helicity

Let’s talk about Handyman Tom

Considering that it looks like he’s never used any kind of helical tool in his life… ;)

Originally posted by hiddlescheekbones

When there’s a flushing problem…

“Darling, please, step aside. This is my territory. I built a boat. In the heat of Vietnam. In a swamp. I am fully capable of handling a problematic toilet. Let me fetch my tool belt." 

You roll your eyes, still not having the heart to tell him that you gave him the tool belt as a joke.  Kinda.

And then stifle giggles because he’s standing there with Concerned Nose Scrunch Face and his hands on his hips. 

As if he is assessing a multi-million dollar secret government highly intricate piece of engineering. 

You reach over to take the tank cover off the back of the toilet. 

And simply fix the chain that was stuck.

To which he responds with an air of wounded bravado “That is exactly how I was going to proceed.” 

And then you show him the real reason you wanted the tool belt.

Here’s the poster for my senior design show! April 22nd, reception 5-9pm at sugar city in Buffalo! Stop over for glitchy goodness, free food and refreshments, and a fun time!

I’ll be selling poster prints of work in this style, and possibly patches, a pin, and t shirts (depending on if I run out of time/money over the next month!)

I’m extremely excited with the direction my show is taking and I’m looking forward to seeing a lot of you there. It’ll mean a lot if any (or all) of you show up!

youtube

La peor pesadilla de un buceador

Estás buceando tranquilamente a no demasiada profundidad cuando la hélice de un enorme carguero pasa por encima de tu cabeza

Discovering the Structure of DNA

On February 21, 1953, Francis Crick and James Watson discovered the structure of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) using unacknowledged photographs and research by their colleague Rosalind Franklin. They had considered many other candidates for the structure, including single and triple strand helices before deciphering the structure. Franklin’s x-ray crystallography (image below)

 would provide the missing essential clue they needed to decipher the structure.  They would publish a paper that same year describing their discovery, but the significance of the discovery was largely overlooked by the general public for over a year. Today it stands as one of the most remarkable milestones in the history of science.

The word deoxyribonucleic is a compound word formed around the main root word ribose, which arrived in English in 1892 via the German word Ribose which was itself borrowed from the English word of 1880 arabinose, a sugar derived from gum arabic. The word nucleic comes from the Latin word nucleus meaning a kernel around 1700, from the Latin diminutive nucula meaning a little nut. It did not take the meaning of a central characteristic or attribute until 1762. It wasn’t applied to cellular structures for another 70 years around 1862. The -oxy- root comes from the Ancient Greek word οξυς (oxys) meaning sharp or pointed (sharing the earlier common root word that gave the Latin word acer with the same meaning and ultimately the English word acid). The de- prefix is a Latin preposition meaning down from, off or away from, used mainly in English compound words as a privative, meaning that something lacks something.

me when someone credits James Watson and Francis Crick for the discovery of the double helical structure of DNA like they didn’t steal the credit from Rosalind Franklin because they were angry that a woman was better at science than the two of them combined

ShAmy : The “Best OTP ever” Progression
— 

Sheldon: Good night. (Closing laptop, and running down stairs in panic) Leonard, Leonard, Leonard,

Leonard, Leonard, Leonard, Leonard, Leonard, Leonard, Leonard, Leonard, Leonard, Leonard, Leonard, Leonard, Leonard, Leonard, Leonard, Leonard.

Leonard: Yeah, what?

Sheldon: Amy Farrah Fowler has asked me to meet her mother.

Leonard: Yeah. So?

Sheldon: What does that mean?

Leonard: Well, you know how you’re always saying that Amy is a girl who’s your friend, and not your girlfriend?

Sheldon: Uh-huh.

Leonard: You can’t say that anymore.

Sheldon: Wait. What?

Leonard: Look, she obviously wants to take your relationship to the next level.

Sheldon: I don’t want the next level. I like this level. Fix it for me!

Leonard: Me? Well, how am I supposed to fix it?

Sheldon: Simple! You want a girlfriend, Amy wants to be someone’s girlfriend. Take her off my hands. I give you my blessing.

Leonard: That is insane.

Sheldon: You’re right. It would never work. Amy finds you tedious.

Leonard: Okay, good luck.

Sheldon: Wait! What am I supposed to do?

Leonard: Well, have you considered telling her how you feel?

Sheldon: Leonard, I’m a physicist, not a hippie.

Leonard: All right, well, let me see if I can explain your situation using physics. What would you be if you were attached to another object by an inclined plane wrapped helically around an axis?

Sheldon: Screwed.

Leonard: There you go.

Sheldon: Amy’s right. He is tedious.


04 x 05 – The Desperation Emanation

mouse preserver

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II.
You saved me. You saved me! I had a desire to change. Me. Language language. Then, the weaknesses were different. now You can not find more power. Sometimes it is a problem. What is the difference between V / D 9 D? I am eagerly waiting. He also translates the language of the language. This is an important variance. Other strategies will grow and restore us.

III.
Then the formation of the damage required
that our language be different.
Language language.
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I beseech thee.
Save me.
Save me.

IIII.
Click on any icon.
Please.

GPCRs/7-transmembrane receptors (7TM receptors)

G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are the largest and most diverse group of membrane receptors in eukaryotes. 

Structure

  • single polypeptide chain comprising of seven transmembrane α-helices
  • extracellular N-terminal domain of varying length, 
  • intracellular C-terminal domain.
  • length of the extracellular N terminus and the location of the agonist binding domain determines family.
  • The long, third cytoplasmic loop couples to the G-protein 
  • Usually particular receptor subtypes couple selectively with particular G-proteins
  • For small molecules, such as noradrenaline, the ligand-binding domain of class A receptors is buried in the cleft between the α-helical segments within the membrane. Peptide ligands bind more superficially to the extracellular loops

G protein system

GPCRs interact with G proteins in the plasma membrane when an external signaling molecule binds to a GPCR, causes a conformational change in the GPCR.  G-proteins comprise a family of membrane-resident proteins
whose function is to recognise activated GPCRs and
pass on the message to the effector systems that generate
a cellular response. 

  • G proteins are specialized proteins with the ability to bind the nucleotides guanosine triphosphate (GTP) and guanosine diphosphate (GDP). 
  • The G proteins that associate with GPCRs are heterotrimeric, (alpha beta and gamma subunits)
  •  alpha and gamma are attached to the plasma membrane by lipid anchors 
  • Trimer in resting state 
  • activated alpha monomer and beta/gamma dimer

Guanine nucleotides bind to the α subunit, which has enzymic activity, catalysing the conversion of GTP to GDP. The β and γ subunits remain together as a βγ complex. All three subunits are anchored to the membrane through a fatty acid chain, coupled to the G-protein through a reaction known as prenylation.

  • G-proteins are freely diffusible so a single pool of G-protein in a cell can interact with several different receptors and effectors 
  • When GPCR is activated by an agonist, a conformational change causes it to acquire high affinity for αβγ (G protein)
  • bound GDP dissociates and is replaced with GTP, which in turn causes dissociation of the G-protein trimer, releasing α-GTP and βγ subunits - the ‘active’ forms of the G-protein
  • which diffuse in the membrane and can associate with various enzymes and ion channels
  • Signalling is terminated on hydrolysis of GTP to GDP through the GTPase activity of the α subunit.
  • resulting α–GDP dissociates from the effector, and reunites with βγ
  • Attachment of the α subunit to an effector molecule increases its GTPase activity
  • GTP hydrolysis is termination –> activation of the effector tends to be self-limiting

Second messenger targets for G proteins

Main targets:

  • Adenylyl cyclase (responsible for cAMP formation)
  • Phospholipase C (inositol phosphate and diacylglycerol (DAG) formation)
  • Ion channels, particularly calcium and potassium channels
  • Rho A/Rho kinase (system controlling the activity of many signalling pathways for cell growth and proliferation, smooth muscle contraction, etc.)
  • Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAP kinase) system controlling cell functions eg division.

(notes on these coming soon)