helgi

Einherjar and magicians friendships

☆ Sadie Kane and Alex Fierro are Best Friends Forever. They love each other so much. They text each other everyday and all day. Everyone agree they are meant to be best friends
☆ Carter and Magnus are Utilmate Nerd Friends. Their friendship its all about doing the nerd stuff they can’t do in front Sadie and Alex
☆ Zia and Sam are really good friends. They are all cult and sophisticated, but also swear a lot. Zia knows a little of arabic too.
☆ Jack and Hórus hang out together sometimes. Also, Jack thinks Carter’s khopesh is hot
☆ Bes and Blitz ADORE each other and nobody understand why. Fight me
☆ Walt and Hearth really get along. Hearth think his amulet magic is very impressive and Walt is really curious about the runes. Walt knows a little ASL bc he is a cute.
☆ Bastet is part of Hearth’s Protection Squad and Hearth is part of Bastet Protection Squad, ok?? They take long naps in the Brooklyn House living room
☆ Alex and Bes are a very dynamic duo too
☆ Sometimes, Sadie, Carter and Bes sneak in Valhalla. When this happens, Sadie, Alex, Bes, Mallory and Halfborn just meet up and the world just explodes. They break all existing law in the nine worlds. Seriously, Helgi not even try to stop them bc he knows is impossible.
☆ Carter, Magnus and TJ just stay in Magnus room and watch Star Wars for the millionth time
☆ Bes and Taweret always go to Blitzen’s Best bc they like matching couple clothes and Blitz make the cutest ones for them
☆ It was this way Taweret knews Hearth and she completely adopt him as her almost human son
☆ Her hippo hands makes difficult to sign, but she understands a lot what Hearth says after some familiarity and she always speak slowly to Hearth could read her lips
☆ Hearth loves Taweret and if someone hurt his hippo mom, he will banish this person from the face of the earth.

Landnámabók: Helgi the Lean.

Chapter 218 (Sturlubók):

“Helgi the Lean went to Iceland with his wife and children and his son-in-law Hamund Hell-Skin as well. Hamund was married to Ingunn, Helgi’s daughter. Helgi’s faith was very much mixed: he believed in Christ but invoked Thor when it came to voyages and difficult times. When Helgi sighted Iceland, he consulted Thor as to where he should put in, and the oracle guided him north of the island. Then his son Hrolf asked Helgi whether he was planning to sail to the Arctic Ocean if Thor told him to go there? It was late summer, he said, and the crew thought it was time to get ashore. Helgi made land north of Hris Isle, just sound of Svarfadardale, and spent the first winter in Hamundarstead. The winter was very severe.

“In the spring Helgi climbed Solarfells, and saw that everything seemed much less white up towards the head of the fjord, which they called Eyjafjord because of the islands further out. Then Helgi carried all his possessions on board, but Hamund stayed behind. Helgi landed at Galtarhamar, and there he put two pigs ashore – the boar was called Solvi. The pigs were found three years later in Solvadale, and by that time there were seventy of them.

“Helgi spent the summer exploring the neighborhood, and took possession of the whole Eyjafjord, between Sigluness and Reynisness. He built fires at every estuary to hallow his land-claim.

“He spent the next winter at Bilds River, but in the spring he moved house over to Kristness and lived there for the rest of his life. During the removal, Thorunn had a baby on Thorunnar Isle in Eyjafjord River, and that’s where she gave birth to Thorbjorg Island-Sun. Helgi believed in Chirst and called his home after him. Afterwards other settlers began to live within his land-claim, with Helgi’s approval.”(1.)


FOOTNOTES:

1. Hermann Pálsson and Paul Edwards trans., The Book of Settlements: Landnámabók. (repr., 1972; Manitoba: University of Manitoba Press, 2012), 97. (Chapter 218)

Happy International Women’s Day! 

In this amazing aurora picture, the crater lake in the center is called Kerid (Icelandic: Kerið) and is about 3,000 years old. The overhead view shows impressive colors and banding, with the red colors occurring higher in the Earth’s atmosphere than the green. The background sky is filled with icons of the northern night including Polaris, the Pleiades star cluster, and the stars that compose the handle of the Big Dipper.

Image Credit & Copyright: Sigurdur William Brynjarsson; Annotation Advice: Sævar Helgi Bragason 

for those interested, here is an annotated version of the picture:

“Beautiful night out. Do you know what a night like this calls for?" said Marcurio, grinning as he came up beside me outside of the inn.

"I…don’t…know what you’re getting at,” I replied awkwardly.  

“Ghost hunting!” replied the mage.

“Is that what you’re out here for, to hunt ghosts?” I said, a bit relieved and disappointed. 

Marcurio leaned against the rail. “Actually, I came out here to escape Lurbuk’s horrible singing. But since you just happen to be out here, as well…I thought that you might want to come with me. Come on, it will be like old times, when we were kids.”

“Where did you hear about ghosts?" 

"The innkeeper told me the story about that burned house over there. A mother and child burned alive. The husband is still alive, though, shacked up with another woman. Everyone thinks he did it. Some of the folks around here have reported seeing the ghost of the child. What do you say?”

“Alright,” I said, ignoring the twinkle in his eye. “But I’m only doing it because I can still hear Lurbuk singing out here.”

Marcurio was right – it was a beautiful and clear night in Morthal. We walked over to the charred shell that was left of the home that once stood there. 

“Looks empty to me,” I said, glancing around. “Only the main walls and part of the hearth is left of this unfortunate incident.”

After a few more minutes of looking around, we decided that there was no ghost. “Well, it looks like it’s back to Lurbuk,” Marcurio sighed, turning away from the house. “Or,” he added slyly, “we can take a walk and enjoy this beautiful night. Our ears would be very appreciative, I would think.”

Suddenly a small voice called out behind us. “Who’s there? Is that you, father?" 

We both quickly glanced at each other then slowly turned around to see the ghost of a young girl standing where we had just been moments before. 

"Who are you?” asked Marcurio taking the initiative. He spoke gently, trying not to frighten the little apparition. 

“I’m Helgi,” replied the girl, shyly. “But father says I’m not supposed to talk to strangers. Are you a stranger?”

We stepped closer to the girl. She looked no older than 8 or 9 years old. “We’re friends,” replied the mage. “Do you know what happened to your house?”

Helgi suddenly looked as if she were about to cry. “The smoke woke me up,” she whispered. “It was hot, and I was afraid, so I hid.” She looked over to where a table or a dresser might have been. “Then it got cold and dark,” she continued, looking up at us with sad eyes. “And now I’m not scared anymore. But I’m lonely.”

“Who did this?” I asked, trying to contain my anger at the injustice of this little girl’s death. 

The girl hesitated. “I can’t tell you. She might hear me. She’s so close.”

“Who is close?”

“Come back tomorrow at night time,” said the girl. “We’ll play hide and seek. You find me and I’ll tell you.”

I gasped as the little girl disappeared in a blink. 

“Well, this night didn’t quite come out as I expected…” mused the mage as we walked back to the inn.

“What did you say?” I asked.

“What an interesting night this has been,” said Marcurio flashing a smile. 

“Yes…interesting,” I replied with a sidelong glance at the mage. 

Sledgehammer

Chapter Fourteen

Previous Chapter

Pairing: Steve Rogers x Reader  |  Word Count: 2620 
Warnings: Angst, swearing

Song: The Other Side by Ruelle


The verdict was in and the news wasn’t good though it was what you’d expected. Helen hadn’t even needed to make the trip once Bruce had sent her your scans. Your optic nerve was completely fired, no longer viable, with zero chance of ever being repaired. Even with your new crazy healing abilities, the cells of your optic nerves remained, for lack of a better term, dead.

The world had become dark and scary, something which set you clinging to Steve.

In a matter of days your bullet wound and broken arm had completely healed, and Bruce had released you from the med-wing, but panic had set in as soon as you’d taken your first blind steps.

Everything was so loud, smelled so strong, even the air on your skin was enough to make you flinch. Every step you took was terrifying, not knowing where you were, what was ahead of you.

Keep reading

anonymous asked:

hi! I'm a follower of the asatro and I identify as genderqueer. I wondered if you know anything about a third gender/transgender/intersex in old norse/asatro/norse paganism or the like? I'm desperately trying to find something I can relate to and thought I'd ask you. thanks!

Velkomin(n), vinur minn,
(Welcome, my friend,)

There are several examples in Norse mythology in which gender boundaries are disregarded; the gods were often quite fluid about their genders, both literally and ‘socially’ (assuming the gods had their own social norms to live by). It all depended on the situation, really. Loki is arguably the most famous for this. In fact, Odin’s steed, Sleipnir, was Loki’s child — but he wasn’t the father, he was the mother. To summarize that story briefly (before directly quoting the relevant part), there was a builder from Giantland who came, and Loki made a deal with him that the gods did not like. To make things right, he had to make the builder forfeit the payment for succeeding in his task. And so it goes:

“And the same evening, when the builder drove out for stone with his stallion Svadilfæri, there ran out of a certain wood a mare up to the stallion and neighed at it (such a flirt). And when the stallion realized what kind of horse it was, it went frantic and tore apart the tackle and ran towards the mare, and she went away to the wood and the builder after them, trying to catch the stallion, and these horses ran around all night and the building work was held up for that night. […] But Loki had had such dealings with Svadilfæri (Snorri is being polite — they had sex) that somewhat later he (Loki) gave birth to a foal. It was grey and had eight legs, and this is the best horse among gods and men.”(1)

Yet, it is not just Loki who disregards gender boundaries. Odin himself disregards them, but more so in the sense of socially constructed gender expectations (at least from my knowledge and experience). There is a form of magic known as seiðr, but it was regarded as a feminine practice. So much so that any man practicing it was charged with ergi (another similar term is argr), which was usually considered a very serious insult (for a man). More on that another time, perhaps (this post has already gotten very long, so a separate ask about the attitudes of ‘actual’ society may be more wise than cramming it all here). Even in the realm of the gods, though, this term still weighed against men who took part in feminine activities. Odin, regarded as a male figure, was no exception to this. This is mentioned in Ynglinga saga, from Heimskringla:

“Óðinn knew, and practised himself, the art which is accompanied by greatest power, called seiðr, and from it he could predict the fates of men and things that had not yet happened, and also cause men death or disaster or disease, and also take wit or strength from some and give it to others. But this magic, when it is practised, is accompanied by such great perversion that it was not considered without shame for a man to perform it, and the skill was taught to the goddesses.”(2)


I actually stumbled upon an article about Valkyries and Shield-maidens as a third gender while looking for resources to answer your question with. Here are a few excerpts from it, though please do bear with me, for I am going to include quite a bit of direct quotes (I think that you, and others, will find them to be very fascinating). Besides, I cannot be sure how many of you have access to these academic articles, let alone have the resources to locate them, so I want to make sure I can give you all a good taste of the work:

“Most scholarship on valkyries and shield-maidens categorizes them as women, as kinds of warrior women who are connected to other, rare warrior women, such as the maiden king (meykongr) and to other women who, in exceptional circumstances, take up arms to fight (Andersson 1980; Damico 1984; Jesch [1991] 2010; Larrington 1992b; Præstergaard Andersen 2002; Quinn 2006, 2007). These discussions of valkyries and shield-maidens tend to insert them into a binary of masculine and feminine, wherein they sit somewhat uneasily in the feminine category. Yet, as other scholarship on Old Norse gender and sex has shown, the situation for all persons, not just valkyries, is much more complicated. The boundaries between masculine and feminine are not always rigid, at least insofar as women can take on masculine characteristics and receive approval, even if that approval was limited. Valkyries and shield-maidens, like the strong women of the sagas, are met with admiration, though not as paragons of femininity. As this article argues, these figures are best understood as a third gender—a hybrid of masculine and feminine characteristics that were dominant during the time period explored.”(3)

“In eddic poetry, shield-maidens are similarly denizens of battle. Whereas valkyries seem divine or, at the very least, semi-divine, the shield-maidens are human and have human parents and human lineages. However, they also have supernatural abilities, such as being able to ride over the sea and through the air. These beings take a special interest in human men—the heroes of the narrative—for whom, like the valkyries, they intercede in battle, but only to protect their heroes and aid them. Shield-maidens engage in sexual relationships with their heroes and most marry them; after that, they cease to be shield-maidens and become only feminine. The description here derives from the scant information available in the sources; there are not many examples of shield-maidens in the literature. One example is Sváva, who, like the other shield-maidens of the heroic poems of the Edda, is armored and carries weapons. Her helmet dominates the description of her as she rides among an accompanying troop of shield-maidens: “a white maiden under a helmet” (Helgakviða Hjǫrvarðssonar [hereafter HHv], stanza 28, in Neckel 1983). Another example is Sigrún, a major character in two Helgi poems. Also described as helmeted, she and her band carry spears and wear blood-spattered byrnies, which are a sort of mail coat (Helgakviða Hundingsbana [hereafter HH] 1, stanza 15, in Neckel 1983). Valkyries and shield-maidens are similar in that both wear armor and carry weapons, act in battle to determine the fate of men, and are unmarried women. Shield- maidens are different in that they marry human men, which results in a change of status.”(4)

Valkyries and Shield-maidens as feminine:

“Aside from this linguistic categorization as female, valkyries and shield- maidens have a number of other attributes that are part of medieval Icelandic culture’s hegemonic constructions of femininity. Perhaps one of the most ‘traditional’ feminine activities of the valkyrie is her work in Valhǫll, serving men drinks. At the same time that Snorri describes the valkyries’ functions in battle, he writes that they “serve drink and look after the tableware and drinking vessels” (30). An example of this work is found in Snorra Edda, in which the goddess Freyja is the only one who dares to bring a drink to the giant Hrungnir, whom no other is brave enough to serve (Edda: Skáldskaparmál, in Faulkes 1998, 20). Human women similarly serve drinks to the men in the hall. As the keeper of food-stores and the manager of the household, women of the highest rank in Iceland were closely associated with food and its distribution. By serving men, they enacted that association and their subordinate position to the men they served. By depicting valkyries in this feminine role, the texts are able to have their cake and eat it too—the warrior woman is domesticated in Odin’s ‘beer-hall.’”(5)

Valkyries and Shield-maidens as masculine:

“At the same time, valkyries and shield-maidens embody masculinity: they wear men’s clothing and act in ways understood by medieval Icelandic culture to be masculine. It is significant that they clothe themselves as men not simply by wearing “the pants,” but by putting on the garb and carrying the tools that mark the most admired sort of man—the warrior. The helmets and other armor together are common elements in their appearance and important aspects of the valkyrie’s masculinity. Sigrún and her troop’s blood-spattered byrnies (noted above) are quite striking. The byrnie (or brynie) also figures importantly in the story of Brynhild, who was the most famous of all of these warrior women. The word itself is one part of her compound name: Brynie-hild (brynie-battle).

This armor-wearing valkyrie is not simply named for armor, but her armor becomes part of her. […] In sum, the removal of the byrnie is the removal of one of the valkyrie’s most important masculine attributes. In the version in Vǫlsunga saga, the removal of the mail coat marks the end of her time in the third gender. As that story progresses, and a different version of the same narrative in Snorra Edda, Brynhild soon ceases to be a valkyrie and enters the feminine gender.”(6)

And a bit of her conclusion:

“The myths and legendary sagas of medieval Iceland that are retold and recorded offer up both the possibility of the third gender, in the form of the unmarried valkyrie, and the stories of the effects of marriage on members of that gender. In the stories of Brynhild, Sváva, and Sigrún, one gets a sense of the life of any married woman of the time, though, more accurately, their stories most closely represent the life of a woman with few family members or other relationships. These myths and sagas have also provided a reservoir of depictions that have fed later cultural products up to the present day. With the exception of Wagner’s Brünnhilde—the unmarried warrior woman—the valkyries of the third gender are most influential. Though often altered through the modern retellings of Norse myth, the contemporary valkyrie is still recognizable as such.”(7)

Was this how contemporary society (Norse society) understood the valkyries and shield-maidens? Perhaps not. We must take care to not impose our hopes and experiences onto the past. Yet, it seems likely that they at least understood such concepts — at least that of homosexuality and the difficulty for humans to remain in their socially constructed gender-box for behavior. Such people have always existed; it is not some modern invention nor a fashionable modern trend. The Norse did have terms that denoted a failure to comply with their gender’s expectations, after all, such as ergi and argr.


Now, there is far more than that to explore in mythology, but I do believe that I have shared enough examples to show you that there are most definitely things that you can relate to. I would also like to recommend a few other knowledgable people who could help guide you even further on your quest (for I am far from an expert on these matters). You may already know of them, but here are my suggestions (of which there are plenty of others, by the way): @edderkopper​ (as well as @lokeanwelcomingcommittee​), @answersfromvanaheim​, @hyacinth-halcyon, and even @theasatrucommunity or the many who are listed with @valkyriesquad. Again, there are many others who can lend a hand and share information with you. They will likely stumble upon this post (or so I can hope), so be on the look out for any helpful reblogs and replies.

Regardless, there is much more that I could still ramble on about, but this post is already long enough (perhaps too long for some to bother reading). I had a lot that I wanted to say about ergi/argr, and the attitudes of gender-bending in Old Norse society (law codes, family sagas, etc. — non-mythological sources), but that would be best for a separate ask (because it would also be a fairly long post — could you imagine the length of this post with both of those discussions?! My oh my). If you would like to hear more about that (or if anyone else reading this would like to), please send me an ask about it, and I will happily respond. It may take me a bit to get around to answering it (I still have 11 other questions to answer), but I never refuse a guest to my hall, especially when they seek knowledge!

I hope my words have helped, friend.

Með vinsemd og virðingu,
(With friendliness and respect,)
Fjörn


ENDNOTES:
1. Snorri Sturluson, Edda, translated by Anthony Faulkes (repr., 1987; London: Everyman, 1995), 36. [Online Edition (Free)]
2. Snorri Sturluson, Ynglinga saga, from Heimskringla, Volume I: the Beginnings to Óláfr Tryggvason (Second Edition), translated by Alison Finaly and Anthony Faulkes (London: Viking Society for Northern Research — University College London, 2016), 11.
3. Kathleen M. Self, “The Valkyrie’s Gender: Old Norse Shield-Maidens and Valkyries as a Third Gender,” Feminist Formations, Volume 26, Issue 1, Spring 2014, 144.
4. Ibid., 148.
5. Ibid., 150.
6. Ibid., 152.
7. Ibid., 167.


NOTE: Here is a read you may be interested in. It is about homosexuality in the Viking Age, but it still has some relatable elements. The source seems credible enough, so I do recommend it if you are interested: Gunnora Hallakarva:
The Vikings and Homosexuality.


DISCLAIMER | ALL ANSWERS | TOP ANSWERS

Ragnar Helgi Ólafsson: Bátorításként azoknak, akik nem találják magukat a saját idejükben

(avagy: A jövőben #3)

A jövőben
mikor az időutazás már lehetséges lesz:

Az emberek ugyanúgy kocsmáznak majd,
de vissza-visszaugranak majd az időben cigizni egyet.

Sokaknak lesz munkája vagy gazdasága a saját jelen idejében
de a szabadidejükben más időkbe utaznak majd.

A jövőben
könnyen előfordulhat
— bizonyos estéken —
hogy éppen senki nem lesz ott.

Dunajcsik Mátyás

2

Oscar (Astronotus ocellatus)

The oscar is a species of freshwater cichlid native to the Amazon River basin in South America. The fish grows up to 45 cm (18 in) and is popular in the aquarium trade. Several morphological variations, such as albino and long finned varieties have arisen due to selective ornamental breeding.

Jón Helgi Jónsson on wikimedia commons, Daniella Vereeken on Flickr

historicaltimessoldier  asked:

Can you say how many sagas and eddas are there? And the name of these?

Velkominn, vinr minn!
(Welcome, my friend!)

I have done my best to list as many sagas as I could, but I am certain that I have not included them all. There are easily over 150 sagas to consider, and that is when we do not include Icelandic versions of continental romances, tales, and more.

All of the titles are in modern Icelandic, but the English translation is supplied in parentheses.


Íslendingasögur og þættir (Sagas and Tales of Icelanders):
*** A more detailed list, which includes where each of these sagas can be bought and/or read, can be found HERE or HERE. These sagas and tales are also not in alphabetical order, but rather in the same order that I have them in on the other list.

[1.] Brennu-Njáls saga (Burnt-Njal’s Saga)
[2.] Laxdæla saga (The Saga of the People of Laxardal)
[3.] Bolla þáttur (Bolli Bollason’s Tale)
[4.] Eiríks saga rauða (Eirik the Red’s Saga)
[5.] Grænlendinga saga (The Saga of the Greenlanders)
[6.] Egils saga Skallagrímssonar (Egil’s Saga)
[7.] Kormáks saga (Kormak’s Saga)
[8.] Hallfreðar saga vandræðaskálds (The Saga of Hallfred the Troublesome Poet)
[9.] Bjarnar saga Hítdælakappa (The Saga of Bjorn, Champion of the Hitardal People)
[10.] Gunnlaugs saga ormstungu (The Saga of Gunnlaug Serpent-Tongue)
[11.] Víga-Glúms saga (Killer-Glum’s Saga)
[12.] Ögmundar þáttur dytts (The Tale of Ogmund Bash)
[13.] Þorvalds þáttur tasalda (The Tale of Thorvald Tasaldi)
[14.] Fóstbræðra saga (The Saga of the Sword Brothers)
[15.] Þormóðar þáttur (Thormod’s Tale)
[16.] Þórarins þáttur ofsa (The Tale of Thorarin the Overbearing)
[17.] Víglundar saga (Viglund’s Saga)
[18] Arnórs þáttur jarlaskálds (The Tale of Arnor, the Poet of Earls)
[19.] Einars þáttur Skúlasonar (Einar Skulason’s Tale)
[20.] Mána þáttur skálds (The Tale of Mani the Poet)
[21.] Óttars þáttur svarta (The Tale of Ottar the Black)
[22.] Sneglu-Halla þáttur (The Tale of Sarcastic Halli)
[23.] Stúfs þáttur hinn skemmri (Stuf’s Tale)
[24.] Þórarins þáttur stuttfeldar (The Tale of Thorarin Short-Cloak)
[25.] Þorleifs þáttur jarlsskálds (The Tale of Thorleif, the Earl’s Poet)
[26.] Kumlbúa þáttur (The Tale of the Cairn-Dweller)
[27.] Bergbúa þáttur (The Tale of the Mountain-Dweller)
[28.] Stjörnu-Odda draumer (Star-Oddi’s Dream)
[29.] Þiðranda þáttur og Þórhalls (The Tale of Thidrandi and Thorhall)
[30.] Þórhalls þáttur knapps (The Tale of Thorhall Knapp)
[31.] Gísla saga Súrssonar (Gisli Surrson’s Saga)
[32.] Grettis saga (The Saga of Grettir the Strong)
[33.] Harðar saga og Hólmverja (The Saga of Hord and the People of Holm)
[34.] Bárðar saga Snæfellsáss (Bard’s Saga)
[35.] Finnboga saga ramma (The Saga of Finnbogi the Mighty)
[36.] Flóamanna saga (The Saga of the People of Floi)
[37.] Kjalnesinga saga (The Saga of the People of Kjalarnes)
[38.] Jökuls þáttur Búasonar (Jokul Buason’s Tale)
[39.] Gull-Þóris saga (Gold-Thorir’s Saga)
[40.] Þórðar saga hreðu (The Saga of Thord Menace)
[41.] Króka-Refs saga (The Saga of Ref the Sly)
[42.] Gunnars saga Keldugnúpsfífls (The Saga of Gunnar, the Fool of Keldugnup)
[43.] Gísls þáttur Illugasonar (Gisl Illugason’s Tale)
[44.] Gull-Ásu-Þórðar þáttur (The Tale of Gold-Asa’s Thord)
[45.] Hrafns þáttur Guðrúnarsonar (Hrafn Gudrunarson’s Tale)
[46.] Orms þáttur Stórólfssonar (Orm Storolfsson’s Tale)
[47.] Þorgríms þáttur Hallasonar (Thorgrim Hallason’s Tale)
[48.] Eyrbyggja saga (The Saga of the People of Eyri)
[49.] Halldórs þáttur Snorrasonar hinn fyrri (The Tale of Halldor Snorrason I)
[50.] Halldórs þáttur Snorrasonar hinn síðari (The Tale of Halldor Snorrason II)
[51.] Ölkofra saga (Olkofri’s Saga)
[52.] Hænsna-Þóris saga (Hen-Thorir’s Saga)
[53.] Hrafnkels saga Freysgoða (The Saga of Hrafnkel Frey’s Godi)
[54.] Bandamanna saga (The Saga of the Confederates)
[55.] Odds þáttur Ófeigssonar (Odd Ofeigsson’s Tale)
[56.] Hávarðar saga Ísfirðings (The Saga of Havard of Isafjord)
[57.] Vatnsdæla saga (The Saga of the People of Vatnsdal)
[58.] Heiðarvíga saga (The Saga of the Slayings on the Heath)
[59.] Valla-Ljóts saga (Valla-Ljot’s Saga)
[60.] Svarfdæla saga (The Saga of the People of Svarfadardal)
[61.] Ljósvetninga saga (The Saga of the People of Ljosavatn)
[62.] Reykdæla saga og Víga-Skútu (The Saga of the People of Rekjadal and of Killer-Skuta)
[63.] Þorsteins saga Hvíta (The Saga of Thorstein the White)
[64.] Vopnfirðinga saga (The Saga of the People of Vopnafjord)
[65.] Þorsteins þáttur stangarhöggs (The Tale of Thorstein Staff-Struck)
[66.] Þorsteins þáttur uxafóts (The Tale of Thorstein Bull’s-Leg)
[67.] Droplaugarsona saga (The Saga of Droplaug’s Sons)
[68.] Fljótsdæla saga (The Saga of the People of Fljotsdal)
[69.] Gunnars þáttur Þiðrandabana (The Tale of Gunnar, the Slayer of Thidrandi)
[70.] Brandkrossa þáttur (Brandkrossi’s Tale)
[71.] Þorsteins saga Síðu-Hallssonar (Thorstein Sidu-Hallsson’s Saga)
[72.] Þorsteins þáttur Síðu-Hallssonar (Thorstein Sidu-Hallsson’s Tale)
[73.] Draumur Þorsteins Síðu-Hallssonar (Thorstein Sidu-Hallsson’s Dream)
[74.] Egils þáttur Síðu-Hallssonar (Egil Sidu-Hallsson’s Tale)
[75.] Hrómundar þáttur halta (The Tale of Hromund the Lame)
[76.] Svaða þáttur og Arnórs kerlingarnefs (The Tale of Svadi and Arnor Crone’s-Nose)
[77.] Þorvalds þáttur víðförla (The Tale of Thorvald the Far-Travelled)
[78.] Þorsteins saga tjaldstæðings (The Tale of Thorstein Tent-Pitcher)
[79.] Grænlendinga þáttur (The Tale of the Greenlanders)
[80.] Auðunar þáttur vestfirska (The Tale of Audun from the West Fjords)
[81.] Brands þáttur örva (The Tale of Brand the Generous)
[82.] Hreiðars þáttur (Hreidar’s Tale)
[83.] Íslendings þáttur sögufróða (The Tale of the Story-Wise Icelander)
[84.] Ívars þáttur Ingimundarsonar (Ivar Ingimundarson’s Tale)
[85.] Þórarins þáttur Nefjólfssonar (Thorarin Nefjolfsson’s Tale)
[86.] Þorsteins þáttur Austfirðings (The Tale of Thorstein from the East Fjords)
[87.] Þorsteins þáttur forvitna (The Tale of Thorstein the Curious)
[88.] Þáttur Þorsteins skelks (The Tale of Thorstein Shiver)
[89.] Þorvarðar þáttur krákunefs (The Tale of Thorvard Crow’s-Beak)

Fornaldarsögur Norðurlanda (Sagas of the Ancient Age — Legendary Sagas):

[90.] Af Upplendinga konungum (About the Upplander kings)
[91.] Áns saga bogsveigis (The Aaga of An the Bow-Bender)
[92.] Ásmundar saga kappabana (The saga of Asmund the Champion-Killer)
[93.] Bósa saga ok Herrauðs (The Saga of Bosi and Herraud)
[94.] Egils saga einhenda ok Ásmundar berserkjabana (The Story of Egil One-Hand and Asmund Berserkers-Slayer)
[95.] Frá Fornjóti ok hans ættmönnum (Of Fornjot and His Kinsmen)
[96.] Friðþjófs saga ins frækna (Frithiof’s Saga)
[97.] Gautreks saga (Gautrek’s Saga)
[98.] Gríms saga loðinkinna (The Saga of Grim Shaggy-Cheek)
[99.] Göngu-Hrólfs saga (Gongu-Hrolf’s Saga)
[100.] Hálfdanar saga Brönufóstra (The Saga of Halfdan, Bran’s Foster-Son)
[101.] Hálfdanar saga Eysteinssonar (The Saga of Halfdan Eysteinsson)
[102.] Hálfs saga og Hálfsrekka (The Saga of Half and His Heroes)
[103.] Helga þáttr Þórissonar (The Tale of Helgi Thorisson)
[104.] Hervarar saga og Heiðreks (The Saga of Hervar and Heidrek)
[105.] Hjálmþés saga ok Ölvis (The Saga of Hjalmthes and Olvis)
[106.] Hrólfs saga Gautrekssonar (The Saga of Hrolf Gautreksson)
[107.] Hrólfs saga kraka ok kappa hans (The Saga of King Hrolf Kraki and his Champions)
[108.] Hrómundar saga Gripssonar (The Saga of Hromund Gripsson)
[109.] Illuga saga Gríðarfóstra (The Saga of Illugi, Grid’s Foster-Son)
[110.] Ketils saga hængs (Ketil’s Saga)
[111.] Norna-Gests þáttur (The Tale of Norna-Gest)
[112.] Ragnars saga loðbrókar (The Saga of Ragnar Lodbrok)
[113.] Sturlaugs saga starfsama (Sturlaug’s Saga)
[114.] Sögubrot af nokkrum fornkonungum í Dana ok Svíaveldi (Fragment of a Saga about Certain Ancient Kings)
[115.] Sörla saga sterka (The Saga of Sorli the Strong)
[116.] Sörla þáttur eða Héðins saga ok Högna (The Tale of Sorli, or the Saga of Hedin and Hogni)
[117.] Tóka þáttur Tókasonar (The Tale of Toka Tokason)
[118.] Völsunga saga (Saga of the Volsungs)
[119.] Yngvars saga víðförla (The Saga of Yngvar the Far-travelled)
[120.] Þáttur af Ragnars sonum (The Tale of Ragnar’s Sons)
[121.] Þorsteins saga Víkingssonar (The Saga of Thorstein Vikingsson)
[122.] Þorsteins þáttr bæjarmagns (The Tale of Thorstein House-Power)
[123.] Örvar-Odds saga (Arrow-Odd’s Saga)

HeimskringlaKonungasögur (The Sagas of the Kings of Norway):
*** All of these can be read online for free at the following links: Heimskringla vol. I, vol. II, and vol. III.

[124.] Ynglinga saga (Saga of the Ynglings)
[125.] Hálfdanar saga svarta (The Saga of Halfdan the Black)
[126.] Haraldar saga hárfagra (The Saga of King Harald Fair-Hair)
[127.] Hákonar saga Aðalsteinsfóstra (The Saga of King Harkon, Athalstein’s Foster-Son)
[128.] Haralds saga gráfeldar (The Saga of King Harald Greycloak)
[129.] Ólafs saga Tryggvasonar (The Saga of King Olaf Tryggvason)
[130.] Ólafs saga helga (The Saga of Saint Olaf)
[131.] Magnúss saga góða (The Saga of King Magnus the Good)
[132.] Haralds saga Sigurðarsonar (The Saga of King Harald Sigurdsson)
[133.] Ólafs saga kyrra (The Saga of King Olaf the Gentle)
[134.] Magnúss saga berfætts (The Saga of King Magnus Barefoot)
[135.] Magnússona saga (The Saga of Magnus’ Sons)
[136.] Magnúss saga blinda og Haralds gilla (The Saga of Magnus the Blind and Harald Gilli)
[137.] Saga Inga konungs og bræðra hans (The Saga of King Ingi and his Brothers)
[138.] Hákonar saga herðibreiðs (The Saga of King Hakon the Broad-shouldered)
[139.] Magnúss saga Erlingssonar (The Saga of King Magnus Erlingsson)

Biskupasögur (Sagas of Bishops):

[140.] Hungrvaka (The History of the First Five Bishops of Skálholt)
[141.] Þorláks saga helga (The Saga of Saint Thorlak)
[142.] Páls saga biskups (The Saga of Bishop Pal)
[143.] Árna saga biskups (The Saga of Bishop Arni)
[144.] Ísleifs þáttr biskups (The Saga of Bishop Isleif)
[145.] Jóns þáttr Halldórssonar (The Tale of Jon Halldorsson)
[146.] Jóns saga helga (The Saga of Saint Jon)
[147.] Guðmundar saga biskups (The Saga of Bishop Gudmund)
[148.] Lárentíus saga (The Saga of Bishop Laurentius Kalfsson)

Other Sagas and ‘Collections’:

[149+.] Sturlunga saga (Contains various sagas concerning thirteenth-century Iceland)
[150+.] Heilagra manna sögur (A genre of sagas about over 100 saints, but not only Icelandic saints — much of this material comes from Latin texts)
[151+.] Riddarasögur (A genre of sagas concerning knights and romances, but not only Icelandic or Norse tales — many are just translated tales from elsewhere)
[152.] Jómsvíkinga saga (Saga of the Jomsvikings)
[153.] Íslendingabók (The Book of the Icelanders)
[154.] Kristni saga (The Saga of Christ)

Eddas:

[155.] Prose Edda
[156.] Poetic Edda
[157+.] Other Old Norse Poems: It is also worth mentioning a collection of Old Norse, non-skaldic poems by Lee M. hollander, which includes sixteen poems relating to mythological and heroic material. This is no ‘Edda’, but it is relatable.
[158.] Uppsala Edda: Do not let this confuse you, for it is really just an academic version of the Prose Edda, in a sense (I believe). Regardless, it is worth mentioning for the sake of reading options and educational resources. You may read it online for free HERE.


I mentioned it a few times throughout the list, but a reasonable handful of these texts can be found to read for free online at the Viking Society for Northern Research. I highly recommend paying them a visit, for there is a great deal of freely accessible, academically reliable information to be read there.

For now, that is all that I can confidently rummage up for you. It is not the best list, not by any means, but it will give you quite a bit of material to consider. I plan to do with all these sagas what I have done for the Sagas and Tales of Icelanders, which is to locate where each saga can be found for reading in English (if available). Such projects take time, especially when I am working alone, but they will be done regardless. For now, I truly hope this list will suffice.

Þǫkk, ok farvel.
(Thanks, and farewell.)
– Fjǫrn


DISCLAIMERANSWERS | SELECTED ANSWERS
SAGAS AND TALES OF ICELANDERS

lampwicklives  asked:

Heyo. I've been trying to get into more heathenry/norse paganism kinda stuff (what can I say, I love folk metal), but the one thing that's kind of been a damper on the concept for me is the concept of Hel - specifically, how (as I understand it) dying of sickness or old age is a form of cowardice and punishable by eternal torment. Being chronically ill myself, that doesn't really sit right with me. Do you have any thoughts/corrections/resources on this topic in particular?

Thanks for the question. Basically the image of Viking afterlife concepts that has entered popular culture is extremely shallow and not a good representation of what we know believe actually existed. This is a big topic so it’s easy to get lost but I’m gonna try to keep it simple without leaving too much out but feel free to follow up if it seems like I’ve missed something. It’s long so the rest is behind the break.

Keep reading

Updated S5 Character List

(SEASON 5 SPOILER WARNING)

-Ferdia Walsh-Peelo as teenage Alfred

-Darren Cahill as teenage Aethelred 

-Kris Holden-Reid as Eyvind (an important warrior in Kattegat who decides to travel and settle his family in a new land; connected to Floki’s Iceland storyline in the scripts)

-Adam Copeland as Ketill Flatnose (”a fierce and brave warrior chosen by Floki to be one of the leaders of the Viking party intent on traveling to Iceland to set up a community there”)

-Khaled Abol Naga as Ziyadat Allah (historically was the third Aghlabid Emir in Ifriqiya in 817; likely connected to Bjorn’s Mediterranean storyline)

-Karima McAdams as Kassia (possibly based on Kassiani, a Byzantine abbess, poet, composer, and hymnographer in 810; likely connected to Bjorn’s storyline also)

- Laurence O’Fuarain as Hakon (unknown role; it should be noted that Harald Fairhair and Thora had a son called Haakon the Good in 921, but this is probably just a coincidence, based on Laurence O’Fuarain’s age)

-Kieran O’Reilly as White Hair (unknown role, but may be tied to the name Olaf, a s5 character originally intended to be connected with Hvitserk’s and Ivar’s storyline, based on audition clips; possibly based on Olaf the White, who ruled Dublin alongside Ivar the Boneless in 853)

-Alicia Agneson as unknown, possibly Freydis (closely connected to Ivar’s storyline in 5B; rumored to be a princess in Kattegat)

-Unknown actress as Thora (unknown role; seemingly connected to Hvitserk’s storyline in the scripts. Possibly based on the historical Thora Mostaff, one of the concubines of King Harald Fairhair)

-Unknown actress as Gunnhild (unknown role, seemingly connected to Bjorn’s 5B storyline. Possibly a love interest, based on script)

-Unknown actress as Aud (likely based on Aud the Deep-Minded, the daughter of Ketill Flatnose and a settler of Iceland; closely connected to Floki’s storyline in the script)

-Unknown actress as Elseswith (likely based on Ealhswith, the wife of King Alfred the Great; seems to be Alfred’s love interest, based on audition videos & scripts)

-Unknown actors as the Kings Frodo, Angantyr, and Hemming (three Danish kings who play a role in Ubbe’s & Alfred’s storyline in Wessex, according to scripts and audition clips)

-Unknown actor as Helgi (connected to Floki’s storyline in the scripts; possibly a child, based on dialogue)

-Unknown actress as Ethelfled (likely based on Aethelflaed, daughter of King Alfred the Great; likely a child, based on plot and pacing)

-Unknown actor/actress as Frodi (contected to Floki’s storyline; possibly a relative of Ketill, based on script wording)

Let me know if I’ve missed something or made any mistakes on here :)

Harry Potter vocab

inspired by this and this post

Magie (f) : magic
Čaroděj (m) : wizard
Čarodějka (f) : witch
Hůlka (f) : wand
Kouzlo (n) : spell
Kotlík (m) : cauldron
Lektvar (m) : potion
Hrad (m) : castle
Sklepení (n) : dungeons
Tajná chodba (f) : secret passageway
Věž, věže (f) : tower(s)
Chodba, chodby (f) : hallway(s)
Učebna (f) : classroom
Vyučování/hodina (n/f) : lesson
Kniha, Knihy (f) : book(s)
Pergamen (m) : parchment
Knihovna (f) : library
Brk (m) : quill
Pobertův plánek (m) : Marauders Map
Mudlovský šmejd (m) : mudblood
Mudla (m) : Muggle
Bradavice (f, pl) : Hogwarts
Prasinky (pl) : Hogsmeade


PROFESORSKÝ SBOR – THE PROFESSORS

All females have –ová at the end of their surname (Minerva McGonagallová)

Albus Brumbál : Albus Dumbledore
Filius Kratiknot : Filius Fliwick
Horacio Křiklan : Horace Slughorn
Zlatoslav Lockhart : Gilderoy Lockhart
Alastor „Pošuk“ Moody : Alastor „Mad Eye“ Moody
Pomona Prýtová : Pomona Sprout


PŘEDMĚTY  - THE SUBJECTS

Jasnovidectví : Divination
Péče o kouzelné tvory : Care for magical creatures
Přeměňování : Transfiguration
Lektvary : Potions
Obrana proti černé magii : Defense agains the dark arts
Astronomie : Astronomy
Bylinkářství : Herbology
Dějiny čar a kouzel : History of magic
Kouzelné formule : Charms
Starodávné runy : Study of ancient runes
Studium mudlů : Muggle studies


DUCHOVÉ - THE GHOSTS

Skoro bezhlavý Nick : the Nearly Headless Nick
Krvavý Baron : the Bloody Baron
Tlustý Mnich : the Fat Monk
Protiva : Peeves


KOUZELNÍ TVOROVÉ - MAGICAL CREATURES

Hipogryf : Hippogriff
Drak : dragon
Mořská panna : mermaid in salt water
Jezerní panna : mermaid in sweet water
Obří oliheň : Giant octopus
Hrabák : Niffler
Bazilišek : basilisk
Kentaur : centaur
Domácí skřítek : house elf
Tříhlavý pes : three-headed dog
Víla : fairy
Tlustočerv: flobberworm
Fénix: phoenix
Jednorožec: unicorn
Vlkodlak: werewolf
Testrál : thestral
Trpaslík : dwarf
Obr : giant
Skřet : goblin
Trol : troll
Upír : vampire
Mozkomor: dementor
Bubák : Boggart
Ghúl : ghoul
Duch: ghost


FAMFRPÁL - QUIDDITCH

(you can find here)

KOUZELNÉ PŘEDMĚTY - MAGICAL OBJECTS

Bezová hůlka : Elder Wand
Kámen vzkříšení : Resurrection Stone
Neviditelný plášť : Invisibility Cloak
Pamatováček : Rememberall
Kámen mudrců : Philosopher’s Stone
Deník Toma Raddla : Tom Riddle’s Diary
Prsten Rojvola Gaunta : Marvolo Gaunt’s Ring
Pohár Helgy z Mrzimoru : Helga Hufflepuff’s Cup
Diadém Roweny z Havraspáru : Rowena Ravenclaw’s Diadem
Meč Godrika Nebelvíra : Godric Gryffindor’s Sword
Medailon Salazara Zmijozela : Salazar Slytherin’s Locket
Ohnivý pohár : the Goblet of Fire
Moudrý klobouk : Sorting Hat
Zrcadlo z Erisedu : Mirror of Erised
Myslánka : Pensivie


ZMĚNĚNÁ JMÉNA - CHANGED NAMES

Levandule Brownová : Lavender Brown
Lenka Láskorádová : Luna Lovegood
Tom Rojvol Raddle : Tom Marvolo Riddle
Pán Zla : the Dark Lord
ty-víš-kdo -:You Know Who
Rojvol Gaunt : Marvolo Gaunt
Tichošlápek : Padfoot
Dvanácterák : Prongs
Červíček : Wormtail
Náměsíčník : Moony
Rita Holoubková : Rita Skeeter
Gregorovič : Gregorovitch
Křivonožka : Crookshanks
Dedalus Kopál : Dedalus Diggel
Princ Dvojí Krve : the Half-Blood Prince
Buclatá Dáma : Fat Lady
Godric Nebelvír : Godric Griffindor
Salazar Zmijozel : Salazar Slytherin
Rowena z Havraspáru : Rowena Ravenclaw
Helga z Mrzimoru : Helga Hufflepuff
Hedvika : Hedwig
Kingsley Pastorek : Kingsley Shacklebolt
Klofan : Buckbeak
Kornelius Popletal : Cornelius Fudge
Krátura : Kreacher
Ufňukaná Uršula : Moaning Myrtle

List of Names

Female
A: Apple, Alaska, Aster, Augusta, Azul, Agate, Amber, Apricot, Amazon, Ambrosia, Astra, Andromache, Apollonia, Adele, Arabelle, Antoinette, Aruna, Aynur, Alma, Amalia, Avalon, Agnete, Arabella, Alba, Anais, Aphra, Amabel, Anouk, Amica, Andorra, Ada, Adelaide, Agnes, Alberta, Anastasia, Ash, Amanda, Arcadia, Allegra, Aubade
B: Bloom, Blaise, Belle, Becka, Birdie, Basma, Belinda, Bronte, Bechette, Blossom, Bluebell, Blanche, Banana, Bijou
C: Cheese, Cantaloupe, Cherry, Clementine, Coral, Candle, Confetti, Camilla, Cora, Cundrie, Ceres, Clover, Camelia, Clio, Cyra, Carrot, Constance, Citron, Celeste
D: Dahlia, Daisy, Dot, Dagmar, Ditte, Destry, Donatella, Demeter, Dolly, Dillon, Domino, Dora, Delphine, Diva, Diana, Daphne, Demi, Duff
E: Emmy, Eloise, Echo, Elfie, Elsie, Elle, Ennui, Evita, Estella, Eudora, Easter, Eowyn, Euphemia, Elsbeth, Electra, Etta, Eugenia, Epiphania, Effy, Eliza, Emma, Eureka
F: Fleur, Firefly, Flame, Frida, Fidda, Freya, Franka, Florika, Fauna, Fran, Fay, Faith, Fabiola, Flora, Fenna, Future, Flair, Fanny, Fritzi, Finka, Fear
G: Gürsel, Greta, Gaia, Glenda, Guinevere, Gilda, Grace, Gray, Geraldine, Gail,Gloria, Gusta, Gwen, Goldie, Gia, Gorgette, Gala
H: Hazel, Honey, Helena, Harriett, Hedy, Haruna, Heidi, Holly, Huda, Hella, Hadley, Hatti, Honoria, Hester, Hope, Harp, Honolulu, Haven, Hermione,
I: Iris, Imogen, Ivy, Iole, Ink, Isadora, Ida, Isle, Ira, Ilona, Ina, Irini, Ilka, Ilma
J: Jasmine, Jane, Jules, Jacinta, Jonquil, Josephine, Joy, Jala, Jackie, Jemsa, Julitta, Justice, Juno, Juba, Jolie
K: Klarissa, Kitz, Kaja, Kira, Kay, Kali, Katti, Karina, Khloe, Kiki, Kylie
L: Lady, Laurel, Lily, Luna, Lexa, Lavender, Lorelei, Lali, Lane, Luminita, Lissy, Lisel, Laurinda, Laverne, Linette, Laudine, Lone, Lale, Lark, Lupe, Lou, Lyssa, Lake, Lucienne, Lilac, Lotus, Lavinia, Letitia, Lucasta, Lux, Lilibeth, Liberty
M: Marnie, Mae, Magnolia, Mai, Melon, Marigold, Majesty, Mitra, Moon, Minnie, Müge, Miu, Mondra, Molly, Mazel, Mala, Masika, Meliur, Melusine, Meret, Medusa, Mafalda, Margo, Madigan, Mauve, Mardi, Madrigal, Mecki, Mireille, Marguerite, Mamie, Martha, Mabel, Mildred, Maude, Mia, Minerva, Miriam, Muriel, Morgane
N: Naomi, Nanda, Nur, Norma, North, Nyx, Ninon, November, Nod, Nana, Nedda, Nelly, Nina, Nicki, Nolwenn
O: Opal, Octavia, Olivia, Ono, Odessa, Olympia, Orchid, Oceane, Oak
P: Prism, Paisley, Poppy, Peach, Pepper, Psalmody, Pearl, Pinkie, Pretty, Paula, Puma, Plum, Paz, Philomena, Pippa, Pansy, Petunia, Priscilla
Q: Quirl
R: Roux, Rose, Ravi, Rukmini, Regina, Renata, Rudy, Rosanna, Rica, Reggie, Raven, Rhapsody, Raga, Rahel
S: Sage, Siren, Scarlet, Suki, Snow, Salome, Shani, Sidonie, Suri, Solstice, Saara, Signy, Sam, Sid, Salmon, Sabra, Spring, Sidra, Sinead, Stella, Serenade, Sophie, Solveig, Sölve
T: Tawny, Topaz, Tabulah, Trixie, Thelma, Theodora, Thordis, Tovi, Tauria, Tribeca, Taja, Tulip, Tempest, Toccata, Trudi
U: Ursula, Umbria, Unity, Undine, Ute, Uma
V: Violetta, Vivian, Valda, Vox, Verna, Vega, Vita, Virginia
W: Windy, Winter, Wallis, Wilhelmina, Winifred, Wanda, Wicca
X: Xena
Z: Zlota, Zita, Zuzu, Zee, Zelfa, Zulma

/ / / / / / / / / /

Male
A: Amos, Alonzo, Asti, Attwell, Atlas, Adam, Anakin, Attila, Aulus, Abner, Alfredo, Alvaro, Alcott, Auden, August, Austen, Ansel, Alistair, Ambrose, Adonis, Axel
B: Banjo, Benjamin, Bert, Barnabas, Beech, Barley, Buddy, Balthasar, Bruce, Bass, Brain, Bug, Bay, Basilo, Babek, Byron, Boden, Branch, Betto, Baer, Buddy, Bart, Bly, Bowie, Buzz, Bernard, Bello
C: Clay, Cooper, Crispin, Cedar, Cosmo, Cupid, Cyrus, Cedreg, Chandler, Crane, Canaan, Claudius, Caesar, Carl
D: Dudley, Dagobert, Dexter, Dusk, Duke, Dunstan, Dante, Dixerid, Dingo, Dale, Damon, Darwin, Darold, Decker, Dickson, Doolish, Dumas, Drake, Dundee, Dwayne, Dutch
E: Eli, Egon, Eurig, Erec, Esteban, Emerson, Ed, Evander, Emery, Ebenezer, Eduardo, Eldred, Emilio, Elmo, Endicott, Ennis, Enzo, Erasmus, Essex, Etan, Elvin, Edgar, Eagle
F: Fife, Fritz, Ferdinand, Forrest, Flint, Fred, Fishel, Fortunato, Forster, Frank, Fiodor, Fillmore, Fabius, Faro, Fidel, Fairchild, Finnley, Ford, Frisco, Frodo, Fuji, Franklin
G: Glen, Gustav, Grendel, Guy, Guille, Galway, Guybrush, Glasgow, Gore, Grover, Gunner, Gaius, Gamal, Gonzalo, Gert, Granger, Greco, Gulliver, Goliath, Gogol, Godfrey, Gentry, George, Gawain, Gable
H: Humphrey, Harkin, Hunter, Hamlet, Hans, Horatio, Hector, Henry, Holden, Hero, Hermes, Hari, Hammett, Hart, Hannu, Hagen, Homer, Hook, Hal, Hadden, Helgi, Heinrich, Hobbes, Hogan, Huck, Horst
I: Ingmar, Ibsen, Igor, Ignaz, Issac, Irving, Iso
J: Jet, Jasper, John, Jethro, Jebediah, Juju, Joktan, Jericho, Jonah, Joseph, Janosch, Jack, Johann, Javor, Jaxon, Joost, Justus, Julien, José
K: Ken, Knox, Kazuki, Kale, Kenzo, Kun, Kerl, Kaddish, Kurt, Keanu, Kent, King, Knight, Kofi, Konrad, Kamil, Kafka
L: Lark, Lionel, Ludwig, Lupus, Lion, Laser, Laszlo, Leif, Lanval, Lowell, Lynx, Lazarus, Leander, Land, Levi, Lester, Lochlan, Lincoln, Lynch, Lysander, Luther, Leonardo, Lem
M: Mercury, Milo, Meatball, Marmaduke, Maverick, Magnet, Marius, Miles, Monte, Marcello, Muck, Montgomery, Maddox, Mac, Malcolm, Manfred, Massimo, Milas, Musa, Merton
N: Neo, Neptune, Narcomon, Nocturnus, Nelson, Noll, Nash, Napoleon, Nigel, Nate, Nacho, Nemo, Nero, Norton, Norwood, Noam, Nick
O: Otto, Oliver, Ovid, Orion, Oriol, Orson, Otis, Oswald, Oz, Oro, Oslo, Orwell, Olec
P: Park, Peter, Pilot, Paul, Pit, Pumba, Pike, Pollo, Paddy, Pagan, Pie, Pomeroy, Prince, Ponti
Q: Quentin, Quebec, Quince, Quirin
R: Rhett, Rio, Ralph, Rory, Rusty, Rye, Rock, Remus, Romulus, Reginald, Rex, River, Ridge, Rufus, Ruvik, Rupert, Radcliff, Rad, Rawson, Rocco, Roland, Ryder, Roper, Ruben
S: Shale, Sylvester, Saul, Samson, Sheldon, Sonic, Sterling, Sparrow, Severus, Sailor, Simba, Silas, Salvatore, Santo, Sergeant, Sean, Scully, Sherlock, Stewart, Spike, Sim, Stieg, Sultan, Saladin
T: Thorpe, Thaddeus, Tito, Tango, Titan, Triton, Thor, Theobald, Tamir, Tomato, Thorn, Tybalt, Tristan, Taran, Taft, Tanner, Telmo, Talbot, Templeton, Tom, Thurgood, Track, Tower, Twain, Tasso
U: Uri, Ulric, Uriel, Usher, Umberto, Ulysses, Upton
V: Voltaire, Victor, Vlad, Vipul, Valentino, Vasu
W: Wilder, Wheatly, Weldon, Willie, Wolfgang, Walt, Waldo
Y: Yule, York, Yves, Yair, Yaw, Yorik
Z: Zinc, Zac, Zander, Zul, Zephyr, Ziggy, Zeus, Zeno, Zed

instagram

looking forward to dancing in helgi tomasson’s #haffnersymphony again at @sterngrovefestival tomorrow! (find me) 🙆🏻



@sfballet #sfballet #sterngrove (at San Francisco Ballet)

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anonymous asked:

Could you share some information about the norns and the threads of fate? I normally leave my fate in the hands of the Gods and I'm now curious about the sisters.

Velkomin(n), vinur minn,
(Welcome, my friend,)

There are three norns who dwell beneath the world tree, Yggdrasil, and they are the most famous: Urðr (Fate), Verðandi (Being), and Skuld (Necessity).(1) There are others, however, and they each can have various roles, although generally centered around fate, childbirth, fertility, and “the protection of hearth and home.”(2) Those that are related to the gods “visit everyone when they are born to shape their lives.”(3) Their kinship with the gods, and with the divine in general, seems to be a bit of an obscurity. There are several other norns, though, which stem from the álfar (Elves) and even the dvergar (Dwarves), which is told to us in Fáfnismál:

“From very different tribes I think the norns come,
they are not of the same kin;
some spring from the Æsir, some from the elves,
some are daughters of Dvalin.”(4)

Snorri’s Prose Edda leads us to believe that the norns who govern fate are those of the Æsir: Urðr, Verðandi, and Skuld. Yet, it seems likely that the norns were far more regionally diverse, especially given their connection with localized fertility beings like álfar, and perhaps even with landvættir (land-spirits). The role of these women seems to play most heavily into that of fertility and childbirth, since that is when a child is to be given its fate. All of the roles mentioned above relate to each other during the time of childbirth, which would have occurred in the household — a very localized place. There is an example of this from Volsunga saga, in which norns come during the birth of Helgi, but they are not the three that reside among the Æsir (as suggested by the use of the indefinite rather than the definite — ‘norns’, rather than ’the norns’):

“…when Helgi was born, Norns came to set his destiny, saying that he would become the most famous of all kings.”(5)

Although Snorri says that the norns of the Æsir are the ones who “shape men’s lives”,(6) I suspect that the Norse would have considered otherwise, believing instead that local norns, those related more closely to the álfar, and perhaps the dvergar as well, were responsible for the fate bestowed upon themselves and their children. As they gave offerings to the landvættir for the prosperity of their farm and livestock,(7) so too could they have given offerings to ‘household’ norns for a prosperous life. The three named norns of the Æsir just seem to be a bit too specific for such a variety-rich and regionally-diverse religion. They do, however, symbolize and represent the norns as a whole quite well.


The norns share roles with various major deities, such as Frigg, Freyja, and even Odin, to some extents. Frigg actually knows the fate of all, although she does not bestow it as the norns do:

“Frigg knows, I think, all fate,
though she herself does not speak out.”(8)

Freyja governs the fertility of women, and yet the norns determine the fate of the children that they give birth to. In fact, both Frigg and Freyja are called upon during childbirth, as the poem Oddrúnargrátr suggests when Borgny is in labor:

“May the kindly beings help you,
Frigg and Freyja and more of the gods,
as you warded off that dangerous illness from me.”(9)

Despite this overlapping, the norns still have a unique role. Although they help ensure a successful birth, Frigg and Freyja do not decide that child’s fate.

Furthermore, Odin decides who lives and who dies in battle, and even Freyja has a choice in the matter herself, and yet the norns have already decided this long before they went to battle. A famous poem from Njal’s Saga has much to tell of both the valkyries and the norns during the Battle of Clontarf, which took place in Ireland in 1014. This poem tells of the valkyries coming for the slain (and it is mentioned that even they chose who lives and dies), all while maintaining the metaphor of weaving fabric on a loom with their guts, which is very characteristic of the norns, but with a battle-reddened flare:

“A wide harp

warns of slaughter;

blood rains

from the beam’s cloud.

A spear-grey fabric

is being spun,
which the friends (valkyries)
of Randver’s slayer (killed by Odin himself)
will fill out

with a red weft.



The warp is woven

with warriors’ guts,

and heavily weighted

with the heads of men.

Spears serve as heddle rods,

spattered with blood;

iron-bound is the shed rod,

and arrows are the pin beaters;

we will beat with swords

our battle web.

Hild sets to weaving
and Hjorthrimul
and Sanngrid and Svipul, (names of the valkyries)
with swords drawn. 

Shafts will splinter,

shields shatter;

the dog of helmets

devours shields.

We wind and wind

the web of spears

which the young king

has carried on before.

Let us go forth

amongst the fighters

when our dear ones

deal out blows.

We wind and wind

the web of spears,

and then stand by

our stalwart king.

Gunn and Gondul,

who guarded the king,

saw the bloody shields

of the brave men.

We wind and wind

the web of spears,

there where the banners

of bold men go forth;

we must not let

his life be lost —

valkyries decide

who dies or lives.

The men who inhabited

the outer headlands

will now be leaders

in the lands.

I declare the mighty king

doomed to death.

The earl has fallen

in the face of the spears.

And the Irish will

endure an evil time
which will never lessen

as long as men live.

Now the web is woven

and the war-place reddened;

the lands will learn

of the loss of men.

Now it is gruesome

to gaze around,

as blood-red clouds

cover the sky;

the heavens will be garish

with the gore of men

while the slaughter-wardens

sing their song.

Our pronouncement was good

for the young prince;

sound of mind

we sing victory songs.

May he who listens

learn from this

the tones of spear-women

and tell them to men.

Let us ride swiftly

on our saddle-less horses

hence from here,

with swords in hand.”(10)

It is not surprising, though, to have such overlapping roles, and they are not meant to contradict. Why give offerings to the landvættir for a farm’s prosperity when one could give those offerings to Freyr instead? Well, Freyr can bring rain and sunshine, but the landvættir inhabit the very land that needs those ingredients for growth; they must be willing to share their prosperity. The same goes for the norns. Although Freyja grants female fertility, the norns can still play a role in protecting and guiding that fertility through childbirth. The fact that the norns share roles with the gods shows that there is a great deal of interwoven complexity in the completion of their tasks; many forces are at work in this world, and even the gods are subject to them (Ragnarok).

In the end, there is no decisive answer for what the norns are, nor for what their roles and boundaries may be. It seems that the norns intermingle in many of the gods’ tasks, but that fate is their primary domain, especially during childbirth. The most important aspect to remember about them, though, is that there are more than the three that Snorri mentions. The Norse likely would have considered them to be localized deities, perhaps even unique to each community or household, or perhaps even abstract entities with no locative affiliation, rather than the same three that dwell among the Æsir.


I hope my insights were what you were seeking. As for the threads of fate, some believe that was influence from Greek mythology.(11) I would be happy to write more on this topic. I could have written much more, but this should suffice for now. If you need anything else, please do not hesitate to ask!

Með vinsemd og virðingu,
(With friendliness and respect,)
Fjörn


ENDNOTES:
1. H.R. Ellis Davidson, Gods and Myths of Northern Europe (repr., 1964; London: Penguin Books, 1990), 26.
2. Ibid., 112-13. The Germans and Celts both worshipped female deities that had similar roles as the norns, and so although they are not always regarded by the name ‘norn’, their roles suggest that they were linked in some way. In Germany, Holland, and Britain, for example, these deities were known as ‘the mothers’, and they were often depicted in groups of three.
3. Snorri Sturluson, Edda, translated by Anthony Faulkes (repr., 1987; London: Everyman, 1995), 18.
4. Carolyne Larrington trans., The Poetic Edda (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2014), 155.
5. Jesse L. Byock trans., The Saga of the Volsungs (London: Penguin Classics, 1999),47.
6. Snorri, 18.
7. There is a case of this in Landnámabók, the Icelandic Book of Settlements, where a man name Thorstein Red-Nose “used to make sacrifices to the waterfall and all the left-overs had to be thrown into it.” (Hermann Pálsson and Paul Edwards trans., The Book of Settlements: Landnámabók (repr., 1972; Winnipeg, Canada: University of Manitoba Press, 2012), 134.) As a result of his offerings, the landvættir gave him 2400 sheep and even the gift of foresight.
8. Larrington, 85. (Lokasenna, stanza 29, lines 3 and 4.)
9. Ibid., 200. (Oddrúnargrátr, stanza 9.)
10. Robert Cook trans., Njal’s Saga (London: Penguin Classics, 2001), 303-7.
11. Lee M. Hollander trans., The Poetic Edda (Austin: University of Texas Press, 2014), 4. (Footnote 17)


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Valkyries had the most metal names, man.

Like this one Valkyrie known to tussle with wolves while waiting for a battle to happen so she could choose who to take to Valhalla? Her name was Guðr, pronounced “Gunnr”. GUNNER, WHO FIGHTS WOLVES TO PASS TIME.  Guðr also literally means “war” or “battle” in Old Norse hOLY SHIT

The Valkyrie Sigrun (”VICTORY RUNE”) died this one time with her lover Helgi, and they both got reincarnated later. Since VICTORY RUNE wasn’t badass enough, apparently, Sigrun was reborn with the name Kára, which straight up means “The Wild And Stormy One”, which is both great and admirable because Old Norse could sum up such a specific and badass thing in four letters.

And then there’s the Valkyrie straight up named Hildr. That’s “battle”. Her name was Fight, and you can bet she lived up to her name: What was Fight’s special power? She could revive the dead. She used this to extend the battle between Högni (her father) and Hedin (her husband) indefinitely. Because some girls just want to see loved ones brawl for eternity.