Bromination with elemental bromine in acetic acid as a solvent.

The reason why the gas bubbler at the top looks so strange is because I added some Eosine to the liquid inside it what has a really intense color. So not bromine vapors or anything else caused it’s coloration. 

The great thing was in this case was that the product precipitated from the solution as seen on the gifs, so I only had to filter it out.


Bromination with elemental bromine in acetic acid. Good in this method, that when the color of the bromine fades, the reaction is ready. Bad point: acetic acid and bromine are highly toxic and corrosive so when measuring the correct amounts I have to be careful. 

Interesting fact from Bromine:  In 1825 bromine had been isolated from sea water by Justus von Liebig who mistakenly thought it was a compound of iodine and chlorine, since it had similar chemical and physical properties to these already discovered elements. Only a year later, in 1826 by the French chemist Antoine-Jérôme Balard described bromine as a new element. He obtained bromine from the manufacture of sea salt at Montpellier by passing chlorine through an aqueous solution of the residues, which contained magnesium bromide. Distillation of the material with manganese dioxide and sulfuric acid produced red vapours, which condensed to a dark liquid.


Bromination of a carboxylic acid with elemental bromine. 

The reaction goes at 50 °C and it keeps itself on this temperature during the whole process. It’s interesting to see that when the bromine contacts the reaction mixture, immediately gaseous hydrogen bromine forms and the color of the halogen fades (gifs). 

At the end the reaction looks horrible, since a small excess of bromine was used what means, that the whole flask if brown and toxic fumes evolves from it as seen on the second pics. Luckily, after placing the product over sodium hydroxide pellets in vacuum, it will transform to a white, crystalline product is pure for more purposes.