heat transport

I really hate posts that have “there is no algebra in real life” and similar things that mention maths and it’s lack of application to reality.
I also hate the fact that they are lauded as relatable, and get a lot of notes.
If it wasn’t for algebra, calculus, and all forms of maths, and science, you would absolutely not be able to do 90% or more of what you do.
Maths is the universal language - and it is really rather beautiful.
Without maths, you can’t have electricity, you can’t drive a car, use your computer, use the Internet, watch a movie, play a video game, use literally any program, have a house that doesn’t collapse, trains and public transport, plumbing, heating, furniture, air travel, statistics, medicines, so so so much more, and let’s not forget, that without maths, we would know nothing about space and would absolutely not be able to go there.
If we extend this to science, this list would be exponentially longer.
So please, don’t insult maths and it’s importance to our progress as humans, and its extensive application to every aspect of daily life.
Many of us do use algebra in real life and strive to make your life better through its use.

Advice for Yakuza 0 Legend Mode

Complete Mr. Libido’s friendship for Majima and go back to the drugstore and just fill your inventory to the brim with Haba drinks since they give full health + heat.

When you can transport items between characters via Mr. Moneybags fill up Kiryu too.

Since equipment and weapons are now in separate inventories you have no excuse not just have a full inventory of healing items.


NASA announced that it will send its next lander to Mars, known as the InSight Mars lander, in May of 2018. InSight, which stands for Interior Exploration using Seismic Investigations Geodesy and Heat Transport, is an international mission designed to help us understand how rocky planets, like Mars and the Earth, formed and evolved.

Find out more about why this mission got delayed here. 

Imagine having an okay day for once, however, when you’re arriving home from school/work you realize you’ve misplaced your house keys. 
You search in the abundance of snow around your abode to find the spare somewhere near the fence in your backyard, to only then give up after an hour of searching. Everything is ice, and it’s cold. You weren’t expecting to get into this sort of predicament so you only dressed warm enough to be comfortable while moving between your living space and your heated mode of transportation.
You decide to try the front door anyway, however, this time the door opens by itself, and you see Loki standing there with an entertained smirk (as he was watching you freak out and search for the spare key) in his hand he has your house key, which you knew you hadn’t forgotten in the house.
“Did you lose something my dear?” he asks as you just stare dumbfounded.
How did he get in? how did he even get your keys!
Must have been that cardboard cut-out 


Trying to find the temperature decay from a flame, we came up with two equations:

  1. a heat flux balance, which we derived
  2. Fourier’s law, which we said was more or less a fundamental law

Now, we combine them to get a differential equation (step 1). Step by step we work through eliminating the derivatives with integration. At the end we get an answer with two constants C1 and C2 in it (step 7). This always happens solving differential equations because each integration produces a constant. Then we take the boundary conditions we specified at the top and solve for the constants (step 8). The answer is linear (step 9)! So there’s the answer: the temperature decay is linear.

But there are a couple things to consider here: first this is one-dimensional. We did that to make the math easy. With a real flame, the heat could go in any direction outward, basically in a spherical shape. Also we’ve specified that 20 cm away from the flame the temperature is 20 °C. This is often the case in the real world, because air is free to move around, and some distance from a flame there will always be cool air to be a heat sink. Problems like this can get really complicated if we want to calculate that distance from first principles, but it can be done!

Mercury is the smallest terrestrial planet, only 40 percent larger than the Moon. Mercury is close to the Sun, but it rotates slowly and has no atmosphere to hold and transport heat. Hence, its surface reaches 470 degrees Celsius during the day and cools to minus 180 degrees Celsius at night.

Over billions of years, its gravitational interaction with the Sun has slowed its rotation rate so much that, when the Sun rises at any place on Mercury, it’s about half an Earth-year later before it sets there. We learned a lot about Mercury from the Spacecraft Mariner 10, which photographed about half of Mercury’s surface in the mid-1970s.

Learn more about the planets in our solar system

Image: NASA


When viewed in just the right way, Earth is covered in swirling brushstrokes that put Van Gogh’s most famous works to shame. Differences in temperature and pressure, friction and other phenomena cause fluids like water in the ocean and air in the atmosphere to move in mesmerizing patterns. Sometimes it just takes a supercomputer to see the dance. 

These images represent the next generation of ocean current models that reveal some of the hidden action. Produced by the Department of Energy’s Los Alamos National Lab, the top image shows Atlantic Ocean water surface temperatures and the bottom illustrates the Southern Ocean’s currents and eddies flowing eastward around Antarctica. 

Both are part of the lab’s Climate, Ocean and Sea Ice Modeling program to project global alterations to the planet from climate change using the most advanced technologies and methods. Models were built using a supercomputer that operates 8,000 processors simultaneously and verified against real-world satellite and shipboard observations. 

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Asking about the temperature near a hot flame we brought up an important equation called Fourier’s law. The heat flux (q) away from a flame is a constant (k) times the negative of the temperature gradient. And we symbolized the temperature gradient with an upside down triangle in front of T.

That upside down triangle is called “del” and if we’re only worried about one dimension (the left-right dimension in the picture, which we’ll call the x-direction), this “del T” is the derivative of temperature with respect to that dimension. You write it dT/dx. You usually say it “dee-T dee-x” or “dee-T by dee-x.”

If you know calculus, you’ll recognize that is what we’re doing. It’s not really that complicated a concept though. So: What is a derivative, really?

Finding the temperature decay from a heat source (like a flame) got us talking about heat flux. Heat flux is the movement of heat, and heat is going to flux away from the flame. Heat moves from high temperatures to low temperatures, and wherever heat goes it increases the temperature.

We called heat flux in the x-direction qx. Let’s draw a little box and call it a “system” and do what’s called a “heat flux balance” for the system.

  1. In English: The heat flux into the box equals the heat flux out of the box.
  2. In math: (qx at x) minus (qx at x+Δx) equals zero. Now divide both sides by Δx. Now take the limit as Δx goes to zero, which means the system width becomes infinitesimally small.
  3. When you start saying “infinitesimal” you know you’re doing calculus. This is the definition of a derivative, and our balance ends up with “the negative derivative of heat flux in the x-direction equals zero.”

If you translate 3 back to English it says “heat flux is the same at every value of x.”

Pigs travel badly and are easily stressed by transport and by pre-slaughter handling. They do not have sweat glands and are particularly susceptible to heat stress during transport. Internationally, significant numbers of pigs die each year in transport or in lairage at slaughterhouses as a result of stress.