applied some standard methods, using an ingenious rugged computerized touchscreen apparatus, to our sun bears. Bears typically use their tongues to explore and manipulate their environment and, she found that the bears actively engaged the touchscreen menus with their tongues.

The screens had dabs of honey on them in the earlier trials, to draw the bears’ attention to these novel objects. Once familiarized with the screens, the bears proceeded to learn to interact with specific color- or shape-targets on the screen in exchange for treats. Soon, the bears were preferring to interact with the computer screens more than any of the other enrichment items available to them. This study discovered a new method by which bears can be studied and showed that the experiments were preferred by the bears who actively involved themselves at every opportunity. This is fascinating stuff!

Alexis Noel (a graduate student in Mechanical Engineering, Georgia Tech) and her colleagues published: Noel, A.C., Guo, H-Y., Mandica, M., Hu, D.L. 2017 Frogs use a viscoelastic tongue and non-Newtonian saliva to catch prey.           Journal of the Royal Society Interface 14: 20160764.           http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rsif.2016.0764

Frogs can capture insects, mice and even birds using only their tongue, with a speed and versatility unmatched in the world of synthetic materials. How can the frog tongue be so sticky? In this multi-faceted study that included some frogs here, used high-speed films of frog feeding to understand the behaviors involved in tongue-feeding. Then they used high-tech measurements and characterizations of frog tongues at Georgia Tech to investigate the structural properties of frog tongues and saliva.

They found that the tongue’s unique stickiness results from a combination of an incredibly soft and stretchable anatomy soft and a saliva that simply does not follow the normal rules of how liquids respond to pressure. The tongue acts like a car’s shock absorber during insect capture, absorbing energy and so preventing separation from the insect. The unique saliva spreads over the insect during impact, grips it firmly to the tongue, and yet it slides off easily once it is back in the mouth. This combination of properties gives the tongue 50 times greater work of adhesion than known synthetic material (such as everyone’s favorite, the sticky-hand toy). These insights offer many new ideas and models for applications in industry and engineering. Yet more proof that frogs are the coolest animals on Earth!
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