Elizabeth of York was born on February 11th, 1466 and died on February 11th, 1503, when she was exactly thirty-seven years old. Elizabeth was born at Westminster Palace to Elizabeth Woodville and Edward IV of England.

She saw much throughout her life, including the brief reign of her brother Edward V, followed by the brief reign of her ‘tyrannical’ uncle Richard III. Elizabeth became the first Tudor queen through her marriage to Henry VII, and together they produced seven children. She succumbed to a post partum infection at the Tower of London nine days after giving birth to her daughter Katherine, who had died only the previous day. Only three of her children had outlived her, all of whom ruled (even temporarily) over a kingdom either through succession or through marriage. Her son Henry would go onto be one of the most famous English monarchs as Henry VIII, and his famous daughter Elizabeth I would carry on her name.

On her birthday in 1534, thirty-one years after her death, her son Henry VIII was officially recognized as the Supreme Head of the Church of England.

Henry III of England (1 October 1207 - 16 November 1272) 

“A 13th century English king who came to the throne at an early age and whose reign was marked by strife with barons, led by Simon de Montfort.

Henry was born on 1 October 1207 in Winchester, the son of John. Henry was nine when his father died and he became king. The country was ruled by a series of regencies until 1234, when Henry took over. Problems began as early as 1237, when his barons objected to the influence of Henry’s Savoyard relatives. The marriage arranged in 1238 between Henry’s sister and English nobleman Simon de Montfort only made relationship between Henry and his leading nobles worse. In 1242, Henry’s half brothers involved him in a disastrously expensive military venture in France. This prompted parliament to demand new blood on the council to act as ‘conservators of liberties’ and oversee royal finances. But the king was able to exploit the differences between his opponents and little happened.

Finally, in 1258 a bungled deal with the Papacy threatened Henry with excommunication. This, together with defeats in Wales and local crises, brought about the main crisis of his reign. The Provisions of Oxford (1258) created a 15-member privy council, selected by the barons, to advise the king and oversee the entire administration. Parliament was to be held three times a year and the households of the king and queen were also to be reformed.

The settlement began to break down in 1260 with quarrels between the Earl of Gloucester and the ambitious Simon de Montfort. Civil war was inevitable. In May 1264, Simon de Montfort won a resounding victory at Lewes and set up a new government. In May 1265, Henry’s eldest son Prince Edward escaped captivity and rallied the royalist forces, defeating and killing de Montfort at Evesham before taking control of government from his weakened father.

The rest of the reign was occupied by resolving the problems created by the rebellion. Henry deprived de Montfort’s supporters of their lands, but the 'disinherited’ fought back until terms were agreed in 1266 for former rebels to buy back their lands. By 1270, the country was sufficiently settled for Edward to set off on crusade. Henry died on 16 November 1272. He was buried in Westminster Abbey, which he had largely rebuilt in the gothic style during his reign.”

Source: BBC

Great Scot!

The past few days have been spent touring around Scotland and getting myself out of the depressing rut. Money is not unlimited unfortunately and my traveling comes with a very strict budget. I went first to Inverness which is far north of Scotland. A rather pretty town, but there is not much to do apart from the drink and walking around.

However, the bus trip from Edinburgh to Inverness is spectacular. The Highlands are incredibly beautiful, serene and yet rugged in the same breath. The roads seem to flow with the landscape rather than against it. The next day I went to Stirling, which is where I am currently. The town is rather pretty as well, and it is where William Wallace is from and his monument is. I am currently sitting in the hostel with Iron Man in the background and a man who always wears a kilt. Today we talk about one of the other Provençal sisters. In alphabetical order, we are on to Eleanor of England.

Eleanor of Provence, Queen of England (1223-1291)

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Eleanor was the second daughter of Beatrice of Savoy and Raymond Berenguer of Provence. When she was growing up, she was very close to her sister, Marguerite of Provence. She was considered very pretty by contemporary standards and was a leader of fashion. She was regarded as fairly learned, and skilled at poetry and writing.

She married Henry III of England at the age of about 12, and intially was greeted fairly well by the kingdom. However, due to her nepotism and favour towards her Savoyard family she grew to be very unpopular, especially amongst Londoners. One incident had the Londoners attack her barge on Thames as she was traveling. In return, Eleanor punished the Londoners by levying higher taxes. Another time she was pelted with stones, mud and rotten food and was rescued by the Mayor of London. While an apparently very loving father and brother, Henry III was seen as a very weak ruler. Often, he appeased his unruly relatives rather than punishing them as their due. His French half-brothers de Lusignans were a constant thorn in the side of the English crown as they were constantly grasping and begging for privileges but had no talent for politics.

Henry had also angered his subjects by sending back gifts that his citizens had sent at the birth of his son, Edward I. Due to this and his favouritism of foreigners, he became unpopular. Once he was challenged for his crown by his brother-in-law, Simon de Montfort and Eleanor stoutly defended her crown and her husbands rights. While Eleanor’s nepotism was seen as something of a weakness, her uncles were men of considerable intellect and talent, her uncle Tomasso became the Archbishop of Canterbury (the highest church position in England). However, Tomasso proved to be very beneficial as he got Henry III and his son to come to a peace.

When Henry III died in 1272, Eleanor remained in England and took care of her grandchildren. Eventually she retired to a convent, and died in 1291.She was survived by her two sons, her two daughters both dying in 1275.

Magna Carta Originals Reunited for 800th Anniversary

Magna Carta Originals Reunited for 800th Anniversary

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The four surviving original Magna Carta copies go on display together for the first time from Monday as Britain kicks off 800th anniversary celebrations for a contract with global significance.

Considered the cornerstone of liberty, modern democracy, justice and the rule of law, the 1215 English charter forms the basis for legal systems around the world, the Universal Declaration of Human Rights

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The Four Queens: Margaret of Provence, Queen of France

The Four Queens: Margaret of Provence, Queen of France

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In the High Middle Ages, there were four sisters known by the famous moniker of “the Provençal sisters” and they married four of the most influential men of Europe at the time. It is through these four marriages that the sisters: Margaret, Eleanor, Sanchia, and Beatrice ushered in an era of relative peace in the 1200s. A Desirable Arrangement The year was 1233 and Louis IX of France had been on…

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Henry III of England

Today let’s have a look at Henry III of England.

Did you know…?

In 1263 one of the more radical barons, Simon de Montfort, seized power, resulting in the Second Barons’ War.

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Following the revolt, Henry ruled England personally, rather than governing through senior ministers.

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Henry promised to abide by the Great Charter of 1225, which limited royal power and protected the rights of the major barons.

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His early rule was dominated first by Hubert de Burgh and then Peter des Roches, who reestablished royal authority after the war.

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A revolt led by William Marshal’s son, Richard, broke out in 1232, ending in a peace settlement negotiated by the Church.

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That’s all for now. Have a great week!

Long live the queen,

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There are so many games that we all know where I’ve only recently thought to wonder about their origins. We all know Simon Says, a game that’s presumably supposed to teach kids to listen carefully. I checked the Internet to see if it said anything about the game’s origins, and this page says that it was originally called Cicero dicit fac hoc, or “Cicero says do this.” It was named in honor of…

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Eleanor, the Count’s Daughter | Henry III

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In January 1236, the young daughter of the Count of Provence landed with her escort at Dover in England. From there she travelled to Canterbury, where she married Henry III, then moved to Westminster to be crowned queen. Her coronation took place on January 20th (Howell, pp.15-16) with all the splendour such an occasion required; England had waited a long time for a queen, and she had finally arrived. The future looked promising for this girl of around twelve, but where had she come from, this new Queen Eleanor? What was her story so far?

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Why Is Saudi Arabia Sending Ground Troops To Syria?

Why Is Saudi Arabia Sending Ground Troops To Syria?

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Saudi Arabia has been accused by the international community of fomenting strife in the Middle East by failing to counter religious extremism at home.

Sourced through Scoop.it from: thinkprogress.org

also known as Edward Longshanks and the Hammer of the Scots (Latin: Malleus Scotorum), was King of England from … ‎Edward II – ‎Henry III of England – ‎Eleanor of Castile – ‎Margaret of France,…

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Blog Tour: The Imperial Arm (Knights of the Imperial Elite #1) by Beth Mikell Jan 30th – Feb 6th   GOODREADS: https://www.goodreads.com/book/show/25931165-the-imperial-arm   Blurb:   Darrius of Blackstone, emissary to King Henry III, is sent to northern England to snuff out an enemy of the crown. Everything spirals out of control when the scales of justice tip and the controlled warrior unleashes…

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Blog Tour: The Imperial Arm (Knights of the Imperial Elite #1)

Blog Tour: The Imperial Arm (Knights of the Imperial Elite #1)

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The Imperial Arm (Knights of the Imperial Elite #1) by Beth Mikell Jan 30th – Feb 6th GOODREADS: https://www.goodreads.com/book/show/25931165-the-imperial-arm  Blurb:  Darrius of Blackstone, emissary to King Henry III, is sent to northern England to snuff out an enemy of the crown. Everything spirals out of control when the scales of justice tip and the controlled warrior unleashes his heart upon…

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