Let´s explain the first Point
A- Review the material received
Review the information in the product description form and determine how it might influence its interpretation during the analysis of the process steps.
Can pathogens, toxins, chemicals or physical objects be present in this material?
- Are returned or reused products used as ingredients? If so, is there any danger related to this practice?
- Are preservatives or additives used in the formulation to eliminate microorganisms or inhibit their growth or, further, to increase the exposure life?
- Is there any ingredient that is dangerous if overused? (Eg, nitrites can be a chemical hazard if overused).
- Is there an ingredient that, if used in less than the recommended amount, or if it is excluded, may result in a hazard for allowing the development of vegetative microorganisms or germination of sporulated cells?
- Does the amount and type of acidic ingredients and the resulting pH in the final product affect the development or survival of microorganisms?
- Does the moisture content and water activity (Aw) of the final product affect microbial development or affect the survival of pathogens (parasites, bacteria, viruses)?
- Is it necessary to maintain adequate refrigeration temperature for the products during transport or storage, considering the possibility of multiplying pathogens?
B- Evaluate hazards in each processing operation (stage)
The objective of this activity is to identify the actual hazards related to each process operation, the product flow and the movement pattern of the operators.
To help determine if a hazard exists, the following questions should be answered for each stage of the process:
- Could the contaminants come into contact with the product during this operation of the process? (Consider personal hygiene, contamination of equipment, cross-contamination of raw materials, loss of valves or plates, dead corners, leaks, etc.).
- Could any important microorganism multiply or survive during this process (stage) of the process, to the point of constituting a hazard? (Consider temperature, time, etc.).
- Does the process step allow the reduction or elimination of the agent?
C-Observing actual operational practices.
The team must be related to the new practices to be implemented and be real in the practices that lie because it is not good to hide the bad practices
D) Take measures or analyze conditions of the stage
- Measurement of product temperature, considering heat processing and
- Cooling operations: Measure the coldest point of the product, when evaluating the heating process; And the hottest point, when analyzing the cooling (generally, in the center of the greater portion);
- Time / temperature measurement for cooking, pasteurization, canning cooling, storage, thawing, reconstitution, etc .;
- Dimension of the containers used to keep food in the process of cooling and the depth of the food mass;
- Measurement of pressure, vessel closure suitability, initial temperatures and any other critical factor for the success of a thermal process;
- Measurement of the pH of the product during processing and of the finished product, measuring the pH at room temperature, when possible;
- Measurement of Aw of the product, taking double samples, whenever possible, and agreeing to make corrections for room temperature, if necessary.
E) Analyze the measures
Record time / temperature measurements using computers or millimeter paper; Interpret data compared to optimum microorganism development temperatures and the temperature variation at which they can multiply; Estimating and evaluating the probable values of cooling and comparing the measured temperatures with the variation of temperature necessary for the optimum growth of the pathogenic bacteria; Determine whether lids are used in containers to cool food (which can slow down cooling, but also avoid cross-contamination); Checking whether the containers are stacked in such a way as to affect the cooling or heating time; Compare the values of Aw and pH for the intervals in which the pathogens are multiplied or eliminated; And evaluate the stability of the product.
Physical: Items used by staff that can be left inside meals either by accident or neglect.
Chemicals: Chemicals and cleaning products that are present inside the kitchen.
Biological: whether they are contaminates that are not their own and that affect the final product