1. Mouthparts of the “Old World Hookworm” (Ancylostoma duodenale) and “New World Hookworm” (Necator americanus). 

2. How those mouthparts attach to the intestinal mucosa.

3. The basic life-cycle of the hookworm - note that it likes sandy, loose soil, the same kind that is good for farming in the south - the farmers with the good land were always noted to be “lazy”, “slow”, or “sleepy”. This was due to heavy hookworm infection.

Chronic, heavy-intensity hookworm infections, due to walking barefoot near faecal matter, were once common in the south. In areas where the hookworms thrived, these infections, though not obvious, caused chronic anemia and nutrient loss. This, in turn, led to “laziness” (basic exhaustion due to iron deficiency and other deficiencies), diarrhea, gastrointestinal problems, and kids missing school/having trouble learning in the first place.

Standard Oil saw a lot of opportunity in the relatively undeveloped south, but first, they needed to figure out why its citizens with the best land and (who were most likely to use new oil-run farm equipment) were so unproductive. Once the south underwent a massive sanitation initiative started by John D. Rockefeller in 1909, hookworm infection and its health implications began to quickly disappear. Latrines were built, shoe importance (especially when using the latrine) was emphasized, and the population was educated as to what they had to do to avoid infection and what they had to do to rid themselves of their current infections.

The campaign was a major success, and along with the foundation of better universities and emphasis on higher standards of living, the elimination of hookworm infestation was one of the most important steps in “Seeing the South Rise Again”.

Animal Parasites and Human Disease. Asa C. Chandler, 1918.

Inflammatory Bowel Diseases: and in depth Q & A our chief of Gastroenterology

It’s estimated roughly 100 trillion microorganisms reside within our intestines, about 10 times more than the total number of human cells comprising our bodies. By and large, we share space amicably. It’s a mutually agreeable and biologically necessary relationship. Beneficial gut flora help us digest foods, train the immune system, produce vitamins and prevent pathogenic microbes from taking root.

Sometimes, though, things go wrong, resulting in conditions like inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). More than 1 million Americans are affected.  We asked William J. Sandborn, MD, chief of the Division of Gastroenterology at the UC San Diego School of Medicine and director of the UC San Diego Health System’s IBD Center to explore the issues.

Q: Does medical science have a pretty good understanding now of how a healthy intestinal system works or, more specifically, what causes a problem like inflammatory bowel disease?

A: I am always hesitant to say that we have a complete understanding, but we do know more than we used to. Advances include evolving understanding of the genetic associations for inflammatory bowel disease, and the role of the patients’ colon bacterial, which we call “the fecal microbiome.”

With regard to genetics, there are now 169 genes that are linked with inflammatory bowel disease. This means that the inflammatory bowel diseases – Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis – are complex genetic disorders. Related to the fecal microbiome, we now have an understanding that the bacteria in the colons of patients with IBD are different from healthy people without IBD. Our working definition of the cause of IBD is now that a patient with genetic susceptibility develops an inflammatory response to an altered fecal microbiome. Also, there is likely an important contribution of various environmental triggering events, such as cigarette smoking as a trigger for Crohn’s disease.

Q: What’s the difference between inflammatory bowel disease and irritable bowel syndrome? Can the latter lead to the former?

A: Inflammatory bowel diseases are autoimmune diseases in which the patient’s own immune system attacks their small intestine and/or colon. With a colonoscopy or with CT or MRI scan, there are findings of ulceration and inflammation and the patients often experience rectal bleeding in addition to abdominal pain and diarrhea. Treatments are anti-inflammatory and immune suppression.

Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a non-inflammatory condition of the small intestine and/or colon in which the motility or contractions are altered. Colonoscopy and CT or MRI scans are normal. There are two forms of irritable bowel syndrome, diarrhea predominant IBS (the predominant symptom is diarrhea) and constipation predominant IBD (the predominant symptom is constipation). Treatment is targeted on treating the constipation or diarrhea.

Q: Current treatments for IBD seem to mostly involve suppressing the inflammatory immune response through antibiotics, but the result is often long-term adverse side effects and diminishing effectiveness. Where do you see more promise: In tweaking current approaches or in something new altogether?

A: That is not quite true. Antibiotics don’t reliably work for IBD. We do use the anti-inflammatory drug mesalamine (Asacol, Lialda) for ulcerative colitis and immune suppressive drugs (prednisone, azathioprine, 6-mercaptopurine, methotrexate) and biologic drugs (Remicade, Humira, Cimzia) for ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s disease.

These immune suppressive and biologic medications have some potential for side effects. But that said, for patients with significant clinical symptoms the clinical benefits often outweigh the small risks.

However, we are interested in looking at different treatment strategies such as administering steroids directly into the bowel do reduce side effects (Entocort, Uceris), using herbal remedies such as Andrographis paniculatta, stem cell therapy, more selective biologic therapies that only affect the bowel (vedolizumab), etc.

Q: What are your thoughts about some of the more unusual or exotic treatments being proposed or tested for IBD, such as “helminthic therapy” (imbibing whipworm ova) or using cannabis? Do these have a place in the armamentarium?

A: Helminthic therapy with whipworms is a very interesting idea. The rationale is that whipworms induce a natural immune suppressive response by the patient’s own immune system that could treat their ulcerative colitis or Crohn’s disease. There are now clinical trials underway to test this therapy for both forms of IBD. I think it is a very interesting and potentially promising therapy, but it is still investigational at this point in time.

There is no good quality scientific data about the role of cannabis in patients with IBD. We just don’t know either way whether it is helpful, neutral or harmful. For this reason, I don’t think that patients should rely on cannabis as their primary therapy for IBD.

However, we can remain open-minded as to whether some patients could benefit from cannabis in addition to their standard IBD therapy. While I don’t personally prescribe medical cannabis for IBD, I do have patients who choose to take it, and some of them report benefit.

Q: What’s the connection between IBD and colon cancer? Does the risk vary with the type of IBD?

A: Long-term inflammation of the colon in patients with ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s disease involving the colon is associated with an increased risk of colon cancer. Many patients with Crohn’s disease only have small bowel involvement or small bowel and a limited amount of upper colon (the cecum), and in these patients there is not an increased risk of colon cancer.

For patients with Crohn’s disease, which extensively involves the colon, the increased risk of colon cancer is similar to the risk seen in patients with ulcerative colitis. The colon cancer that occurs in patients with IBD starts as a flat lesion rather than a polyp. This is different from the colon cancer that occurs in the general population, which usually begins as a polyp.

To screen for colon cancer in patients with IBD, we recommend a colonoscopy with extensive biopsies of flat tissue every 1-2 years, beginning about 10 years after diagnosis of IBD.



Современная паразитология обладает многочисленными средствами обнаружения заражений организма паразитами, но диагностика остается крайне сложна. Достаточно часто паразитами являются не только микробы, организмы, вирусы, бактерии, но и гельминты - глисты, которые заносятся и грязными, немытыми руками через пищу, и другими путями. Симптомами заражения гельминтами являются: приступы слабости, сердцебиения, резкая худоба или повышенный вес, головные боли непонятного происхождения, тошнота, расстройства желудочно-кишечного тракта, кожные заболевания, аллергии, раздражения слизистой оболочки глаз и губ, полости рта. Гельминты проникают и живут практически в любой среде, в любых тканях и органах, их обнаружить часто бывает невозможно.

Освобождение организма от гельминтов зачастую снимает диагнозы предрасположенности к злокачественному перерождению опухолей, бесплодия, колитов, холециститов, язв, узлов щитовидной железы, эндокринных и иммунных заболеваний. Вегетарианство часто помогает избавиться от гельминтов. Те же из нас, кто постоянно питается мясом, должны тщательно обрабатывать этот продукт - не менее 3 часов, после чего далеко не всякое мясо (без добавочных приправ, специй и т. д.) получается вкусным.

Жгучие пряности и горечи невыносимы для гельминтов.

Пижма - прекрасное растение, которым можно и нужно приправлять пищу. Исключением являются беременные женщины (пижма стимулирует маточные процессы).

Полынь - естественная горечь - не только убивает паразитов, но и лечит многие болезни. Лучше всего жевать цветы полыни перед едой (1-2 цветка, постепенно увеличивая дозу). Порошок и пережеванная трава и цветы остаются в желудочно-кишечном тракте значительно дольше отвара, поэтому и действуют сильнее. При гельминтозном заражении повторять процедуру через каждый час.

Тысячелистник можно употреблять точно так же, но дозу сразу начинать с 1 чайной ложки, потому что он менее горек, чем полынь. Если перед курсом избавления от гельминтов провести несколько разгрузочных дней, то эффект будет значительно усилен. При употреблении противоглистных средств (любых) для усиления эффекта можно воспользоваться клизмами с полынью, тысячелистником и пижмой в смеси с растительным маслом (взвар трав - 100 мл - взбить с маслом). Женщинам полезно делать при этом спринцевания таким же взваром, ибо слизистая влагалища - благодатная среда для паразитов и заползающих гельминтов.

В дни проведения очищения от гельминтов и других паразитов следует значительно снизить употребление сахара, дрожжей, полностью исключить алкоголь. Обязательно проводить антиглистные мероприятия для домашних животных 2 раза в год, как и хозяевам. Выделяйте для этого дни полнолуния.

So, >6*10^7 Americans are infected with toxoplasma gondii.

I was in a cat-owning household when too young to know about hygiene.

Apparently, there are blood tests for toxoplasma gondii, and it is treatable, although most healthy hosts are untreated even after a positive test.

The question: If I can’t get my insurance provider to care, do I even want to know if I’ve caught a mind-control parasite? [1] (Okay, a preference-for-cats-and-annoyance-caused-by-cat-urine-controlling parasite, but my preferences are part of my mind.) And what’s the chance that they’ll care, given that I have no intent to become pregnant anytime soon and toxoplasmosis is rare?

[1] Also why I dislike “helminthic therapy” trials for autism in kids, if it doesn’t work they have parasites and if it does work they have mind-control parasites. Why do people want to run these trials again? Yes, this is a heuristic- and sanctity-axis-based argument made in part from fictional evidence, but typically utilitarians need a good reason to cross moral boundaries.

I haven’t seen a reason that is good enough to make ignoring enough heuristics and gag reflexes to put parasites in the bodies of people not capable of consent with the intent of modifying their minds sound moral.

Extraordinary moral claims require at least good justifications.

The end may justify the means, but only if the end is actually good and the means are less harmful than the end is good. If the ends are “make people more NT” and the means are “use what we hope are mind-control parasites on minors incapable of giving informed consent”, the means are unjustified because the end is not unambiguously good enough to justify mind-control parasites.

fifty-shades-of-ghey asked:

In my blog rate you said that we haven't talked before, which is right, so I thought I will just start a conversation because why not. ;.;

Alright, We should start by introducing ourselves since I know nothing about you.

My name is Admin. I am a little kid who is passionate about parasitic helminths.

Your turn~

Human helminth therapy to treat inflammatory disorders- where do we stand?

Helminth therapy in humans To date two species of helminths have been tested for human helminth therapy as a clinical treatment, Trichuris suis, the pig whipworm, and the human hookworm Necator americanus. After ingestion of T.suis ova (TSO), the eggs hatch and the worms colonise the…
Source:Human helminth therapy to treat inflammatory disorders- where do we stand?