Maison Capet Hugues Capet (987 – 996) Robert II “Le Pieux” (996-1031) Henri Ier (1031-1060) Philippe Ier (1060-1108) Louis VI “Le Gros” (1108-1137) Louis VII “Le Jeune” (1137-1180) Philippe II Auguste (1180-1223) Louis VIII “Le Lion” (1223-1226) Louis IX “Saint Louis” (1226-1270) Philippe III “Le Hardi” (1270-1285) Philippe IV “Le Bel” (1285-1314) Louis X “Le Hutin” (1314-1316) Jean Ier “Le Posthume” (1316) Philippe V “Le Long” (1316-1322) Charles IV “Le Bel” (1322-1328)
Maison Capet-Valois Philippe VI (1328-1350) Jean II “Le Bon” (1350-1364) Charles V “Le Sage” (1354-1380) Charles VI “Le Fol” (1380-1422) Charles VII “Le Victorieux” (1422-1461) Louis XI “L’invincible Aragne” (1461-1483) Charles VIII “L’Affable” (1483-1498) Louis XII “Le Père du Peuple” (1498-1515)
Maison Capet-Valois-Angoulême François Ier Le Magnifique (1515-1547) Henri II (1547-1559) François II (1559-1560) Charles IX (1560-1574) Henri III (1574-1589)
Maison Capet-Bourbon Henri IV “Le Vert Galant” (1589-1610) Louis XIII “Le Juste” (1610-1643) Louis XIV “Le Roi Soleil” (1643-1715) Louis XV “Le Bien-Aimé” (1715-1774) Louis XVI “Le Père de la Nation” (1774-1792) Louis XVIII (1814-1824) Charles X (1824-1830)
Hans Holbein and the Original OKCupid Date Gone Wrong
By Connor O’Brien
Hans Holbein the Younger, a German painter born in the late fifteenth century, received much attention in England for his exquisite attention to detail, a realism characteristic of Northern Renaissance painting. Because of these technical gifts, he eventually became the court painter to Henry VIII, generating stately portraits that now constitute the popular image of the well-known king. This also roped Holbein into the complex marital politics associated with Henry VIII’s reign.
According to Grove Art, Holbein’s period of greatest activity for Henry VIII was in 1538–9, when he was sent on several journeys abroad in order to portray prospective candidates for the royal marriage. The sister of a German duke, Anne of Cleves, was suggested by Thomas Cromwell as a wife for Henry VIII to strengthen the protestant alliance. King Henry wanted to confirm that she was beautiful enough for him to marry, and he instructed Holbein not to embellish or romanticize her appearance. When the painter returned with the above portrait, the king agreed to the marriage, and the wedding treaty was signed. The new queen, after her first evening with Henry, was not quite as well-received as was the artwork. It apparently portrayed Anne in a far more idealized way than Henry perceived in person. Infamously describing the actual Anne as a “Flanders mare,” he saw in her no potential to conceive children. Holbein’s masterful ability to paint beautifully, in this instance, seemed to betray him.
Despite his disappointment, Henry VIII became close friends with the queen during their short time together, and she managed to escape execution due to her cooperation with the king in annulment proceedings. Henry granted her vast properties in exchange for this agreement, and the two remained extremely fond of each other until his death. Holbein, too, remained in the king’s favor, with the monarch blaming his advisors for the failed marriage (some of whom were not as fortunate as Anne).
The moral of the story? Always request multiple portraits, and from different angles.
Connor O’Brien is an intern for art reference at Oxford University Press.
21 June 1528: Catherine of Aragon makes her Blackfriars Speech to Henry VIII.
Sir, I beseech you for all the love that hath been between us, and for the love of God, let me have justice. Take of me some pity and compassion, for I am a poor woman, and a stranger born out of your dominion. I have here no assured friends, and much less impartial counsel.
Alas! Sir, wherein have I offended you, or what occasion of displeasure have I deserved? I have been to you a true, humble and obedient wife, ever comfortable to your will and pleasure, that never said or did any thing to the contrary thereof, being always well pleased and contented with all things wherein you had any delight or dalliance, whether it were in little or much. I never grudged in word or countenance, or showed a visage or spark of discontent. I loved all those whom ye loved, only for your sake, whether I had cause or no, and whether they were my friends or enemies. This twenty years or more I have been your true wife and by me ye have had divers children, although it hath pleased God to call them out of this world, which hath been no default in me.
When ye had me at first, I take God to my judge, I was a true maid, without touch of man. And whether it be true or no, I put it to your conscience. If there be any just cause by the law that ye can allege against me either of dishonesty or any other impediment to banish and put me from you, I am well content to depart to my great shame and dishonor. And if there be none, then here, I most lowly beseech you, let me remain in my former estate. Therefore, I most humbly require you, in the way of charity and for the love of God – who is the just judge – to spare me the extremity of this new court, until I may be advised what way and order my friends in Spain will advise me to take. And if ye will not extend to me so much impartial favor, your pleasure then be fulfilled, and to God I commit my cause!
Though Henry VIII became King on the 21st of April, after the death of his father, he did not get crowned until June 24th 1509, thirteen days after his marriage to Catherine of Aragon. Due to the low key celebration of their wedding, Henry decided that he and his Queen would have a joint coronation and that this was to be their big event.
The young King wore a robe of crimson velvet, trimmed with ermine, a jacket of cloth of gold decorated with diamonds, rubies, emeralds, pearls and other precious stones, while Catherine of wore her auburn hair loose down her back, as was customary at coronations, and Edward Hall describes it as “of a very great length, beautiful and goodly to behold.” She was “…richly appareled in Tissues, clothe of Golde, Siluer, Tinsels, And Velvets Embroidered” with a coronet “set with many riche orient stones.”