health and population



Democracy:  Polity IV index (own calculation of global population share); Literacy:  OECD for the period 1820 to 1990. UNESCO for 2004 and later; Education:  OECD for the period 1820 to 1960. IIASA for the time thereafter; Mortality:  up to 1960 own calculations based on Gapminder; World Bank thereafter; Poverty:  Bourguignon & Morrison (2002) up to 1970 - World Bank 1981 and later (2015 is a projection); Vaccination:  WHO (Global data are available for 1980 to 2015 - the DPT3 vaccination was licensed in 1949).
NAMI: National Alliance on Mental Illness | African Americans
African Americans are no different when it comes to mental health conditions. Learn why your concerns and experiences may be different.

How Do Mental Health Conditions Affect the African American Community?

Although anyone can develop a mental health problem, African Americans sometimes experience more severe forms of mental health conditions due to unmet needs and other barriers. According to the Health and Human Services Office of Minority Health, African Americans are 20% more likely to experience serious mental health problems than the general population. Common mental health disorders among African Americans include:

African Americans are also more likely to experience certain factors that increase the risk for developing a mental health condition:

  • Homelessness. People experiencing homelessness are at a greater risk of developing a mental health condition. African Americans make up 40% of the homeless population.
  • Exposure to violence increases the risk of developing a mental health condition such as depression, anxiety and post-traumatic stress disorder. African American children are more likely to be exposed to violence than other children.

- See more at:

Hi Black Tumblr,

The Blackout is celebrating Mental Health Awareness Month by seeking to open up conversation on the Mental Health and Wellness of Black folks. Read up on some of the risk factors above and don’t forget to participate in the festivities on @postitforward!

Our Answer Time on Mental Health and Self-Care will be on May 23rd! 

evergloriousoverlord  asked:

So, about medieval warfare and magic. You said you had a lot to say about integrating magic to a medieval worlds and militaries.

Yes, I do. It’s one of the more irritating things I see in traditional high fantasy.  The people of the world don’t take into account the magic that exists in their world. If magic can be learned, it will become a part of the power structure of the world, finding uses in everything from war to statecraft to even the smallest aspects of life. When medieval armies act in the same fashion as their historical counterparts, without incorporating the differences, it’s a huge red flag that the worldbuilding was not done to my satisfaction, and, even if I elect to continue reading, I’m going to spend all my time picking out the logical errors and complaining rather than enjoying the novel.

So, with that being said, how can a writer include magic into their world in a wholly organic fashion? This requires thinking long and hard about what magic is in your universe, how it works (and how it doesn’t), what it can do, and how common it is. I’ll preface this by saying that these are simply my opinions and things I find appealing in a good setting. You may not like them, and you may even think the things I’m complaining about are things that you enjoy. That’s fine.

Anyway, let’s go examine what we need to do, and provide some examples, so your worlds can be as seamless as possible.

Keep reading

According to the 2016 CIA World Factbook, the most obese country in the world is American Samoa.

Though the United States is often pegged as the standard for overweight populations, there are many more countries ahead of it. 

The world is becoming more sedentary, thanks to desk and computer jobs, along with more and more gaining access to high calorie, high fat foods like fast food and soda.

Germany - Basic Facts

Location: Central Europe, bordering the Baltic Sea and the North Sea, plus the following countries: Denmark, Poland, Czech Republic, Austria, Switzerland, France, Belgium, Luxembourg, Netherlands, and maritime borders with Sweden (Baltic Sea) and the UK (North Sea)

Area: 357,022 sq km - Country comparison to the world: #63 

Coastline: 2,389 km

Terrain: Northern lowlands, uplands in the center and Bavarian Alps in south

Lowest point: Neuendorf-Sachsenbande - 3.54 m
Highest point: Zugspitze 2,963 m

Natural resources: Coal, lignite, natural gas, iron ore, copper, nickel, uranium, potash, salt, construction materials, timber and arable land

Ethnic groups: German 91.5%, Turkish 2.5%, others 6%, made up largely of other Europeans such as Greeks, Italians, Poles, Russians, Serbo-Croatians, and Spaniards.

Religions: Protestant ~34%, Roman Catholic ~34%, Muslim ~4%, unaffiliated or other ~28%

Population: 81,305,856 (2012) - Country comparison to the world: #16

Age structure:
0-14 years: 13.3%
15-64 years: 66.1%
65 years and over: 20.6%

Major cities - population: Berlin (capital) 3.438 million, Cologne 1.001 million, Hamburg 1.786 million, Munich 1.349 million.

Health expenditures: 8.1% of GDP - Country comparison to the world: #55

Doctors’ density: 3.531 doctors/1,000 population - Country comparison to the world: #28

Hospital bed density: 8.17 beds/1,000 population - Country comparison to the world: #7

Education expenditures: 4.5% of GDP - Country comparison to the world: #82

Common Effects of Torture

I’m going to start with an important and underappreciated point: the effects of torture are hard to research.

For a mixture of reasons, including shame and fear of reprisals, many people are uncomfortable admitting that they were tortured. Fewer still have the opportunity or are willing to participate in research. Sample sizes in studies are often ridiculously small, so small that it can be difficult to reach any conclusions.

On top of that, picking a control group can be difficult. If the majority of torture victims are depressed does comparing them to a health or depressed population make more sense? If the majority of torture victims suffered serious head injuries should they be compared to people with mild brain damage?

The research is hard. We’re only just beginning to get a clear picture of the short and long term effects of torture, on individuals and communities. Sometimes clear evidence just isn’t there.

Sometimes, for some techniques, it is. So long as you don’t call it ‘torture’. Information on sleep deprivation, sensory deprivation, starvation, dehydration and extreme temperatures are all available.

What this means is that treatment is often a hit and miss affair. Studies trying to find better ways to treat torture victims often can’t find enough volunteers to get meaningful results.

All of that said, here is a non-exhaustive list of some of the things a character who has survived torture and physically healed might experience.



Suicidal thoughts


Persistent memory problems

Difficulty learning new skills

Difficulty relating to others

Chronic pain

Post Traumatic Stress Disorder 



Long term Personality Change

Social Isolation

Panic attacks 

Much of the research on treating torture survivors focuses on PTSD which appears to be a more common response for torture than for other traumatising events.

It’s worth mentioning that although clear evidence on torturers is even more difficult to come by there’s a growing body of evidence suggesting that torturers are often traumatised by carrying out torture.

Anecdotal evidence suggests torturers develop many of the same psychological symptoms as their victims, including PTSD, depression, addiction, social isolation and long term personality changes.

[Sources, ‘Mental health interventions and priorities for research for adult survivors of torture and systematic violence: a review of the literature’ Torture Journal vol 26 iss 1 2016 W M Weiss et al

‘Why Torture Doesn’t Work: The Neuroscience of Interrogation’ Harvard University Press S O’Mara

‘Dysfunctional Pain Modulation in Torture Survivors: The Mediating Effect of PTSD’ The Journal of Pain vo 18 2017 R Defrin et al

‘Testimonial Therapy: Impact on social participation and emotional wellbeing among Indian survivors of torture and organized violence’ Torture Journal vol 25 iss 2 2015 M M Jorgensen et al]


It really boggles me that people call vegans crazy and radical because of how enthusiastic we get.

Like, we have the answer in our hands to so many problems that humanity faces;
We can fix climate change, world hunger, population health, systematic animal cruelty, a large proportion of corruption in both the west and the east, antibiotic resistance, etc.

And we can’t do it purely because the rest of the population doesn’t *want* to.
It’s kind of like trying to coax a dog away from a cliff top when there are treats on the edge, there is no true way to communicate the message because nobody wants to hear it, no matter how desperately dangerous the situation is for everyone involved.

Like if you destroy this planet, you’re taking us with you, we’re most definitely not the ones forcing our choices on you, we’re just trying not to bear the brunt of yours.

My message box is open for anyone wanting to transition and needing help doing so, or if anyone just wants to know about what good they can do by switching, just give me a shout! ✌️🌱

The Clinical Psychology Megapost, Or: What Is A Clinical Psychologist And How Do I Become One?

What’s a clinical psychologist?

A clinical psychologist* is a person with a clinical psychology PhD or PsyD. Typically clinical psychologists focus on topics associated with mental health or psychopathology in any group, including children, people with chronic health conditions, older adults, forensic populations, families, people living in poverty, students, and people with developmental disabilities, among others. Often clinical psychologists work within mental health systems to improve care or other outcomes among people with mental health issues.

(*Although many of these things will apply internationally, this post is geared towards psychologists in the United States and Canada. If you are in another country, your mileage may vary.)

Clinical psychologists can work:

• In medical hospitals
• In psychiatric hospitals
• In research hospitals
• In forensic hospitals
• In state and federal institutions
• In private institutions
• In prisons and other forensic settings
• At Veteran’s Affairs
• At the Department of Defense
• In community mental health settings
• In outpatient clinics
• In private practices
• In universities
• In rehabilitation centers
• In halfway houses
• In residential settings
• In research settings
• In advocacy settings
• In policy settings
• In administrative settings

Clinical psychologists work with:

• People diagnosed with mental illnesses
• People diagnosed with physical illnesses
• People currently experiencing distress or dysfunction
• The families, loved ones, or other people associated with the people mentioned above
• Other people for lots of reasons. Typically clinical psychologists work with a more severe population (people experiencing more significant problems) compared to counseling psychologists (who often focus on things like wellbeing), but not always.

Clinical psychologists can work with:

• All ages
• All genders
• All sexual orientations
• All cultural and ethnic backgrounds
• All abilities
• All educational levels
• All socioeconomic backgrounds
• All religions
• All people in general, as long as the particular clinical psychologist is competent to treat that particular person and their particular presenting problem(s)

Clinical psychologists have extremely varied responsibilities and day-to-day tasks, including:

  • Clinical work
    • Individual therapy
    • Group therapy
    • Couples’ therapy
    • Family therapy
    • Diagnostic assessments
    • Neuropsychology assessments
    • Disability assessments
    • Functional assessments
    • Legal assessments
    • Aptitude assessments
    • Intellectual assessments
    • Needs assessments
    • Creating treatment plans
    • Monitoring treatment progress
    • Coordinating care
  • Research
    • Creating research ideas and questions
    • Conducting literature reviews
    • Applying for grants
    • Conducting research
    • Conducting clinical work within research projects
    • Analyzing data
    • Writing journal articles, books, and chapters
    • Presenting findings at conferences and other events
    • Disseminating research to non-academics, including mental health clinicians
    • Applying research in real world settings (for example, implementing a new treatment found to be helpful)
  • Teaching
  • Mentoring
    • Mentoring undergraduate students, graduate students, interns, postdoctoral fellows, early career psychologists, research assistants
  • Supervising
    • Supervising clinical work
    • Supervising research
  • Training other clinicians
  • Administration
    • Leading a mental health team
    • Leading a mental health treatment program
    • Leading a research lab
    • Leading a psychology department
  • Developing new treatments
  • Developing new treatment programs
  • Developing new policies
  • Evaluating treatments
  • Evaluating treatment programs
  • Evaluating policies
  • Consulting

13 not-easy steps to becoming a clinical psychologist

1. Complete a bachelor’s degree
You will need a bachelor’s degree to get into graduate school. The easiest route to a PhD/PsyD in clinical psychology is a psychology BA or BS, possibly with another major or minor in something like biology or sociology (meaning, something connected to your interests in psychology). However, a degree in psychology is not required to get into a PhD/PsyD program in clinical psychology. If you do not major in psychology, you may need to take post-baccalaureate classes later as most PhD/PsyD programs require specific psychology classes, usually including intro, abnormal, and research & statistics.

2. Get research experience
You will need research experience to get into a PhD/PsyD program in clinical psychology. I recommend at least two years and at least two presentations. You can do this while in undergrad or afterwards. You don’t need to do research full-time (5-10 hours/week is okay) but you do need to learn about research while doing it. Don’t accept a position where all you do is data entry or mundane tasks like that. Be a part of the action- developing research ideas, conducting research, analyzing data, presenting findings. Learn all that you can from your supervisor and other people involved. Use this time to develop research skills and become better at understanding other peoples’ research and developing your own.

3. Get clinical experience (optional)
You do not need clinical experience to get into a PhD/PsyD program, but it might help. I tend to recommend it so that you can get experience in a clinical setting and/or with a clinical population so you understand better what you’re getting into. 

4. Get teaching experience (optional)
You do not need teaching experience to get into a PhD/PsyD program, but it might help. 

5. Get a master’s degree (optional)
Some people choose to get a master’s degree in clinical psychology, counseling, or experimental psychology before applying to PhD/PsyD programs. I only recommend this if you need to show you have an improved GPA and/or you want to use a master’s program to get research experience. In either case I recommend a experimental psychology program first, and then clinical psychology. 

6. Apply to PhD and/or PsyD programs in clinical psychology
You need to get in to go! (here is a post about applying to PhD/PsyD programs and a post about picking the best programs)

7. Complete a PhD or PsyD program in clinical psychology
This is the key thing. While you are in your program, get varied experience in different clinical settings with different clinical populations. Get involved with research. Say yes to many opportunities but say no to things you’re not interested in or don’t have time for. Don’t stick only to your number 1 interest- try different things, explore the possibilities. Listen to feedback and use it to get better but don’t take criticism as a comment on you as a person. Publish. Get involved with leadership and/or administrative roles. Essentially, build an impressive CV that shows that you have well-rounded skills and experience, but also are creating a niche of your own expertise. See this ask for more.

8. Complete a dissertation
The major research milestone in a PhD/PsyD program (of any type) is the dissertation. This is your major research project, where you start to carve out your area of expertise in your field. You use the dissertation to show what you’ve learned, to learn new things, and to add something important to your field. It is an enormous and difficult undertaking, but so worth it. I recommend you pick something that is achievable in the amount of time you have left (don’t make your goal “discover all genes that cause depression,” make it “determine whether cortisol is higher among people with chronic depression compared to acute depression”) and something that you will enjoy enough to keep you motivated during the years you will be working on that project.

9. Apply for a predoctoral internship program
The last clinical milestone is a pre-doctoral internship. A match process is how it’s determined where each student applying for an internship goes (similar to medical school residency programs). Students apply for internships around the United States and Canada in the fall, and interview in December and January. Students each rank the places they interviewed at in the order of their preference, and put that ranking into an online system. Each internship does the same- ranks each student in order of their preference. The system “matches” each student with an internship, attempting to match each student with the highest ranked internship possible. However, there are more students applying each year than internships, so every year students go unmatched. This year about 82% of students matched, and of those, 80% matched to an accredited internship. Accreditation is very important for future licensure and employment. This gap in matching is one reason to go to a really really good graduate program- better programs have better match rates, and many internship programs won’t review applications from students who go to unaccredited or low quality schools. See this ask for more. 

10. Complete a pre-doctoral internship program in clinical psychology
This is your last big chance to get clinical experience. So my advice is to look for programs that will help you fill important gaps in your training (for example, are you interested in PTSD but don’t have experience in Cognitive Processing Therapy? Find a program that trains in CPT) and helps you fill out your area of expertise. So, both broaden and deepen your experience. Find programs that are really interested in training you and not just getting a cheap therapist for a year. Look for places that often hire their interns as postdocs or staff psychologists, and for places that send interns to the sorts of postdocs or jobs you will want. 

11. Receive your PhD or PsyD
You’re done! Congratulations! (Remember to do your exit counseling!)

12. Apply for and complete a postdoctoral fellowship (optional)
Many (maybe most) psychologists do a postdoctoral fellowship. A postdoctoral fellowship or residency is additional training after you finish your doctoral degree.  Typical clinical postdocs are 1 year, research postdocs are 2 years, and speciality training postdocs like neuropsychology are 2 years. However some postdocs might be longer or shorter. You might do one so you can gain specific training you want or need- for example, clinical psychologists specializing in neuropsychology nearly always do a postdoc in neuropsychology (and have to in order to be boarded as a neuropsychologist), or you might want training in a particular area of research you don’t have. You might do one so you can get licensed because many jobs require applicants to already be licensed or license-eligible (and many states require supervised hours post-degree and/or other requirements). You might do one because you want a research job and it’s difficult to get one without a postdoc, particularly in academia or academia-adjacent positions. You might do one because you want to get in with a specific institution and they don’t have a job for you that year (many places hire from within, particularly from their intern and postdoc pool). 

13. Get licensed
Clinical psychologists generally get licensed within a 2-3 years of graduating (but it’s possible to do it sooner). State requirements vary a lot, so do your research so you can a) get licensed in the state you want to right now, and b) make it possible to get licensed in other states you might want to in the future. Licensure in the US always requires passing the EPPP, the national licensing exam and graduation from an APA-accredited or equivalent graduate program and internship. Many states have additional requirements like 1500 post-degree supervised clinical hours, a state exam, or additional coursework. The process is long and expensive (like everything else in this process). 

14. Get a job
This is when you finally get to be a full-fledged clinical psychologist! There are many jobs available for psychologists, but the biggest areas of need are rural and other poorly served areas. Think about what’s most important to you- type of position, type of institution, money, location, etc. –and find something that’ll work for you. 

So how long will this take?

A typical path to being a clinical psychologist looks like this:

  • Bachelor’s degree: 4 years
  • Postgraduate research experience (optional): 2 years
  • PhD/PsyD: 4-6 years
  • Predoctoral internship: 1 year
  • Postdoctoral fellowship (optional): 1-2 years (get licensed during this)
  • Job! 

So an average range is 9 to 15 years from beginning your undergraduate degree to starting your first job as a licensed clinical psychologist. Some people will need more time but it’s very unlikely to do it faster than this.

You keep mentioning “APA” and “accreditation.” What’s that?

APA is the American Psychological Association, and it is the main body that accredits (recognizes as quality and meeting minimum standards) graduate programs, Predoctoral internships, and postdoctoral fellowships in psychology. The Canadian Psychological Association (CPA), California Psychology Internship Council (CAPIC), and Psychological Clinical Science Accreditation System (PCSAS) are also reputable and professionally recognized accrediting bodies.

It is essential to go to an APA-, CPA- and/or PCSAS-accredited graduate program and a APA-, CPA-, CAPIC- and/or PCSAS-accredited internship. It will be difficult to get licensed and get a job if you don’t. Accreditation also protects students. (Also, unaccredited schools are unaccredited because they are not good schools. The accrediting standards are not very high). You don’t need an accredited postdoc, but you might choose to get one because it’s likely to make it easier to get licensed and boarded, and it may make you more marketable.

Audience question: “My question is, why are there wasps? What purpose do they serve?”

Sir David Attenborough: “Well, the purpose of a wasp, as far as the wasp is concerned, is solely to make other wasps, which they do very well. From an environmental standpoint, well, wasps are major predators of other insects. I’m sure that you know the importance that predators play in ecosystem health, as well as the health of prey populations. If you mean what purpose do they serve Humanity, well, none; but then I hope we’re now beyond only being interested in, and protecting, species that we can exploit for own own benefit. We are not the be-all and end-all of Evolution, we just think we are.”


An inferiority complex is a lack of self-worth or self-esteem and feelings of not measuring up to standard. It can produce a personality characterized either by extreme reticence or, as a result of overcompensation, by extreme aggressiveness. An inferiority complex occurs when the feelings of inferiority are intensified in the individual through discouragement or failure. Someone who is prone to attention and approval seeking behaviors may be more susceptible. In the mental health treatment population, this characteristic is shown in patients with many disorders such as certain types of schizophrenia, mood disorders, and personality disorders.

My Type Part Six | Taehyung, You

1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6

Originally posted by nnochu

I’m much more me when I’m with you

“Tae…” Namjoon’s voice was stead as he slowly turned around to face his younger brother, seeing the tears brimming his eyes alarmed him. “You know I can’t…”

Keep reading

anonymous asked:

How is self-diagnosis dangerous? It's not like you can get prescriptions with a self-diagnosis.

I don’t think I said it was dangerous? I did say there are risks (and maybe you’re using “danger” as a synonym for “risk”), and you’re right, getting a prescription with no provider oversight isn’t one of them. 

The risk lies more with the decisions a person makes based on the self-diagnosis. Some of those might be taking actions that aren’t likely to be effective- like trying to self-treat their self-diagnosis based on what they find on the internet, and then becoming disheartened and hopeless when those self-treatments aren’t helpful. Others might be not taking actions that are likely to be effective - like not seeking help, or not trying treatments outside of the domain of their self-diagnosis. 

There’s also this more meta-risk- the proliferation of inaccurate information about mental health diagnosis and mental health in general. For example, many of the checklists or quizzes I see online testing for one diagnosis or another are full of inaccuracies, similarly many of the infographics and text posts I see on tumblr and other places have inaccuracies in them. So not only are the people trying to self-diagnosis getting inaccurate information, a larger population are seeing that information, contributing to a huge amount of misinformation about mental health among the general population. 

anonymous asked:

how do you feel about the lack of classes directed toward lgbt+ health in medicine

We actually had a week directed towards addressing health disparities within the LGBTQ+ population, such as specific health needs, using appropriate pronouns, asking directed questions, specific medication protocols, etc. it’s not perfect, especially in medical school, but I’d imagine schools are trying to do better.

“ Each tooth acts like a fuse, conducting energy and electricity to an organ or organ system. The crooked or over crowded teeth of a child are tied to malnutrition of both male and female parents. Malnutrition causes the skull structures to be compromised, without the proper building material necessary to execute the fully developed skeletal system. This in turn causes situations where teeth are extracted, which further increases disease and dysfunction in the population. Health is the most important factor for human evolution and our human farmers know this. This is why they pollute humanity at every opportunity plus highlight hedonistic science and medical chemical living as our utopian existence. See the con job. Process the con job. Reject the poison. Unslave. “  Jason Christoff

lookhowstuffworks  asked:

I'm wondering if you have any article or anything you can share about how individual health behaviors counts for 25% of a person health status. I got really interested in that and I want to read more.

Yup, I shared more info from the CDC on the post you’re referring to here. You’ll see that individual health behaviors combined with genetic factors actually amount to about 25% of the determinants of health at a population level. The other ~75% are social factors and access to healthcare.

I also can’t recommend the book Body Respect by Drs Linda Bacon and Lucy Aphramor highly enough if you’re interested in health and body politics. You can google either of them and find more of their writing, lectures, and interviews.


Dreyna AU: Imperial Princess and Gladiator

  • Drew is the daughter of the current Caesar Hephaestus and his consort Aphrodite. She has 2 sisters - Silena and Piper. 
  • Silena is Drew and Piper’s elder half sister, her mother being Hephaestus’s deceased wife, Venus.
  • Hephaestus had Drew and Piper in his declining years, and is ageing fast, his health is deteriorating and the populous is preparing for Silena and her husband Charles to take the throne.
  • Silena has never been involved in politics, and instead preferred to connect with the citizens through personal humanitarian aid - but feels she must take the throne to protect her younger siblings.
  • Drew, however, believes that she is what is best for the empire, knowing all the in’s and out’s of the realm and is doing everything in her power to convince her sister to abdicate her rule.
  • Reyna is the eldest daughter of six, her family is one of the oldest and most powerful in Carthage, the second largest city in the Roman empire - and across the Mediterranean Sea from the seat of power.
  • Hoping to fill the power vacuum left behind by the oncoming death of the Emperor, Reyna’s family move to Rome and into the imperial palace.
  • Reyna, struggling with her sense of duty to her family and growing feelings of alienation and displacement - enters the gladiator ring under the alias Servius Vitus.
  • The two girls meet under impossible circumstances, and a web of lies and secrecy begins to unravel around them - bringing them together in dangerous ways.
A Brief Study of the Decans in Astrological Magic

This will be the fifth post in our series on astrological magic. Now that we’ve gone over the placement of the planets, we can start to get into the theory behind magic which draws on the powers of the heavens (the ritual methods and related theory will follow in a later post). Although this post will take us closer to a complete method of astrological magic, you should keep in mind that even with all the information in the series so far, you will probably get very limited results if these posts are all you’re deriving your methods from. Regarding the familiarity you need with the symbols involved in this process, this post really only scratches the surface. I will continue to compile information in this subject, and this series will continue to grow and serve as a reference you can access any time. Please be safe. Feel free to send us an ask if you have any questions.

There is a classical Hermetic method to creating talismans or images concerning any and every body part. I doubt that I will speak of these in detail, because it is such a lengthy subject (I may make a post about it in the future if some necessity arises), but there is some freely accessible information about it available from various online sources. There are also Arabic and Hindu beliefs about the use of different decans for creating talismans or images for countless other purposes, some personal, and others impersonal. I will discuss some of these here. Remember though, to properly use any of the correspondences I’m describing, you will need to have some understanding of the ritual theory involved, and to properly use the ritual theory, you will need some understanding of the symbolism involved. Given that both are equally necessary, I decided to start here.

Every sign in the Zodiac has three decans (they are also sometimes referred to as faces, though decans and faces are often given different ruling planets), which you should familiarize yourself with. Each decan has a subruler (which is usually a different planet than the primary ruler of the sign), and specific properties and symbolic associations, as well as a different visual representation than the sign itself. To find which planet rules each decan, you can think of it this way: Place the sign in question on the ascendant of a hypothetical chart. The first decan is ruled by the planet which rules over the ascendant. The second decan is ruled by the planet which rules over the 5th House. The third decan is ruled by the planet which rules over the 9th House. This is useful to know, especially if you can remember the rulers of each sign and which order they proceed in. To learn how each decan is visually depicted, you should do your own research, because that information is very easy to come by.

Now consider that each decan of the Zodiac can lend you specific beneficial energies for making talismans or other powerful objects, as well as other types of magical work. There are 36 decans total in the Zodiac, and I will briefly describe some of their properties here.

Aries (which is primarily ruled by Mars):

The 1st Decan of Aries is ruled by Mars, and generally lends you a great advantage in any type of battle, literal or figurative. Basically, this face is useful for becoming victorious in a conflict against an enemy.

The 2nd Decan of Aries is ruled by the Sun, and can greatly assist you in gaining the favor of people on powerful positions, or gaining their graces, if they are already short-tempered with you.

The 3rd Decan of Aries is ruled by Jupiter, and can help you bring peaceful resolutions to official conflict, conflict between politicians, and problems among high clergy (as if you’d really want to deal with clergy at all).

Taurus (which is primarily ruled by Venus):

The 1st Decan of Taurus is ruled by Venus, and you can use it to improve the relationship between spouses.

The 2nd Decan of Taurus is ruled by Mercury. This decan is useful if you want to cause conflict between women.

The 3rd Decan of Taurus is ruled by Saturn. This one is good for causing hatred. It’s also a useful sign if you wish to make a man impotent, or to make a woman become disgusted with physical intimacy. You can also use this sign to help destroy romantic relationships.

Gemini (which is primarily ruled by Mercury):

The 1st Decan of Gemini is ruled by Mercury. You can use it to damage the intelligence and cognition of a person.

The 2nd Decan of Gemini is ruled by Venus, which can help you cause missing people to return, or to bring fugitives back to a certain place.

The 3rd Decan of Gemini is ruled by Saturn. It allows you to cause a person’s reputation to be destroyed. People will say hateful things about the person of your choice, and they will likely become subject to some kind of ridicule.

Cancer (which is primarily ruled by the Moon):

The 1st Decan of Cancer is ruled by the Moon. This is a time to call for rain. It can also serve to bring back people who are missing, no matter how they are traveling.

The 2nd Decan of Cancer is ruled by Mars. In this decan, you can try to ward off snow or rain. It also helps you banish snakes and other wild animals, whether you are at sea or on land.

The 3rd Decan of Cancer is ruled by Jupiter. It appears to be best for helping seafaring travelers survive dangerous situations.

Leo (which is ruled by the Sun):

The 1st Decan of Leo is ruled by the Sun. It’s a good time to cast talismans to help you get in the good graces of a politician or another fairly powerful figure. It’s also effective for causing wild predators like bears to gather in the place of your choice (within reason).

The 2nd Decan of Leo is ruled by Jupiter, and it serves to ward off wild predators, which is particularly useful for protecting livestock, or domestic animals.

The 3rd Decan of Leo is ruled by Mars. This decan is used to bring wild predators to places populated by humans.

Virgo (which is Mercurial):

The 1st Decan of Virgo is ruled by Mercury, and you can use this decan to make talismans for assisting you in writing and business.

The 2nd Decan of Virgo is ruled by Saturn, and it’s useful if you’re trying to bring destruction to someone’s tools or writing utensils.

The 3rd Decan of Virgo is ruled by Venus. You can use this decan to make images which keep spouses on good terms with each other.

Libra (which is ruled by Venus):

The 1st Decan of Libra is ruled by Venus. You can use it to make talismans which can strengthen or weaken a woman’s love.

The 2nd Decan of Libra is ruled by Saturn, and can be used to weaken the love of people of any gender.

The 3rd Decan of Libra is ruled by Mercury. This one is useful for talismans which help fugitives return safely.

Scorpio (which is ruled by Mars):

The 1st Decan of Scorpio is ruled by Mars. It’s useful for attracting spiders, snakes, and other venomous creatures to the place of your choice.

The 2nd Decan of Scorpio is ruled by Jupiter, and is useful if you want to make a talisman to repel the aforementioned venomous creatures.

The 3rd Decan of Scorpio is ruled by the Moon. This decan is good for talismans reducing the severity of rainstorms, or redirecting them altogether. In general, this decan is useful for preventing water damage of all kinds.

Sagittarius (which is ruled by Jupiter):

The 1st Decan of Sagittarius is ruled by Jupiter, and here you can make talismans which assist love, friendship, and good will.

The 2nd Decan of Sagittarius is ruled by Mars. This is a good time to make talismans for causing health problems and illness in any person you choose.

The 3rd Decan of Sagittarius is ruled by the Sun, and talismans made in this decan can help you get into the good graces of bosses, and of people in positions of great power.

Capricorn (which is ruled by Saturn):

The 1st Decan of Capricorn is Saturn’s. Talismans from this decan can aid people who hunt for food, and can also help increase the yield and quality of milk from farm animals who lactate.

The 2nd Decan is ruled by Venus. This decan supports talismans which help goats yield more milk (which will be of great interest to one of our mods), and to aid the health and population of bees in the area of your choice. You can also use this decan to make talismans which draw birds to the place of your choice.

The 3rd Decan of Capricorn is ruled by Mercury. This decan is basically only useful for making talismans which intend to destroy the things which are aided by the first two decans of Capricorn. I really hope you don’t ever see fit to use this.

Aquarius (which is ruled by Saturn):

The 1st Decan of Aquarius is ruled by Saturn. It’s useful for creating talismans to aid friendship with elderly people regardless of whether they are powerful or in a lower social class. This is also a good time to make talismans which can help you find hidden treasures of any kind.

The 2nd Decan of Aquarius is ruled by Mercury. This decan is good for making talismans which help you make friends with young or youthful people.

The 3rd Decan of Aquarius is ruled by Venus. This decan is particularly useful if you want a talisman to help you make friends with women, or to gain the love of women.

Pisces (which is ruled by Jupiter):

The 1st Decan of Pisces is ruled by Jupiter. This decan is good for making talismans which aid one in fishing, and in safe seafaring.

The 2nd Decan of Pisces is ruled by the Moon. At this time you can make effective talismans for helping plants (especially plants which bear fruit). You can also make talismans to call the rain or cause fish to gather at the location of your choice (only in bodies of water, of course).

The 3rd Decan of Pisces is ruled by Mars. Talismans made at this time can be made for successful military ventures, as well as successful hunts.

Before you begin any work, it’s important to know that every planet corresponds to certain materials (specific metals, stones, and sometimes types of glass) which effectively conduct their respective powers. For reference, here is a master list of many of the things ruled over by the planets, signs, and fixed stars.

It might also also important for you to learn the 7 groups of constituents of nature, each group consisting of 4 basic constituents. There are 28 such constituents of nature in all (according to this particular system of symbolism, of course). You can find information on these in almost any introductory volume on the occult, but in particular, I find Henry Cornelius Agrippa to be a good source for information of this kind. These 28 constituents correspond to the 28 Mansions of the Moon, and Pythagorean numerology also finds 28 to be a very important number, so it appears that this system has been thoroughly developed over a very long period of time, and you might benefit from doing some independent research on the numerological importance of the number 28 in various occult and philosophical traditions.

I will conclude this post here. I hope to further expand on this information and more of the necessary symbolism for astrological magic very soon. I hope this post has been helpful to you. Thank you very much for reading.