heredeer

anonymous asked:

Shaw thinks Root is cute af in glasses

Myopia isn’t one of the curses heredity has saddled you with. A good thing, since glasses don’t really work with the lifestyle. It’s hard enough being on call day and night without having to compensate for fuzzy vision with something breakable on your nose–or worse yet, contacts.

But something funny happens whenever you swoop in on Shaw when one of your cover identities happens to wear glasses. She gives you this odd little look, almost knowing, like you’ve told her a secret and she’s brimming with it.

“Why are you staring?” you ask her once, when you’re slinging off your bag and kicking off your shoes at her place.

“I’m not staring,” she says–staring–with that little sphinx smile, from the bed where she’s sitting cleaning her gun. One foot swings from the end, aimlessly, like a cat’s tail.

“Are too.” You pounce into bed next to her, mussing her blankets as you land, and she doesn’t even protest.

“It’s nothing,” she says. A pause. Then she touches the bridge of the glasses you forgot you were wearing. “You just look so silly in these.”

“I’ll take them off, if you don’t like them.” You reach for an earpiece, but she grabs your hand away and pins it to the bed.

“Don’t,” she whispers, and kisses you–softly, then not-so-softly.

A few minutes later, breathless and tousled, you pull away.

“Got a thing for sexy librarians?” you murmur in her ear.

“Shut up,” she says, which means yes–or close enough. She rolls you onto your back and you don’t ask any more questions.

Later that night, cleaning the sweat off the non-prescription lenses with the corner of a sheet, you make a mental note to ask Her to give you more nearsighted identities from now on.

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Give me a nice, Wholesome AU™ where Vlad ~somehow~ stops being a super-creep and agrees to mentor Danny– not because he wants to marry his mom and make him his son, but because he genuinely just wants to help another halfa out since HE didn’t have help way back when.

(Also for angst you could throw in a bit of “plus I feel responsible, because without the research we did in college, your parents would never have made their portal in the first place” or “I feel responsible because I kiiiinda pissed off a bunch of ghosts and all they know is ‘the halfa did it’ so that maaaybe why you’ve been seeing more ghost activity, idk lol.”)

Anyways give me an AU where we’ve got Vlad and Danny training in the basement at 1 am and Vlad’s trying to incorporate Danny’s school curriculum into the training because GOD KNOWS when he’d actually find time for THAT.

“Wait, can I try again? Just one more! One more run through…” Danny says, looking at Vlad with scorch marks on his face that have already begun to heal.

“Daniel, we’ve been at this for hours,” Vlad says, running a hand through his messy, singed hair. “I think that’s as good as it’s going to get tonight.”

“No!” says Danny, but quickly checks his volume, “No. Please, I… but I worked so hard on this power…if I could just–”

“And I know you did.” Vlad says, walking over to him, “I’m proud of how far you’ve come Daniel, but even halfas get exhausted.” He places his hands on Danny’s shoulders and the boy seems to consider this for a moment. But in the end…

“Just one more.”

Vlad sighs.

“You’re gonna be on all those business trips, we won’t meet up again for a month!”

“Fine.” Vlad relents, “Just one more drill. But after that you’ll need your rest.”

Vlad starts up the machines again as Danny gets into a ready position.

“Remember to breathe.” says Vlad as the starting lights blink down in sequence. He uses his own power to bring up a noise-reducing barrier around the training area.

-blink-

-blink-

“Begin.”

The first target pops out of the wall, close to the ceiling, and Danny flies up to meet it with an ecto-energized punch. The next one appears from the floor, so Danny blasts it with a basic beam. Once Vlad feels he’s got a rhythm he starts the study session again.

“What is the smallest group of biological classification?” He asks, watching his form carefully. Danny rolls out of the way of a hostile drone but still is able to answer.

“Species.”

“And the largest?” Vlad observes Danny blasting the drone.

-BOOM-

“Kingdom.”

“How many chromosomes does an individual human have?” Vlad continues. Danny goes intangible to avoid some debris.

“46.” He’s not missing a beat.

“What are the three major parts of a cell?” Two more hostile drones join the fray, and the young halfa starts to falter.

“The membrane, the, uh, cytoplasm, and the nucleus.”

“Is the cell membrane nonpermeable?”

“No,” Danny takes a couple heavy breaths, “It’s semipermeable.”

Vlad pauses upon reading the next one.

“What are the physical or chemical factors in genetic mutations called?”

“M… Mutagens.” Danny swallows dryly, his gaze shifting to the portal at the end of the room.

“What is the phase most cells spend the majority of their time in?”

“Crud, uh…” A drone explodes too close to Danny and he throws up his arms, forgetting to go intangible. The smoke makes his throat burn.

“… Interphase?” He finally coughs out.

“Correct. Pay attention now…”

Seven smaller drones appear from all directions, intent on overwhelming the young halfa. Danny flies up and ecto-punches through the highest one, then grabs it, somersaults, and throws it into the one directly below.

“Good!” Vlad says, standing up in his excitement. They both notice the other 5 drones coming in fast.

“What is the functional unit of heredity?”

“What’s the what of what?!?” Danny blurts out between blasting with one hand and swinging a panicked punch with the other.

“Get higher, try splitting!” Vlad says, abandoning the study guide and moving closer to the battlefield should his assistance be required.

Danny flies almost as high as he can go without phasing through the ceiling. He manages to get some distance between himself and the three remaining drones, but they are close behind.

Quickly he closes his eyes and grits his teeth, trying with all his might to imagine himself splitting into two entities.

“Okay, one more try.” he says to himself, “Kinda like Mitosis…” Somewhere in the back of his mind he can hear Vlad saying something, but he forces that away to keep his focus on the task at hand. Slowly Danny begins to feel what he can only describe as a peeling sensation– as if his “cells” were dividing in such a way that reminded him of when he would peel glue off his skin in elementary school– starting from his wispy tail, creeping up to where his legs should be…

Suddenly, a drone’s blast hits him squarely in the chest. Danny’s eyes snap open, all concentration lost. Belatedly he realizes his tail had reformed after having been split into two. A familiar pink beam takes out the offending drones.

“Danny!” Vlad says, eyes still glowing red, “Are you alright?”

“Yeah,” Danny says as he floats down sullenly, “I’ll heal.” Vlad reaches out to guide him towards the spare workbench they use as a first aid station.

“Better put the salve on it just to be safe.” Vlad says. Danny sits down and watches Vlad take out the special formula he made in his own lab back in Wisconsin, then tosses himself back to lay on the bench.

“ARGH! I was SO close! Right? Was I close? Because it felt like I was close…”

“You were.” says Vlad, “But I think you should stick to the exercises I showed you while I’m gone.” He transforms and makes a few duplications to demonstrate, starting slow but getting faster with each iteration.

“Who knows, by the time I get back you may be splitting in circles around me.” Danny looks up and realizes all the Vlads are literally standing around him in a circle and laughs.

“Ha! So you’re making the jokes now?” He says as Vlad pulls it together.

“Believe it or not, my wit may be used to humor us both.”

“Pfft. Some wit. That was real 'cheesy’, Wisconsin Ghost.” Danny snickers at his own quip and Vlad rolls his eyes.

“You’re never going to let that go, are you?”

“Nope!” Danny says, “Say, what was that last question? On the guide?”

“The functional unity of heredity.”

“Geez that’s a lot of syllables for one thing.”

“Do you know the answer?”

“Uh…” Danny thinks for only a moment. Without the distraction of the fight, he quickly grasps the question.

“Oh! It’s genes!”

“Correct again, Little Badger.” Vlad says, handing off the small salve tin. “I think you will do well on the test tomorrow.”

“Thanks.” Danny says, detransforming. He yawns as his exhaustion catches up with him. Courteously, Vlad lends him a hand.

“Come, I’ll fly you upstairs before I go.”

*NEW* MASTERLIST

ADMINS: Taebaby, Laymedown, Starlight, Sherlock, Leigh, Kitty, Nari, Vita, Ellie, & Yugbug


SCENARIOS~ HERE

REACTIONS~

->BTS

->BIG BANG

->GOT7

->EXO

2NE1:

Their GF gets touchy with them

WINNER:

Favorite sexual positions *nsfw*

BAP:

Their child wants to go trick-or-treating with them

SHINee:

Seeing their crush having fun with a girl group (xMale)

Their mate asks them about having kids (werewolf au)

Their BF is too tall for them to kiss

Their GF hosts a halloween party and bakes everything herself

When their mate is in heat (werewolf au)

Where they’d take you for a halloween carnival date

Favorite sexual positions *nsfw*

VIXX:

Their BF doing a stage cover of Voodoo Doll

Talking about adoption with BF

When you look as young as them but find out you’re older

What kind of drunk are they at a holiday party

MONSTA-X:

Their BF wrote them a poem but is shy about giving it to them

When you’re normally quiet in bed, but are a screamer one night

Their BF is one of the Fae

When their BF is a vampire and has to turn them (vampire au)


AESTHETIC LOCK SCREENS~ HERE

FAKE TEXTS~ HERE

DATING THEM INCLUDES~

BTS:

Hoseok

Yoongi

Taehyung

EXO:

Kyungsoo

Jongdae

GOT7:

Bambam

Yugyeom

BIG BANG:

Seungri

WHO WE WRITE FOR:

  • EXO
  • BTS
  • Big Bang
  • GOT7
  • VIXX
  • Monsta X
  • IKON
  • NCT
  • Seventeen
  • Shinee
  • Boyfriend
  • B1A4
  • Ukiss
  • Astro
  • Day6
  • F(x)
  • 4Minute/Hyuna
  • 2ne1
oreo’s klance fic recs #12

trAll the fanfictions are completed, some may have NSFW content (please check the tags!)

* are personal favorites :)

my other recs are here

Dive Right Into You by nerdy_cait05

Lance and Keith are trapped in a submarine hundreds of miles below the surface; shenanigans ensue :3

between stars by NotRover

After years of fighting on opposite sides of the war, Lance and Keith meet once again on the battlefield.

Stupid Boys by PaladinAzul

Lance and Matt bond on puns, pickup lines, and flirtations.

Keith does not approve.

Dorks by GriffinRose ***so cute

Lance is the only one listening to the current presentation, and oh boy is it something to listen to. The kid has been rambling on about aliens for ten minutes and he is trying so hard not to laugh. So hard. Turns out the kid didn’t even think Lance was paying attention, so when he finds out Lance was he books it. Like, as fast it takes Lance to turn his head, that kid was gone.

Keith wants to die. The Hot Guy in his bio class was actually listening to him talk about aliens. That’s it. He’s done. Kill him now.

Poor Shiro is just trying to keep his little brother sane.

Keep reading

auricoma  asked:

I have trouble sympathizing with most of the characters in ASOIAF, because none of them represent an ideology I can get behind. Starks are better than Boltons, Stannis is better than Cersei, but they are all unelected hereditary authoritarians. When choosing between 1. Hitler, 2. Stalin and 3. Mussolini, I'd reluctantly go with Mussolini, but I'd much rather choose 4. LEAVE THE PLANET. I don't care who wins the game of thrones. The only winning move is not to play.

I totally get that. GRRM had Tyrion muse on the inherent backwardness of democracy for a reason; we’re never supposed to forget how these characters conceive of power. However, I don’t think that’s an appropriate analogy. Hitler became chancellor as a result of parliamentary politics in the wake of his party doing very well in an election, and none of those three can be called “hereditary” rulers. I’m not remotely saying that this makes popular elections a bad thing, just that I don’t think it’s wise to assume that elections will prevent monsters from rising to power. I’d also argue that it was a very, very good thing for Westeros and in particular the smallfolk of the North that Mance, who didn’t rely on heredity in the least to win his crown, got his ass kicked by Stannis, the avatar of hereditary rule. 

I would also push back on the idea that there are no values in Westeros’ social/political model worth defending: “I charge you to be brave, I charge you to be just, I charge you to defend the young and innocent.” Now, of course, The System itself often fails to reflect those values, but we do see individuals live up to them, and that’s an ideology I can get behind. Take Edmure, for example: “My people. They were afraid.” Or Brienne: “No chance, and no choice.” Or Dunk: “a knight who remembered his vows.” Or, perhaps above all, Davos: “a king protects his people, or he is no king at all.” 

And speaking of the onion knight, allow me to make the case for the one true king. He raised a peasant-born smuggler to knighthood and then lordship, consistently included him in his councils specifically to get the perspective of someone outside the nobility, and is prepared to “make new lords” alongside him. He not only rode to the defense of the realm when no other king would, but after defeating the wildlings so as to eliminate the immediate threat to the North, his next move was to welcome them through the Wall, believing it his duty to defend them from the Others. So, yeah, I too am not fond of hereditary monarchy as a system of governance. However, I think people often miss that Stannis possesses some genuinely radical politics, especially for someone in his position and with his background. Davos, of course, had to convince Stannis to sail to the Wall…but Davos was only in the position to do that because Stannis raised him up, and Stannis specifically made Davos his Hand because Davos will tell Stannis what he does not want to hear, but needs to. And this “a king who still cared” side of him is rooted in his empathy for the downtrodden and defenseless: “When I was a lad I found an injured goshawk and nursed her back to health. Proudwing, I named her.” The difference between that on the one hand, and Cersei and Tywin on the other, is significantly more than the difference between Hitler and Mussolini.

Finally, I don’t think “not playing” is actually an option. Every action is political. 

Emphysema

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is an umbrella term à emphysema, chronic bronchitis, certain types of bronchiectasis, and sometimes asthma. COPD = leading causes of death in the US - appears to be rising.

SYMPTOMS

  • Persistent cough + wheezing + sputum production
  • Tightness or pain in the chest + shortness of breath
  • (when progressed) Loss of appetite
  • Depression
  • Reduced sexual function
  • Trouble sleeping

Long term smoking is the leading cause of emphysema. Other risk factors include a deficiency of enzyme alpha-1-antitrypsin, air pollution, airway reactivity, heredity, male sex, and age.Most people with emphysema also have chronic bronchitis (inflammation of bronchi)

Hallmarks of Emphysema 

“pursed-lipbreathing.” The person with emphysema struggles to exhale completely, in an attempt to empty trapped air. They purse their lips, leaving only a small opening. Then, when they exhale, the lips block the flow of air, increasing pressure in the collapsed airways, and opening them, allowing the trapped air to empty.

“barrel chest,” where the distance from the chest to the back, which is normally less than the distance side to side, becomes more pronounced. This is a direct result of air becoming trapped behind obstructed airways.

Mechanism

  • causes shortness of breath due to over-inflation of the alveoli
  • the lung tissue around small bronchioles is destroyed/impaired making them unable to hold their shape during exhalation - making it difficult for the lungs to empty and the air becomes trapped in the alveoli.
  • Normal lung tissue looks like a new sponge. Emphysematous lung looks like an old used sponge, with large holes and a dramatic loss of “springy-ness” or elasticity.
  • An abnormal and permanent enlargement of air spaces distal to the terminal bronchioles
  • also severely affects capillaries + blood flow


Cigarette smoke (and other smoke inhalation including dust and air pollution)

  • Destroys lung tissue, which results in the obstruction of airflow, and it causes inflammation and irritation of airways that can add to airflow obstruction.
  • Cigarette smoke causes dysfunction of the cilia.
  • Long-term = cilia disappear from the cells lining the air passages. Without the constant sweeping motion of the cilia, mucous secretions cannot be cleared from the lower respiratory tract.
  • Smoke causes mucous secretion increase – coupled with above causes mucous build up 
  • providing bacteria with a rich source of food –> infection.

Smoking and the immune response

  • Lung immune cells cannot clear many particles (such as tar) that cigarette smoke contains.
  • Increase in susceptibility to lung infection
  • Inflammation caused by the immune system constantly attacking bacteria or tar from smoking leads to the release of destructive enzymes from the immune cells.
  • Over time, enzymes released during this persistent inflammation lead to the loss of proteins responsible for keeping the lungs elastic.
  • In addition, the tissue separating the air cells (alveoli) from one another also is destroyed.

Tests

  • Chest X-Ray – changes in lung are physical and visible.  Can also show infections.
  • Lung function tests (how much air your lungs can hold, how quickly your lungs can expel air during expiration, and how much reserve capacity your lungs have for increased demand)
  • Blood test for alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency – only if family history. 
  • Blood tests for WBC count for infection
  • Arterial blood gas test (O2 + CO2 levels)

Treatment

Emphysema causes irreversible damage - treatment can only slow progression

  • Stop smoking: halt progression and should improve lung function 
  • Bronchodilators: cause the air passages to open more fully and allow better air exchange, usually the first medications for emphysema - mild cases eg = albuterol (taken with inhaler), fast acting and 1 dose provides relief for 4-6 hours – is a relief medication for periods of shortness of breath, but doesn’t cure. Tiotropium = long acting, more severe. Taken once a day and can extend life expectancy
  • Steroid medications:  decrease inflammation, however not all people will respond to steroid therapy. Orally or inhaled.
  • Surgery if severe eg lung transplant
4

“You’re going to have to amend that one name though, just to be fair. It’s Lady Vex'ahlia.”

“Lady?”

“Lady Vex'ahlia, Baroness of The Third House of Whitestone and Grand Mistress of The Grey Hunt.”

(From Heredity and Hats LIVE!)

A brief history of the word “nigger.”

The history of the word nigger is often traced to the Latin word niger, meaning Black. This word became the noun, Negro (Black person) in English, and simply the color Black in Spanish and Portuguese. In early modern French, niger became negre and, later, negress (Black woman) was unmistakably a part of language history. One can compare to negre the derogatory nigger and earlier English substitutes such as negar, neegar, neger, and niggor that developed into its lexico-semantic true version in English. It is probable that nigger is a phonetic spelling of the White Southern mispronunciation of Negro.

No matter what its origins, by the early 1800s, it was firmly established as a derogative name. In the 21st century, it remains a principal term of White racism, regardless of who is using it. Social scientists agree that words like nigger, kike, spic, and wetback come from three categories: disparaging nicknames (chink, dago, nigger); explicit group devaluations (“Jew him down” or “niggering the land”); and irrelevant ethnic names used as a mild disparagement (“jewbird” for cuckoos having prominent beaks or “Irish confetti” for bricks thrown in a fight.)

Over time, racial slurs have victimized all racial and ethnic groups; but no American group has endured as many racial nicknames as Blacks: coon, tom, savage, pickaninny, mammy, buck, samba, jigaboo, and buckwheat are some. Many of these slurs became fully traditional pseudo-scientific, literary, cinematic, and everyday distortions of African Americans. These caricatures, whether spoken, written, or reproduced in media and material objects, reflect the extent, the vast network, of anti-Black prejudice.

The word, nigger, carries with it much of the hatred and disgust directed toward Black Africans and African Americans. Historically, nigger defined, limited, made fun of, and ridiculed all Blacks. It was a term of exclusion, a verbal reason for discrimination. Whether used as a noun, verb, or adjective, it strengthened the stereotype of the lazy, stupid, dirty, worthless nobody. No other American surname carries as much purposeful cruelty. The following shortlist is important information on the word’s use and meaning:

Naggers: Acting in a lazy and irresponsible manner.
Niggerlipping: wetting the end of a cigarette while smoking it.
Niggerlover: Derogatory term aimed at Whites lacking in the necessary loathing of Blacks.
Nigger luck: Exceptionally, but undeserved good luck.
Nigger-flicker: A small knife or razor with one side heavily taped to preserve the user’s fingers.
Nigger heaven: Designated places, usually the balcony, where Blacks were forced to sit, for example, in an integrated movie theater or church.
Nigger knocker: Axe handle or weapon made from an axe handle.
Nigger rich: Deeply in debt but flamboyant.
Nigger shooter: A slingshot.
Nigger steak: A slice of liver or a cheap piece of meat.
Nigger stick: Police officer’s baton.
Nigger tip: Leaving a small tip or no tip in a restaurant.
Nigger in the woodpile: A concealed motive or unknown factor affecting a situation in an adverse way.
Nigger work: Demeaning, menial tasks.

Nigger (as a word) is also used to describe a dark shade of color (nigger-brown, nigger-Black), the status of Whites that mix together with Blacks (nigger-breaker, dealer, driver, killer, stealer, worshipper, and looking), and anything belonging to or linked to African Americans (nigger-baby, boy, girl, mouth, feet, preacher, job, love, culture, college, music, etc). Nigger is the ultimate American insult; it is used to offend other ethnic groups. Jews are called White-niggers; Arabs, sand-niggers; Japanese, yellow-niggers. Americans created a racial hierarchy with Whites at the top and Blacks at the bottom.

In biology, heredity refers to the transference of biological characteristics from a parent organism to offspring. The word, nigger, speaks to the human heredity of Black people. Defining which characteristics of a person are due to heredity and which are due to environmental influences is often a controversial discussion (the nature versus nurture debate), especially regarding intelligence and race.

The hierarchy was set up by an ideology that justified the use of deceit, exploitation, and intimidation to keep Blacks “in their place.” Every major societal establishment offered legitimacy to the racial hierarchy. Ministers preached that God was White and had condemned Blacks to be servants. Scientists measured Black skulls, brains, faces, and genitalia, seeking to prove that Whites were genetically superior to Blacks. White teachers, teaching only White students, taught that Blacks were less evolved cognitively, psychologically, and socially. The entertainment media, from vaudeville to television and film, portrayed Blacks as docile servants, happy-go-lucky idiots, and dangerous thugs, and they still do this today. The criminal justice system sanctioned a double standard of justice, including its unspoken approval of mob violence against Blacks and there is still a similar double standard today. Both American slavery and the Jim Crow laws which followed were saturated by anti-Black laws and images. The negative portrayals of Blacks were both reflected in and shaped by everyday material objects: toys, postcards, ashtrays, detergent boxes, fishing lures, and children’s books. These items, and countless others, portrayed Blacks with bulging, darting eyes, fire-red oversized lips, jet-Black skin, and either naked or poorly clothed.

In 1874, the McLoughlin Brothers of New York produced a puzzle game called “Chopped Up Niggers.” Beginning in 1878, the B. Leidersdory Company of Milwaukee, WI., produced NiggerHair Smoking Tobacco. Decades later, the name was changed to BiggerHair Smoking Tobacco. A 1916 magazine ad, copyrighted by Morris & Bendien, showed a Black child drinking ink. The caption read, “Nigger Milk” (shown). In 1917, the American Tobacco Company had a NiggerHair redemption promotion. NiggerHair coupons were redeemable for “cash, tobacco, S&H Green stamps, or presents.” The J. Millhoff Company of England produced a series of cards in the 1930s which were widely distributed in the United States. One of the cards shows ten small Black dogs with the caption: “Ten Little Nigger Boys Went Out To Dine.”

This is the first line from a popular children’s story called, “The Ten Little Niggers.” it reads like this.
Ten Little Nigger Boys went out to dine;
One choked his little self, and then there were nine.
Nine Little Nigger Boys sat up very late; one overslept, and then there were eight. Eight Little Nigger Boys traveling in Devon; one said he’d stay there, and then there were seven.
Seven Little Nigger Boys chopping up sticks; one chopped himself in halves, and then there were six.
Six Little Nigger Boys playing with a hive; a Bumblebee stung one, and then there were five.
Five Little Nigger Boys going in for Law; one got in Chancery, and then there were four.
Four Little Nigger Boys going out to Sea; A Red Herring swallowed one, and then there were three.
Three Little Nigger Boys walking in the Zoo; the big Bear hugged one, and then there were two;
Two Little Nigger Boys sitting in the Sun; one got frizzled up, and then there was one.
One Little Nigger Boy living all alone; He got married, and then there were none.

In 1939, writer Agatha Christie published a book called Ten Little Niggers. Later editions sometimes changed the name to Ten Little Indians, or And Then There Were None, but as late as 1978, copies of the book with the original title were being produced. It was not rare for sheet music produced in the first half of the 20th century to use the word nigger on the cover. The Howley, Haviland Company of New York produced sheet music for the songs “Hesitate Mr. Nigger, Hesitate,” and “You'se Just A Little Nigger, Still You'se Mine, All Mine.” This last example was promoted as a children’s lullaby. Some small towns used nigger in their names, for example, Nigger Run Fork, Virginia. Nigger was a common name for darkly colored pets, especially dogs, cats, and horses. So-called “Jolly Nigger Banks,” first made in the 1800s, were widely distributed as late as the 1960s. Another common piece with many variations, produced on posters, postcards, and prints is a picture of a dozen Black children rushing for a swimming hole. The caption reads, “Last One In’s A Nigger.”

The civil rights movement, Supreme Court decisions, the Black empowerment movement, broad civil rights legislation, and a general embracing of democracy by many American citizens have worn down America’s racial pecking order from slavery moving into Jim Crow period and today’s institutional racism. Yet, the word nigger has not left and its relationship with anti-Black prejudice remains symbiotic, interrelated, and interconnected. Ironically, it is co-dependent because a racist society created nigger and continues to feed and sustain it. But, the word no longer needs racism, or brutal and obvious forms, to survive. The word nigger today has its own existence.

Another interesting and confusing experience in American speech is the use of nigger by African Americans. Poetry by Blacks is instructive; one can often find the word nigger used in Black writings. Major and minor poets alike have used it with startling results: Imamu Amiri Baraka, contemporary poet, uses nigger in one of his angriest poems, “I Don’t Love You,” and what was the world to the words of slick nigger fathers too depressed to explain why they could not appear to be men. One wonders how readers are supposed to understand “nigger fathers.” Baraka’s use of this imagery, regardless of his purpose, reinforces the stereotype of the worthless, pleasure-seeking “coon” caricature. Ted Joans’s use of nigger in "The Nice Colored Man” is an example of explainable expression. Joans said he was asked to give a reading in London because he was a “nice colored man.” Infuriated by the labels “nice” and “colored,” Joan’s wrote a quintessential rebellious poem. While the poem should be read in its entirety, a few lines will do:
Smart Black Nigger Smart Black Nigger Smart Black Nigger Smart Black Nigger Knife Carrying Nigger Gun Toting Nigger Military Nigger Clock Watching Nigger Poisoning Nigger Disgusting Nigger Black Ass Nigger.
This piece uses adjective upon adjective attached to the word nigger.

The reality is that many of these uses can be heard in present-day African-American society. Herein lies part of the difficulty: The word, nigger, endures because it is used over and over again, even by the people it insults. Writer Devorah Major said, "It’s hard for me to say what someone can or can’t say, because I work with language all the time, and I don’t want to be limited.” Poet and professor Opal Palmer Adisa claims that the use of nigger or nigga is “the same as young people’s obsession with swearing. A lot of their use of such language is an internalization of negativity about themselves.” Rappers, themselves poets, rap about niggers before mostly White audiences, some of whom see themselves as wiggers (White niggers) and refer to one another as “my niggah.” Snoop Doggy Dogg’s single, “You Thought,” raps, “Wanna grab a skinny nigga like Snoop Dogg/Cause you like it tall/and work it baby doll.” Tupac Shakur’s “Crooked Ass Nigga” lyrics included, “Now I could be a crooked nigga too/When I’m rollin’ with my crew.” Also rap lyrics that degrade women and glamorize violence reinforce the historical Brute Caricature.

Erdman Palmore researched lexicons and said, The number of offensive words used correlates positively with the amount of out-group prejudice; and these express and support negative stereotypes about the most visible racial and cultural differences. When used by Blacks, nigger refers to, among other things, all Blacks (“A nigger can’t even get a break.”); Black men (“Sisters want niggers to work all day long.”); Blacks who behave in a stereotypical, and sometimes legendary, manner (“He’s a lazy, good-for-nothing nigger.”); things (“This piece-of-shit car is such a nigger.”); enemies (“I’m sick and tired of those niggers bothering me!”); and friends (“Me and my niggers are tight.”). This final habit, as a kind word, is particularly challenging. “Zup Niggah” has become an almost universal greeting among young urban Blacks. When asked, Blacks who use nigger or its variants argue that it has to be understood in its situation; repeated use of the word by Blacks will make it less offensive. It’s not really the same word because Whites are saying nigger (and niggers) but Blacks are saying niggah (and niggaz). Also it is just a word and Blacks should not be prisoners of the past or the ugly words that originated in the past.

These arguments may not be true to the real world. Brother (Brotha) and Sister (Sistha or Sista) are terms of endearment. Nigger was and still is a word of disrespect. More to the point, the artificial dichotomy between Blacks or African Americans (respectable and middle-class) and niggers (disrespectable and lower class) ought to be challenged. Black is a nigger, regardless of behavior, earnings, goals, clothing, skills, ethics, or skin color. Finally, if continued use of the word lessened its damage, then nigger would not hurt or cause pain now. Blacks, from slavery until today, have internalized many negative images that White society cultivated and broadcast about Black skin and Black people. This is mirrored in cycles of self- and same-race hatred. The use of the word,nigger by Blacks reflects this hatred, even when the user is unaware of the psychological forces involved. Nigger is the ultimate expression of White racism and White superiority no matter how it is pronounced. It is linguistic corruption, an attack on civility.

To a smaller scale, words other than Nigger also remain accepted public banter in White America. In 1988, on Martin Luther King’s birthday, sports commentator Jimmy “The Greek” Snyder said (on national television) that Black people were better at sports because of slave plantation breeding techniques. “During the slave period, the slave owner would breed his Black with his big woman so that he would have a big Black-kid. That’s were it all started.” Another sports announcer, Billy Packer, referred to pro-basketball player, Allan Iverson, as a “tough monkey.” Another announcer, Howard Cosell, referred to Alvin Garrett, a pro football player with the Washington Redskins as “little monkey” during a Monday Night Football game. The comments made by Cosell and Packer did not go without any punitive consequences.

Nigger is one of the most notorious words in American culture. Some words carry more weight than others. But without trying to exaggerate, is genocide just another word? Pedophilia? Clearly, no and neither is nigger.

After a period of relative dormancy, the word nigger has been reborn in popular culture. It is hard-edged, streetwise, and it has crossed over into movies like Pulp Fiction (1994) and Jackie Brown (1997), where it became a symbol of “street authenticity” and hipness. Denzel Washington’s character in Training Day (2001) uses nigger frequently and harshly. Richard Pryor long ago rejected the use of the word in his comedy act, but Chris Rock, Chris Tucker, and other Black male comedy kings use nigger regularly and not affectionately. Justin Driver, a social critic, makes a case that both Rock and Tucker are modern minstrels shucking, jiving, and grinning, in the tradition of Step ‘n Fetchit. White supremacists have found the Internet an indispensable tool for spreading their message of hate. An Internet search of nigger using Netscape or Alta Vista locates many anti-Black web pages: Niggers Must Die, Hang A Nigger for America, Nigger Joke Central, and many others. Web searchers find what most Blacks know from personal experience, that nigger is an expression of anti-Black hostility. Without question, nigger is the most commonly used racist slur during hate crimes.

No American minority group has been caricatured as often or in as many ways as Black people. These misrepresentations feature distorted physical descriptions and negative cultural and behavior stereotypes. The Coon caricature, for example, was a tall, skinny, loose-jointed, dark-skinned male, often bald, with oversized, ruby-red lips. His clothing was either ragged and dirty or extremely gaudy. His slow, exaggerated walk suggested laziness. He was a pauper, lacking ambition and the skills necessary for upward social mobility. He was a buffoon. When frightened, the Coon’s eyes bulged and darted. His speech was slurred, halted, and stuffed with malapropisms. His piercing, high-pitched voice made Whites laugh. The Coon caricature dehumanized Blacks, and served to justify social, economic, and political discrimination. Nigger may be viewed as an umbrella term, a way of saying that Blacks have the negative characteristics of the Coon, Buck, Tom, Mammy, Sambo, Pickaninny, and other anti-Black caricatures.

In 2003, the fight to correct the shameful availability of this word had positive results. Recently Kweisi Mfume, president and CEO of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP), gave a speech at Virginia Tech. There everyone was informed that a landmark decision was made with the people at Merriam-Webster Dictionary. Recognizing their error, beginning with the next edition, the word nigger will no longer be synonymous with African Americans in their publication.

Nigger, like the false impressions it incorporates and means, puts down Blacks, and rationalizes their abuse. The use of the word or its alternatives by Blacks has not lessened its hurt. This is not surprising in a racial hierarchy four centuries old, shaping the historical relationship between European Americans and African Americans. Anti-Black attitudes, motives, values, and behavior continue. Historically, nigger, more than any other word, captures the personal hatred and institutionalized racism directed toward Blacks. In 2013, incidences such as Atlanta born restaurant entrepreneur Paula Dean and Oklahoma football player Reilly Cooper’s comfortable reference to the word against Blacks shows that it is alive in the white vocabulary and it still does great harm.

Source: Phil Middleton and David Pilgrim, Department of Sociology,
Ferris State University 

via:  Dr. Ray Winbush

anonymous asked:

(1/2) hello! i read that you guys aren't specialized in Asian history, but bc i couldn't find promising results from my search, i have to try and ask - in 17th century Japan, there were the Emperor and the shogun, the latter of which was a military leader and was often seen as the center of power instead of the Emperor, and i'm wondering how titles work with this system?

(2/2) i searched for Japanese honorifics throughout the history and there were terms like King/Princes if translated to English, but there wasn’t info on who those were addressed to. could the shogun also be called ‘King’? if so, would their sons (both by blood and by concubines) be called ‘Princes’? were the shogun and their family considered as royalties, monarchs, aristocrats, or etc.?

Sorry for the long wait and thank you for your patients! 

First of I need to make a disclaimer! I’m not well versed in Japanese history (my knowledge is rudimentary) and I’m not very familiar with the culture or that good with the language. (My two years of studying Japanese 10 years ago doesn’t get me that far, really.) There’s simply a lot of history that hasn’t been much of a part of my education because it’s such a vast field. Therefore, this information that follows is not to be taken as absolute fact. (So if anyone is educated in Japanese history or has Japanese as their first language, do feel free to correct any mistakes I may have made!)

So, to try and answer your question, anon!

There are a lot of difficulties trying to even relate Japaneses titles to a European concept since Japan did not have the same kind of peerage as, say, England. In fact, they had no similar peerage until the mid-1800s; when the court nobility (”kuge”) and feudal lords (”daimyo”) were combined into an aristocrat with titles corresponding to the European peerage.[1] (More on the European, specifically English, peerage can be fond here). Being a shogun was heredity and the shogun would name his son as heir and it was the noble families (the landowning feudal Lords “daimyo”) which fought to hold the title and political power that came with it. The title as such was no hereditary noble title, though.[2]

When it comes to formal titles you’d have “no kimi” for Lords and Ladies. It’s used as a suffix and though not really in use today, it was common during the Heian period. You also have Tono (pronounced with a “d” rather than “t”), which means roughly “master” or “lord” and has a usage similar to the English “milord” or the French “monseigneur”. A polite title rather than a mark of nobility. You’d use “sama” for someone who outrank you. You’d use “san” for someone you don’t know very well, who are of the same or lower rank than you. “Kun” is often used for boys but can be used for girls, for example daughters or employees by their parents or seniors. When used by male friends or family, it’s a more familiar way to address someone than “san”.[3]

I am not sure how the shogun would be addressed exactly since I can’t seem to find information. I would assume that they were addressed as their title and “sama”. Or with their name and “no kimi” or simply by the word “tono”. It would likely depend on who is addressing them and in which setting. It’s a rather complex system for an outsider to be honest.

What this means is that the sons of a shogun would, if addressed in a formal way, be addressed with “san” if they are children and, maybe, “sama” as an adult. Possibly “no kimi” for an adult son of a shogun. It would also seem that the word “shogun” was not used during the Tokugawa shogunate - which is the one you are interested in. They used “kubo” (short for “kuge no kata”, “people of the noble houses”), “taiju” (great tree) or “taikun” (great prince/lord).[4] This means this is what you’d use in formal settings for other characters to address your shogun character. The Tokugawas did use “king” (kokuo) but that created problems in their dealings with China, as it suggested subordination to the Chinese emperor. Thus the usage of “taikun”. Unfortunately this still created problems in their dealings with both Korea and China and the Tokugawa shogun went back to the title of “king” with the added “of Japan” (”Nihon kokuo”).[5] Despite these different titles, they weren’t monarch, kings or princes the way a European would be a king. The words don’t carry the same connotations. They were the ones with political power, absolutely, but they were not divinely chosen as European kings were chosen by God and Chinese and Japanese emperors were Sons of Heaven. They were feudal lords (”daimyo”), similar to those in Europe.[6] 

That’s the best I can do, hope it was helpful! Good luck with your writing!

Signed, Captain.

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[1] https://wiki.samurai-archives.com/index.php?title=Shogun

[2] Ibid.

[3] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Japanese_honorifics.

[4] https://wiki.samurai-archives.com/index.php?title=Shogun

[5] https://wiki.samurai-archives.com/index.php?title=Taikun

[6] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Daimy%C5%8D