Bromination of a carboxylic acid with elemental bromine. 

The reaction goes at 50 °C and it keeps itself on this temperature during the whole process. It’s interesting to see that when the bromine contacts the reaction mixture, immediately gaseous hydrogen bromine forms and the color of the halogen fades (gifs). 

At the end the reaction looks horrible, since a small excess of bromine was used what means, that the whole flask if brown and toxic fumes evolves from it as seen on the second pics. Luckily, after placing the product over sodium hydroxide pellets in vacuum, it will transform to a white, crystalline product is pure for more purposes.


Just for fun: reaction between elemental mercury and elemental bromine. 

It’s a quite violent reaction what generates a lot heat and because of this, most of the not yet reacted bromine evaporates as seen on the gifs. From the reaction mercurous bromide (Hg2Br2) forms what is a white, highly toxic powder, luckily not well soluble in most solvents. 

What happened here: This: 2Hg(l) + Br2(l) –> Hg2Br2(s)

Mercury(I) bromide or mercurous bromide is the chemical compound composed of mercury and bromine with the formula Hg2Br2. It changes color from white to yellow when heated and fluoresces a salmon color when exposed to ultraviolet light. It has applications in acousto-optical devices.


Olafur Eliasson (Danish-Icelandic, b. 1967, Copenhagen, Denmark) - Spherical Space, Studio Olafur Eliasson, 2015 Photo: Jens Ziehe   Installation: Stainless Steel, Aluminium, Colored Glass (Yellow), Color-Effect Filter Glass (Orange), Halogen Bulb


Bromination with elemental bromine in acetic acid as a solvent.

The reason why the gas bubbler at the top looks so strange is because I added some Eosine to the liquid inside it what has a really intense color. So not bromine vapors or anything else caused it’s coloration. 

The great thing was in this case was that the product precipitated from the solution as seen on the gifs, so I only had to filter it out.