heliocentric model



An orrery is a mechanical device that illustrates the relative positions and motions of the planets and moons in the Solar System in a heliocentric model. Though the Greeks had working planetaria, the first orrery that was a planetarium of the modern era was produced in 1704, and one was presented to the Earl of Orrery — whence came the name. They are typically driven by a clockwork mechanism with a globe representing the Sun at the centre, and with a planet at the end of each of the arms.

dayspriing  asked:

❝ tell me how all this, and love too, will ruin us. ❞ ( heck me up twin jim )

i cannot come home, anymore. did we ever think it could be this way?
that it could ever end this way?

            it goes like this   :   you write  please  do  not  forget  me  every place you go.  you take your time   -   curl your m’s,  cross your t’s.  anything to be there even a second longer.  because you know,  it  ends like this,  too.  with your hands empty.  with your eyes bleak.  with this vacancy   -   all void,  all remnants of something astronomical   -   resembles the night sky   :   all ghosts,  shattered glass glittering nuclear,  put together mosaic,  masterpiece,  and under all of this effort,  all of these trials   -   you  sink.

AN  OLD  MYTH    :    model  /  solar.  heliocentric.  here is the sun,  and he keeps the end of everything a secret.  here is the sun,  and he’s run out of hydrogen to keep himself aflame.  runs on kerosene,  now,  he’s got that  gasoline  smell  to him   -   like he could explode at any second.  like there’s a eight minute buffer.  like he’s already gone. 

A  NEW  MYTH    :    boy  /  dream.  boy with an ache for too much love.  made of heavy light.  soft-tongued,  he doesn’t make it out alive.  the question is  :  when does he find out ?  the final moments  ?  when he is scorched biblical  ?  or is it  -  the beginning ?  first touch of an amulet never before held by hands like ours,  and  oh,  something is different,  now.  something has changed.  the old stone path of theirs has cracked,  and there is light coming through.  new life,  he is new life.

        ❛    it   ends.   ❜      you    -    a now dying sun.  burning out.  you rot away,  unlike stone.  unlike marble.  you are no more  renaissance  than you are soft blood and slow burning.  you   LOVE,   but it is short-lived.  all stars die,  but before that we become every eclipse,  every apocalypse that kissed us open-mouthed,  that we open-mourned,  our hands too small and backs too weak to hold everything we needed to  -  everything that slipped.

                tell me  :  when did your body stop being a body?  when did you turn tool, turn weapon, on a moment’s notice?  when is the last time you thought about a future that didn’t include electric hurricanes,  hurdles on fire,  every loop-and-jump it takes to save this town.  tonight, you lie in bed wishing nothing more but wanting to go home.  tonight, you walk home with a broken bike and look up where the sky is orange and something is missing.  it reminds you of nothing else, anymore.

          it is you with your  BLACK  HOLE  HEART,   and it’s  MORBID  INSTABILITY,  that greets you as go out in this glorious blaze.  you are parasitic in nature,  a kind of moon-ate-sun scenario,  but now you wither,  and your sacrifices do not count,  no matter how desperately they are made.

        ❛   and they   -   forget about us.   ❜   your radiance,  your bravery  -  it is luminous.  the sky watches in awe every new moon   -   why is there a star on that small rock?  who put him there?   how does he shine so brightly?  it is perhaps the most tragic of all   -   that a star is dead long before anyone notices.  before anyone cares for a second look.  before it is all over,  just like that,  in less than an instant.

Andreas Cellarius - Scenographia Systematis Copernicani (detail), “Harmonia Macrocosmica”, 1660.

This map illustrates the Copernican system of the Universe, as described by Copernicus in his  “De Revolutionibus Orbium Coelestium” (On the Revolutions of the Celestial Spheres), published in 1543.  His Heliocentric model, with the Sun at the center of the Universe, demonstrated that the observed motions of Celestial objects can be explained without putting Earth at rest in the center of the Universe. His work spurred further scientific investigations, becoming a landmark in the history of Science that is often referred to as the Copernican Revolution.

Galileo, Copernicus and the heliocentric model

Although scientists as early as Aristarchus of Samos knew the relationship between the sun and earth around 270 BCE, it wasn’t until 1543 that Nicholas Copernicus (born on February 19, 1473) published his masterwork De revolutionibus orbium coelestium (On the Revolutions of the Celestial Spheres), published the same year that he died that the heliocentric model received wide distribution. Perhaps his death and inability to defend his thesis led to the very slow spread and adoption of his idea, so that by the year 1616 a group of cardinals and bishops under the direction of the Vatican met to denounce Galileo Galilei, who was using the results of his observations made with the new technology of the telescope to re-introduce the heliocentric model of the solar system.

A decade and half passed before Galileo was dangerous enough to draw a trial, which commenced in 1633. Galileo was furious with the philosophers, theologians and scientists who denounced his idea, complaining to his friend and fellow astronomer Johannes Kepler,
My dear Kepler, I wish that we might laugh at the remarkable stupidity of the common herd. What do you have to say about the principal philosophers of this academy who are filled with the stubbornness of an asp and do not want to look at either the planets, the moon or the telescope, even though I have freely and deliberately offered them the opportunity a thousand times? Truly, just as the asp stops its ears, so do these philosophers shut their eyes to the light of truth.
He lost the trial and spent his last eight years under house arrest, working on his theories from his home in Pisa.
The word heliocentric comes from Ancient Greek, a combination of the words ἥλιος (helios) meaning sun and κέντρον (kentron) meaning center. It would take another three centuries for scientists to understand that not only is the Earth not the center of the Universe, neither is the Sun.
Painting of Galileo Facing the Roman Inquisition by Cristiano Banti, 1857, in the public domain.
Image from Copernicus in the public domain.

Venus and Jupiter are Far : On June 30 Venus and Jupiter were actually far apart, but both appeared close in western skies at dusk. Near the culmination of this year’s gorgeous conjunction, the two bright evening planets are captured in the same telescopic field of view in this sharp digital stack of images taken after sunset from Poznań in west-central Poland. In fact, banded gas giant Jupiter was about 910 million kilometers from Poland. That’s over 11 times farther than crescent Venus, only 78 million kilometers distant at the time. But since the diameter of giant planet Jupiter is over 11 times larger than Venus both planets show about the same angular size. Of course, 16th century Polish astronomer Nicolaus Copernicus would also have enjoyed the simultaneous telescopic view including Jupiter’s four Galilean moons and a crescent Venus. Observations of Jupiter’s moons and Venus’ crescent phase were evidence for the Copernican or heliocentric model of the solar system. via NASA