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Cantonese - Verbal Aspect

For those of you that already know some Mandarin, or languages like Vietnamese, Thai, etc., you most likely already know about the concept of verbal aspect. These languages, unlike most Indo-European languages, do not “conjugate” their verbs based on tense, mood, number, person, etc., but use the concept of “aspect” or “time references” to express verbal actions. 

Technically, as long as the context is clear from adverbs of time such as “yesterday”, “today”, “tomorrow”, then the “tense” can be determined (whether it occurred in the past, present, or future), without having to add anything around the verb. 

我今日去香港 [ngo5 gam1 jat6 heoi3 hoeng1 gong2]
I go/am going to Hong Kong today. 

我尋日去香港 [ngo5 cam4 jat6 heoi3 hoeng1 gong2]
I went to Hong Kong yesterday. 

我聽日去香港 [ngo5 ting1 jat6 heoi3 hoeng1 gong2]
I will go to Hong Kong tomorrow. 

However, that being said, oftentimes, these neutral-sounding sentences can sound very stunted and awkward. To make speech more natural, we use aspect markers, which make things clearer and more specific as to when an action occurred.

Past Aspect Markers

zo2 - Perfective Marker

  • a common variant of this is 左
  • directly equivalent to the perfective function of 了 in Mandarin
  • goes after the verb
  • shows that an action has been completed in the past, but may be applicable to the present 

ex: 我尋晚睇兩集。[ngo5 cam4 maan5 tai2 zo2 loeng5 zaap6]

Mandarin: 我昨晚看了兩集。
Literal: I yesterday night watch-perf. two episode. 
Translation: I watched two episodes last night. 

ex: 佢已經喺香港住兩年。[keoi5 ji5 ging1 hai2 hoeng1 gong2 zyu6 zo2 loeng5 nin4]

Mandarin: 他/她已經在香港住了兩年。
Literal: He/she already in/at Hong Kong live-perf. two year(s).
Translation: He/she has already lived in Hong Kong for two years. (and is still living there now) 

gwo3 - Experiential Past Marker

  • used exactly the same as in Mandarin 
  • goes after the verb
  • shows that something has occurred sometime in the past, and is no longer applicable to the present

ex: 小明曾經去呢間學校。[siu2 ming4 cang4 ging1 heoi3 gwo3 ni1 gaan1 hok6 haau6]

Mandarin: 小明曾經去過這間學校。
Literal: Siu Ming at one point go-exp.past this school. 
Translation: Siu Ming had gone to this school at one point. (he no longer goes to this school)

ex: 你食菠蘿包未呀? [nei5 sik6 gwo3 bo1 lo4 baau1 mei6 aa3] 

Mandarin: 你吃過菠蘿包了沒有?
Literal: You eat-exp.past pineapple bun (not) yet + statement particle
Translation: Have you ever eaten pineapple buns? 

Present Aspect Markers

The simple present is often expressed using just the verb, without the addition of any aspect markers. However, present aspect markers exist to mark time points more clearly. 

gan2 - Progressive Marker

  • equivalent to (正)在 + V in Mandarin, except 緊 goes after the verb
  • functions as the imperfective, or the present progressive; an action is incomplete and/or in progress.

ex: 當時佢仲寫本書,所以冇時間陪我。[dong1 si4 keoi5 zung6 se2 gan2 bun2 syu1, so2 ji3 mou5 si4 gaan3 pui4 ngo5] 

Mandarin: 當時他/她還在寫 (那本) 書,所以沒有時間陪我。
Literal: At that time he still write-prog. classifier book, so/that’s why not have time accompany me.
Translation: At that time he was still writing the book; that’s why he didn’t have time to spend with me.

ex: 我食飯嘅時候唔好同我傾偈。[ngo5 sik6 gan2 faan6 ge3 si4 hau6 m4 hou2 tung4 ngo5 king1 gai2]

Mandarin: 我在吃飯的時候不要跟我聊天。
Literal: I eat-prog. genitive (duration of) time not good* with me chat.
Translation: When I’m (busy) eating (a meal), don’t chit chat with me.  

*唔好 m4 hou2 (lit. not good) = an imperative form, equivalent to don’t in English and 不要 in Mandarin

zyu6 - Durative Marker 

  1. expresses an action that continues and remains in the same state
  2. connects two verbal phrases where actions are being done simultaneously
  • Function 1: equivalent to 着 in Mandarin; goes after the verb
  • Function 2: equivalent to 邊…邊… in Mandarin; goes after the verb

Function 1

ex: 佢孭一個好重嘅書包。[keoi5 me1 zyu6 jat1 go3 hou2 cung5 ge3 syu1 baau1]

Mandarin: 他/她背着一個很重的書包。
Literal: He/she carry (on one’s back)-dur. one classifier very heavy backpack. 
Translation: He/she is carrying a very heavy backpack. 

ex: 家姐間房對個海。[gaa1 ze1 gaan1 fong2 deoi3 zyu6 go3 hoi2]

Mandarin: 姐姐的房子對着海。
Literal: Older sister-gen. room face-dur. classifier ocean
Translation: [Older] sis’ room faces the ocean. (it is always going to be facing the ocean). 

Function 2

This function cannot stand on its own with just a verbal phrase, and requires the addition of 先 sin1 “first, before anything else”, or another verb/verbal phrase. The structure 一路…一路… can also be used, and is used in almost exactly the same way as (一)邊…(一)邊… in Mandarin. 

ex: 你食飯先。[nei5 sik6 zyu6 faan6 sin1] (simply saying 你食住飯 would be grammatically incorrect)

Mandarin: 你先吃飯。
Literal: You eat-dur. meal first. 
Translation: Eat first. (implies that the speaker might be doing an action other than eating, and asks the listener to eat first) 

ex: 我食雪條行街。[ngo5 sik6 zyu6 syut3 tiu2 haang4 gaai1] or

一路雪條(一路)行街。[ngo5 jat1 lou6 sik6 zyu6 syut3 tiu2 (jat1 lou6) haang4 gaai1]

Mandarin: 我邊吃冰棒邊逛街。
Literal: I eat-dur. popsicle stroll. or I (as) eat-dur. popsicle (as) stroll. 
Translation: I am (or I was) eating a popsicle as I stroll (or was strolling) around. 

Difference between 緊 gan2 and 住 zyu6

The words present progressive and durative sound very technical and also sound pretty similar in meaning, but here’s a good example illustrating the difference between the two markers: 

我著衫 [ngo5 zoek3 gan2 saam1] - I am putting on clothes. (lit. in the process of wearing/putting on clothes) 

我著衫 [ngo5 zoek3 zyu6 saam1] - I am wearing clothes. (I am in a state where I am wearing clothes)

著 [zoek3] - to wear sth; 衫 [saam1] - clothes

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Raoul Silva - Weirdly Attractive Villains #12

Hello, hello, hello, dear ones. 

So, the holidays have been exhausting, but I thought it was time for another WEIRDLYYYYYYY ATTRACTIVVVEEEEEE VILLAAAAAAAAAAAAAINNNNS! [Cue cheesy game show music and prizes you don’t really want]

Today’s winner? You guessed it: It’s Javier Bardem as Raoul Silva in Skyfall! 

I’ve been meaning to make this post for a long time and I decided it was finally time to do it, and no, it’s not just because I’ve been playing the Skyfall drinking game.*


If you haven’t seen Skyfall:

1. What the hell is wrong with you?

2. Here’s a brief rundown. 

Skyfall is Daniel Craig’s third turn as James Bond, and it’s superb. Adele’s opening song is sublime. I just want to curl up into the movie and snuggle down until all my problems disappear just like all my friends. 

Bond is on a mission to recollect a stolen hard drive containing information about MI6 agents. He gets shot and is goes missing. He’s presumed dead, preferring to stay hidden on an island, until he returns to MI6 following the reveal of numerous agents’ real identities, and an explosion destroys headquarters, killing several people, and putting the entire operation in jeopardy. The culprit appears to have a grudge against M, played again by the incomparable Dame Judi Dench. 

He comes back and goes on the trail, gets loads of vagina, and meets up with (read: has shower sex with) the bad guy’s girlfriend, who takes Bond to the guy trying to kill M: the sly, slippery, sexy Raoul Silva, played by Javier Bardem. 

And things get all kinds of sexy up in there. 

It was like “oooohhhh…”

And I was like “Ahhhh…”

And my ovaries went BOOOM!!

Anyhow, he tries multiple times to kill M and there’s lots of gunfire and bombs and explosions and fucking awesome sequences and it all culminates at Bond’s family home in Scotland named, you guessed it, Skyfall Lodge. 

So, why is Silva weirdly attractive? 

Look at that smile. How can you deny that? 

Silva is my favorite kind of villain. He’s so slick and clever, and he’s always one step ahead. Unshakable and relentless, he’s got one goal and he’s gonna go for it. 

Silva’s so clever that he’s the only person with enough technological skill to rival Q. He can find anyone, he can do anything. He wanted an island and he took it. 

That means he could take you anywhere on a date. 

Wherever, as long as you’re there

He’s got the mad confidence that makes you love him. The first time you see him in the film, it’s halfway through the movie, and he walks the length of a warehouse floor, monologuing to Bond, who’s tied to a chair.

He then tries to fuck with Bond mentally by making it look like he’s going to fuck with Bond LITERALLY. See above. 

Oh, Mr. Silva!

Silva’s the kind of guy that does whatever it takes, and takes a real joy in the work. He’d erase your student loans and buy you pretty things. 


Now, does it make me sad that he tries to kill M repeatedly? Of course it does. I love M. 

Moving on:

Don’t ask me why I love flamboyant men, but I love flamboyant men. And Silva is nothing if not a flamboyant man. He’s sassy and stylish. 

Look at the way he throws that grenade! He doesn’t give a shit. PERF.

That’s literally perfect. Look at his fucking jacket. He’s chintzy in the most wonderful way, and I love it. 

And with all his innuendos you know he thinks about taking you to bed. 

In the end, his hair’s a little creepy, and his priorities are a little bit off, and he places blame in strange places, but he’s sexy, slippery, and charming. And you’d want him in your bed. 

And he’d probably unzip you if you ask him nicely. 

Ladies and gentlemen, Silva. 

You. Me. My bed, the floor, wherever. 

*My Skyfall drinking game: drink when the movie is bad-ass. Finish your drink every time Silva makes you ovulate. So, I pretty much drank steadily for two and a half hours. Awesome. 

anonymous asked:

how would karasuno + iwaizumi act like when they are hanging out with their best friend who they have a crush on? :,)

Sawamura Daichi: Daichi’s used to pressure, being the captain, and, since his crush is also his best friend, he’d be really chill with them and he’d want them to feel the same. Hangouts usually happen at one of their houses and consist of homework, talking, TV, and they are always asked to stay for dinner at Daichi’s cuz his parents love them to bits and want them to get together already. Overall, he’d be all smiles whenever they’re together.

Sugawara Koushi: Suga literally will do whatever it takes to see them smile cuz that would be one of his favorite things about them. He’d crack jokes and tell them silly stories about the volleyball team. He likes to go on walks with them even if it’s like, just going to the store to pick up something his mom wants, he’ll ask them to tag along. They pass by this one pet store all the time and Suga thinks it’s the most adorable thing to see them fawn over all of the animals through the glass.

Azumane Asahi: Asahi would be really nervous, even with the amount of time that they’ve spent together. He never wants to upset them so sometimes he’ll be a little guarded because overstepping his bounds and ruining their friendship would smash his poor little glass heart. Other than that, he’s pretty chill, aside from constantly worrying about them. Like he’ll keep things on his person in case they want/need them, just in case.

Nishinoya Yuu: Noya would probs be the chillest out of all of them. He hardly cares if they find out cuz he sort of wants them to so he’ll have no issue being affectionate, hugging and hand-holding, cute stuff. If they ever get snacks together, he’ll always pay for them if he can.  He always wants to make them laugh so he’ll do silly and ridiculous things that will sometimes make them worry about him and he likes it when they worry cuz it means they care. And he may or may not insist on taking naps together if they’re comfortable with it.

Tanaka Ryuunosuke: The most protective of the bunch, especially when they’re out in public together. Anyone looks at them funny and they’re gonna get a hard glare. If his crush notices, he’ll laugh it off but’ll stick a little closer to them, maybe “jokingly” throw and arm around their shoulders. But he’s really attentive in general. If they’re having a problem, he’ll do just about anything in his power to fix it. When they hang at his house, Saeko embarrasses the crap out of him. He acts like she’s being a pain but he’s seriously hoping that they pick up that her teasing is directed towards the crush he has on them.

Ennoshita Chikara: Ennoshita makes his crush pretty obvious. He doesn’t like beating around the brush but he’s definitely more subtle about it than Noya. Like he’ll purposely brush their hands together as they walk or compliment them often. He lacks a little self-confidence though, it’s the only thing keeping him from straight-up confessing cuz he’s really awful at keeping secrets and this one is really hard to keep. He really does like being kinda touchy-feely with them. For the most part, he’ll suggest it like, “You can use me as a pillow if you get tired,” while they watch a movie or something but always leave it up to them to actually do it.

Hinata Shouyou: No matter how tired he is, once he spot his crush, he has the energy 10 cups of coffee would give a normal person. They literally give him life. Sometimes, he gets a little ahead of himself, suddenly grabbing their hands or something in excitement, then realizes it and lets them go while he blushes. He has absolutely no idea how to actually tell them that he likes them so he just kinda hopes that they pick up on it or something. Natsu must approve.

Kageyama Tobio: He has no idea how to act, even if they are best friends. He’s a master of the hot-and-cold act with them, being one way then completely different later. He’s so lost. He just knows he likes them a lot and it drives him nuts. He does weird sweet things that only someone close to him would know the meaning of. Like if 2 milks popped out of the vending machine, he’d give them one. Or invite them to a volleyball practice and swear that he’d keep them from getting hit with any stray balls. If he could get them into volleyball, he totally would.

Tsukishima Kei:(Kinda answered this a little bit) Tsukki acts pretty normal, or normal for him. He’ll tease them about things, annoy them sometimes, but he’ll never take it too far. He doesn’t want them mad or upset with him ever. Inside, he’d be a mess though. He over-analyzes almost everything. Any time he tries to make his crush a little more obvious, he makes it seem less likely he has one out of reflex. He’s not good at letting things show at all.

Yamaguchi Tadashi: He would be the sweetest thing. He’d do stuff like holding open doors and giving them his jacket if they get cold. He’d be seven different kinds of nervous when they’re alone together. Usually, he’d want Tsukki around but if they managed to cut him out of the equation, Yama would have no idea what to do with himself, or at least not for a little while. After he got over Tsukki’s absence, he’d loosen up and start having a lot of fun with them. They would gossip so much, not even kidding. If they ever brought up people they liked, he’d hint as much as he could that it’s them that he likes without actually giving it away.

Shimizu Kiyoko: Kiyoko is probably the most reserved around her crush of them all. She likes hanging out with them but, like, quietly, stuff that doesn’t involve a lot of talking. If there’s ever a time when they’re openly talking, she usually gets very animated by the end of it and ends up really embarrassed when she realizes it. Her crush would be pretty obvious though, without her even realizing it.

Yachi Hitoka: Yachi second guesses herself a lot, and sometimes out loud. Like suggesting they do something together and then going back and forth with herself about how it could be a good idea and how it couldn’t be. She’s always looking to have fun with them though. She’ll suggest food a lot, ice cream and such. She wouldn’t do anything too bold to let on that she was crushing on them. She’d want to share things with them though, kinda like Kageyama. Recommending a book or some music she really likes to them or something.

Iwaizumi Hajime: His roughness with Oikawa does not bleed into his relationship with his crush at all. He’s really tender and patient with them. He really looks out for them but won’t let them near Oikawa if he can help it. He knows Oikawa won’t do anything with them but he doesn’t want them falling for him so they tend to hang out separately. If they’re comfortable with it, he’ll hug them if the mood strikes. He literally wants to give them the world 24/7. perf bb

Sam Alexander seems to know quite a few furry/talking animal characters (Beta Ray Bill, Rocket, Cosmo, etc), I can’t help but see him as like a Disney space prince surrounded by space woodland creature friends.