habitable world

Largest Batch of Earth-size, Habitable Zone Planets

Our Spitzer Space Telescope has revealed the first known system of seven Earth-size planets around a single star. Three of these planets are firmly located in an area called the habitable zone, where liquid water is most likely to exist on a rocky planet.

This exoplanet system is called TRAPPIST-1, named for The Transiting Planets and Planetesimals Small Telescope (TRAPPIST) in Chile. In May 2016, researchers using TRAPPIST announced they had discovered three planets in the system.

Assisted by several ground-based telescopes, Spitzer confirmed the existence of two of these planets and discovered five additional ones, increasing the number of known planets in the system to seven.

This is the FIRST time three terrestrial planets have been found in the habitable zone of a star, and this is the FIRST time we have been able to measure both the masses and the radius for habitable zone Earth-sized planets.

All of these seven planets could have liquid water, key to life as we know it, under the right atmospheric conditions, but the chances are highest with the three in the habitable zone.

At about 40 light-years (235 trillion miles) from Earth, the system of planets is relatively close to us, in the constellation Aquarius. Because they are located outside of our solar system, these planets are scientifically known as exoplanets. To clarify, exoplanets are planets outside our solar system that orbit a sun-like star.

In this animation, you can see the planets orbiting the star, with the green area representing the famous habitable zone, defined as the range of distance to the star for which an Earth-like planet is the most likely to harbor abundant liquid water on its surface. Planets e, f and g fall in the habitable zone of the star.

Using Spitzer data, the team precisely measured the sizes of the seven planets and developed first estimates of the masses of six of them. The mass of the seventh and farthest exoplanet has not yet been estimated.

For comparison…if our sun was the size of a basketball, the TRAPPIST-1 star would be the size of a golf ball.

Based on their densities, all of the TRAPPIST-1 planets are likely to be rocky. Further observations will not only help determine whether they are rich in water, but also possibly reveal whether any could have liquid water on their surfaces.

The sun at the center of this system is classified as an ultra-cool dwarf and is so cool that liquid water could survive on planets orbiting very close to it, closer than is possible on planets in our solar system. All seven of the TRAPPIST-1 planetary orbits are closer to their host star than Mercury is to our sun.

 The planets also are very close to each other. How close? Well, if a person was standing on one of the planet’s surface, they could gaze up and potentially see geological features or clouds of neighboring worlds, which would sometimes appear larger than the moon in Earth’s sky.

The planets may also be tidally-locked to their star, which means the same side of the planet is always facing the star, therefore each side is either perpetual day or night. This could mean they have weather patterns totally unlike those on Earth, such as strong wind blowing from the day side to the night side, and extreme temperature changes.

Because most TRAPPIST-1 planets are likely to be rocky, and they are very close to one another, scientists view the Galilean moons of Jupiter – lo, Europa, Callisto, Ganymede – as good comparisons in our solar system. All of these moons are also tidally locked to Jupiter. The TRAPPIST-1 star is only slightly wider than Jupiter, yet much warmer. 

How Did the Spitzer Space Telescope Detect this System?

Spitzer, an infrared telescope that trails Earth as it orbits the sun, was well-suited for studying TRAPPIST-1 because the star glows brightest in infrared light, whose wavelengths are longer than the eye can see. Spitzer is uniquely positioned in its orbit to observe enough crossing (aka transits) of the planets in front of the host star to reveal the complex architecture of the system. 

Every time a planet passes by, or transits, a star, it blocks out some light. Spitzer measured the dips in light and based on how big the dip, you can determine the size of the planet. The timing of the transits tells you how long it takes for the planet to orbit the star.

The TRAPPIST-1 system provides one of the best opportunities in the next decade to study the atmospheres around Earth-size planets. Spitzer, Hubble and Kepler will help astronomers plan for follow-up studies using our upcoming James Webb Space Telescope, launching in 2018. With much greater sensitivity, Webb will be able to detect the chemical fingerprints of water, methane, oxygen, ozone and other components of a planet’s atmosphere.

At 40 light-years away, humans won’t be visiting this system in person anytime soon…that said…this poster can help us imagine what it would be like: 

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Some intriguing exoplanets

An exoplanet or extrasolar planet is a planet that orbits a star other than the Sun. The first scientific detection of an exoplanet was in 1988. However, the first confirmed detection came in 1992; since then, and as of 1 April 2017, there have been 3,607 exoplanets discovered in 2,701 planetary systems and 610 multiple planetary systems confirmed.

1- Kepler-186f

was the first rocky planet to be found within the habitable zone – the region around the host star where the temperature is right for liquid water. This planet is also very close in size to Earth. Even though we may not find out what’s going on at the surface of this planet anytime soon, it’s a strong reminder of why new technologies are being developed that will enable scientists to get a closer look at distant worlds.

2- CoRoT 7b

The first super-Earth identified as a rocky exoplanet, this planet proved that worlds like the Earth were indeed possible and that the search for potentially habitable worlds (rocky planets in the habitable zone) might be fruitful.

3- Kepler-22b  

A planet in the habitable zone and a possible water-world planet unlike any seen in our solar system.

4- Kepler 10-b

Kepler’s first rocky planet discovery is a scorched, Earth-size world that scientists believe may have a lava ocean on its surface.

5- 55 Cancri e

55 Cancri e is a toasty world that rushes around its star every 18 hours. It orbits so closely – about 25 times closer than Mercury is to our sun – that it is tidally locked with one face forever blisters under the heat of its sun. The planet is proposed to have a rocky core surrounded by a layer of water in a “supercritical” state, where it is both liquid and gas, and then the whole planet is thought to be topped by a blanket of steam.

6- 51 Pegasi b

This giant planet, which is about half the mass of Jupiter and orbits its star every four days, was the first confirmed exoplanet around a sun-like star, a discovery that launched a whole new field of exploration.

7- Kepler-444 system

The oldest known planetary system has five terrestrial-sized planets, all in orbital resonance. This weird group showed that solar systems have formed and lived in our galaxy for nearly its entire existence.

8- PSR B1257+12 system

Discovered in 1992 and 1994, the planets that orbit pulsar PSR B1257+12 are not only the smallest planetary bodies known to exist outside our solar system, they also orbit a neutron star. These weird “pulsar planets” demonstrated that planets exist in all environments in the galaxy – even around the remnants of an exploded star.

9- HD 80606 b  

This world has the most eccentric orbit, and as one scientist put it, “wears its heart on its sleeve,” with storms, rotation, atmospheric heating, and a crazy orbit all plainly visible.

10- OGLE-2005-BLG-390

Considered to be the first cold super Earth, this exoplanet began to form a Jupiter-like core of rock and ice, but couldn’t grow fast enough in size. Its final mass is five times that of Earth. The planet’s nickname is Hoth, after a planet from Star War

Credits: NASA / JPL-Caltech

Magnetospheres: How Do They Work?

The sun, Earth, and many other planets are surrounded by giant magnetic bubbles.

Space may seem empty, but it’s actually a dynamic place, dominated by invisible forces, including those created by magnetic fields.  Magnetospheres – the areas around planets and stars dominated by their magnetic fields – are found throughout our solar system. They deflect high-energy, charged particles called cosmic rays that are mostly spewed out by the sun, but can also come from interstellar space. Along with atmospheres, they help protect the planets’ surfaces from this harmful radiation.

It’s possible that Earth’s protective magnetosphere was essential for the development of conditions friendly to life, so finding magnetospheres around other planets is a big step toward determining if they could support life.

But not all magnetospheres are created equal – even in our own backyard, not all planets in our solar system have a magnetic field, and the ones we have observed are all surprisingly different.

Earth’s magnetosphere is created by the constantly moving molten metal inside Earth. This invisible “force field” around our planet has an ice cream cone-like shape, with a rounded front and a long, trailing tail that faces away from the sun. The magnetosphere is shaped that way because of the constant pressure from the solar wind and magnetic fields on the sun-facing side.

Earth’s magnetosphere deflects most charged particles away from our planet – but some do become trapped in the magnetic field and create auroras when they rain down into the atmosphere.

We have several missions that study Earth’s magnetosphere – including the Magnetospheric Multiscale mission, Van Allen Probes, and Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms (also known as THEMIS) – along with a host of other satellites that study other aspects of the sun-Earth connection.

Mercury, with a substantial iron-rich core, has a magnetic field that is only about 1% as strong as Earth’s. It is thought that the planet’s magnetosphere is stifled by the intense solar wind, limiting its strength, although even without this effect, it still would not be as strong as Earth’s. The MESSENGER satellite orbited Mercury from 2011 to 2015, helping us understand our tiny terrestrial neighbor.

After the sun, Jupiter has by far the biggest magnetosphere in our solar system – it stretches about 12 million miles from east to west, almost 15 times the width of the sun. (Earth’s, on the other hand, could easily fit inside the sun.) Jupiter does not have a molten metal core like Earth; instead, its magnetic field is created by a core of compressed liquid metallic hydrogen.

One of Jupiter’s moons, Io, has intense volcanic activity that spews particles into Jupiter’s magnetosphere. These particles create intense radiation belts and the large auroras around Jupiter’s poles.

Ganymede, Jupiter’s largest moon, also has its own magnetic field and magnetosphere – making it the only moon with one. Its weak field, nestled in Jupiter’s enormous shell, scarcely ruffles the planet’s magnetic field.

Our Juno mission orbits inside the Jovian magnetosphere sending back observations so we can better understand this region. Previous observations have been received from Pioneers 10 and 11, Voyagers 1 and 2, Ulysses, Galileo and Cassini in their flybys and orbits around Jupiter.

Saturn’s moon Enceladus transforms the shape of its magnetosphere. Active geysers on the moon’s south pole eject oxygen and water molecules into the space around the planet. These particles, much like Io’s volcanic emissions at Jupiter, generate the auroras around the planet’s poles. Our Cassini mission studies Saturn’s magnetic field and auroras, as well as its moon Enceladus.

Uranus’ magnetosphere wasn’t discovered until 1986 when data from Voyager 2’s flyby revealed weak, variable radio emissions. Uranus’ magnetic field and rotation axis are out of alignment by 59 degrees, unlike Earth’s, whose magnetic field and rotation axis differ by only 11 degrees. On top of that, the magnetic field axis does not go through the center of the planet, so the strength of the magnetic field varies dramatically across the surface. This misalignment also means that Uranus’ magnetotail – the part of the magnetosphere that trails away from the sun – is twisted into a long corkscrew.

Neptune’s magnetosphere is also tilted from its rotation axis, but only by 47. Just like on Uranus, Neptune’s magnetic field strength varies across the planet. This also means that auroras can be seen away from the planet’s poles – not just at high latitudes, like on Earth, Jupiter and Saturn.

Does Every Planet Have a Magnetosphere?

Neither Venus nor Mars have global magnetic fields, although the interaction of the solar wind with their atmospheres does produce what scientists call an “induced magnetosphere.” Around these planets, the atmosphere deflects the solar wind particles, causing the solar wind’s magnetic field to wrap around the planet in a shape similar to Earth’s magnetosphere.

What About Beyond Our Solar System?

Outside of our solar system, auroras, which indicate the presence of a magnetosphere, have been spotted on brown dwarfs – objects that are bigger than planets but smaller than stars.

There’s also evidence to suggest that some giant exoplanets have magnetospheres. As scientists now believe that Earth’s protective magnetosphere was essential for the development of conditions friendly to life, finding magnetospheres around exoplanets is a big step in finding habitable worlds.  

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anonymous asked:

Hello! Could you please give some ideas of habits or hobbies so I can make my characters seem more 'real'? So far I have one that is obsessed with cleaning, one that apologizes too much and one that likes to 'play' with the zombies like they're normal people. I need more 7 of those because there are a lot of characters. Thanks in advance!

No problem. Here is a list a list of common habits and hobbies: 

Warning for the extremely long post! 


Habits: 

- Biting(Lips, nails, gums, etc) 

-Tapping nails/fingers on things

-Humming

-Whistling 

-Twisting/flipping/adjusting hair 

-Clicking their tongue

-Licking or smacking their lips

-Chewing Gum

- Rolling their eyes

-Getting easily distracted

-Talking too loud or too quiet

-Talking too fast or too slow 

-Scratching themselves

-Swearing 

-Always waking up/ going to bed at the same times 

- Over Drinking

-Over eating

-Under drinking/ Forgetting to stay hydrated

-Under eating/ forgetting to eat

-Over spending or refusing to spend money 

-Over using media/ technology 

-Cracking Knuckles, neck or back

-Talking to themselves

-Smoking

-Not holding eye contact/ Prolonged eye contact 

-Lying

-Procrastinating 

-Making/breaking promises

-Rambling

–Constantly repeating yourself 

-Forgetting who you told what

-Slouching or having good posture

-Can’t focus

-Easily getting into fights

-Being rude or overly polite 

-spitting 

-Exaggerating

-eavesdropping

-bragging 

-Being late, on time or early always

-Clearing their throat

-Fidgeting with themselves or other things

-Grinding your teeth.


That’s all I can think of at the moment for that but there are literally hundreds more. 


Hobbies: 

-Sports(Playing or watching: Soccer, football, baseball, dance, Ice-skating,golf, bowling,tennis,volleyball,water-polo, swimming, Gymnastics,etc)

-”Extreme sports” (BMX racing, Street Racing, boat/jetski racing, wake-boarding, water/snow skiing, snowboarding, bungee jumping, sky diving, etc)

-music(Listening, singing, playing an instrument, writing music or lyrics.) 

-Drawing

-Painting

-writing

-makeup (Watching/doing normal, glam or fx makeup) 

-Cinema(Watching, collecting, criticizing, creating, etc) 

-Reading

-Collecting things(Commonly: Toys, rocks/minerals, boxes, bottles, cars, weapons,stamps, coins, snow-globes, magnets,shot-glasses, etc)

-Video, card or board games(Watching, playing, making) 

-Exercising(Swimming, running, jogging, hiking, weight lifting, climbing, etc) 

-Gardening

-Crafting(Sewing, knitting, crocheting, metal work, making jewelry, wood working, weaving, etc) 

-taking care of animals

-cleaning up the environment 

-Costume Design/Fashion (Making or collecting)

-Theater(Acting, watching, or technical)

-Cars/motorcycles, bikes, other mechanical items(Fixing, collecting, etc) 

- Nail art

-Hair Styling

-Cooking or Baking

-Exploring Nature (Hiking, camping, picnicking, etc) 

-Martial Arts/Self defense classes

-Meditation 

-Yoga

-Fighting 



That’s all I can think of for that right now, but again, there are so many more out there, this is just a general, common list. 


I hope that helped, and if you need anything else, don’t be afraid to ask! 

Seven Worlds for TRAPPIST 1 : Seven worlds orbit the ultracool dwarf star TRAPPIST-1, a mere 40 light-years away. In May 2016 astronomers using the Transiting Planets and Planetesimals Small Telescope announced the discovery of three planets in the TRAPPIST-1 system. Just announced, additional confirmations and discoveries by the Spitzer Space Telescope and supporting ESO ground-based telescopes have increased the number of known planets to seven. The TRAPPIST-1 planets are likely all rocky and similar in size to Earth, the largest treasure trove of terrestrial planets ever detected around a single star. Because they orbit very close to their faint, tiny star they could also have regions where surface temperatures allow for the presence of liquid water, a key ingredient for life. Their tantalizing proximity to Earth makes them prime candidates for future telescopic explorations of the atmospheres of potentially habitable planets. All seven worlds appear in this artists illustration, an imagined view from a fictionally powerful telescope near planet Earth. Planet sizes and relative positions are drawn to scale for the Spitzer observations. The systems inner planets are transiting their dim, red, nearly Jupiter-sized parent star. via NASA

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Andromeda’s Golden Worlds - Series 1

This is something I’ve been wanting to do ever since the game was announced - space propaganda location posters for all of the habitable worlds. Now that I’ve finally finished the story, I can get started on them!

This is series 1 with Eos, Havarl, Voeld, and H-047C. Series 2 will cover Elaaden, Kadara, Habitat-7, and Aya (feel like it belongs in the lineup).

Prints available at my Society6 store if anyone wants!

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Seven planets, including three habitable ones, found around ultra-cool dwarf star

“Unlike the worlds in our Solar System, each one should be tidally locked to the parent star, meaning that the same side always sees “day” while the opposite side resides in eternal night. Yet life on Earth began in the oceans, and of these seven worlds, the fourth, fifth and sixth might all have conditions to support liquid oceans or lakes – if the atmosphere is favorable – bathed in eternal sunlight.”

What is it that makes our Solar System special? It’s Earth, of course. A rocky planet of the right mass and composition, the right distance from our Sun, the right atmosphere, the surface oceans, and all the life that’s ensued is what makes us special. Not just special, but unique, at least among the planets we’ve found so far. But there are other planetary systems out there with Earth-like worlds. Similar to Earth in mass, size, temperature and many other conditions, these might represent planets where life similar to what we find here arose. For the first time, we’ve found a planetary system with not just one Earth-like, potentially habitable world, but three!

Come meet the worlds around the ultra-cool star TRAPPIST-1, and learn what the prospects are for these worlds being truly Earth-like.

Solar System: Things to Know This Week

Has Cassini inspired you? Learn more about dwarf planet Ceres, get the latest images from the Keck Observatory and more!

1. Has Cassini Inspired You?

During nearly two decades in space, Cassini has been a source of inspiration to many. Has Cassini inspired you? Upload your artwork, photos, poems or songs to the social media platform of your choice, such as Instagram, YouTube, Facebook, Twitter or others. Tag it #CassiniInspires. Or, send it directly to: cassinimission@jpl.nasa.gov. We’ll highlight some of the creations on this page. See examples and details at: saturn.jpl.nasa.gov/mission/cassiniinspires/

2. Dawn’s Shines a Light on Ceres

Our Dawn mission has found evidence for organic material on Ceres, a dwarf planet and the largest body in the main asteroid belt between Mars and Jupiter. Learn more: solarsystem.nasa.gov/news/2017/02/17/dawn-discovers-evidence-for-organic-material-on-ceres

3. Into the Vortex

A new device called the vortex coronagraph was recently installed inside NIRC2 (Near Infrared Camera 2) at the W.M. Keck Observatory in Hawaii and has delivered its first images, showing a ring of planet-forming dust around a star, and separately, a cool, star-like body, called a brown dwarf, lying near its companion star.

4. Enceladus: Cassini Cracks the Code of the Icy Moon

A puzzling sensor reading transformed our Cassini Saturn mission and created a new target in the search for habitable worlds beyond Earth, when on Feb. 17, 2005, Cassini made the first-ever close pass over Saturn’s moon. Since our two Voyager spacecraft made their distant flybys of Enceladus about 20 years prior, scientists had anticipated the little moon would be an interesting place to visit. Enceladus is bright white – the most reflective object in the solar system, in fact – and it orbits in the middle of a faint ring of dust-sized ice particles known as Saturn’s E ring. Scientists speculated ice dust was being kicked off its surface somehow. But they presumed it would be, essentially, a dead, airless ball of ice.

What Cassini saw didn’t look like a frozen, airless body. Instead, it looked something like a comet that was actively emitting gas. The magnetometer detected that Saturn’s magnetic field, which envelops Enceladus, was perturbed above the moon’s south pole in a way that didn’t make sense for an inactive world. Could it be that the moon was actively replenishing gases it was breathing into space? Watch the video.

5. Descent Into a Frozen Underworld

Our planet’s southernmost active volcano reaches 12,448 feet (3,794 meters) above Ross Island in Antarctica. It’s a good stand-in for a frozen alien world, the kind we want to send robots to someday. Learn more: solarsystem.nasa.gov/news/2017/02/13/descent-into-a-frozen-underworld

Discover the full list of 10 things to know about our solar system this week HERE.

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july 18 2017. 

i made a habit tracker in my new bujo, but then i hated the format so i made a new one next to it and covered the old one with pictures! none of them are mine, i will post credits to the ones i have access to under a cut on this post 😇

also, i made a list of the level 110+ campaign quests i have on my druid on wow! and then i had to draw a lil moonkin of course. 🌙 💫 ✨

Keep reading

Guild Message of the Day: Welcome to <Pirates of Arcadia>!
Remember to keep chat friendly and NO EMOJI!!

once a wow nerd always a wow nerd

bonus: 

Humans are Space Goblins

OK. i’ve seen a lot of humans are space orcs posts, and I loved them. but i think there is something missing.

You see, statistically speaking, humans are more likely to be space goblins.

the theory goes that if we take the population of the universe as a whole, the majority of creatures will exist on the minority of populated worlds. In other words, 90% of sentients will populate 10% of the populated worlds (i’m making the percentages up because i’m too lazy to look it up again). Since it is more likely that we are part of that 90% than not, our planet would likely be one of the most heavily populated worlds in the galaxy. Similar calculations indicate that the average alien would probably be larger than us.

With higher populations comes more rapid technological advancement. Globalization has resulted in our tech progressing by leaps and bounds. In other words, we might be among the first in the galaxy to invent space travel, just because there are more of us to try to figure it out.

Also, we live on a planet. We don’t think much of that, but planets are not particularly likely to hold life. In order to hold life, a planet must have a roughly circular stable orbit that keeps it within the “Goldilocks” zone around the sun (not too hot or cold). Most planets miss that zone or are in it for brief periods of time, and so could not sustain complex life, if any. it’s far more likely for life to evolve on a moon orbiting a gas giant, such as europa, so long as such a moon has sufficient water and is close enough to the planet for it’s tidal forces to “melt” the water, producing an ocean under a shell of ice. As such, most habitable worlds would be icy on top and all life in them would be aquatic. Further, they would be used to a moon’s gravity.

This means that, using statistics, we can determine that humans are short, with technical sophistication, heat resistance, and the superior strength that comes from a higher degree of gravitational force, and we would have a higher average tech level than most in the galaxy, not because we are smarter but because there are more of us sciencing. As covered in other “humans are space orcs”, we also would have a higher endurance and durability, as that is how we evolved. Further, though we aren’t aquatic we can still swim pretty well, have evolved to adopt other species of lower intelligence as pets and servants, and have developed extensive martial arts knowledge to make up for our lack of natural weapons.

We are not space orcs. we are space goblins.

A prudent person foresees danger and takes precautions.
The simpleton goes blindly on and suffers the consequences. - Proverbs 27:12

By God’s enabling grace we can foresee danger and take precautions.

The questions is: are we willing to be trained prudent by God’s grace or we’re already good enough to want our way as a simpleton does?

LE CORBUSIER, Unité d’ Habitation, Marseille, France, 1947
(photography by Nacho Allegre)

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Andromeda’s Golden Worlds - Series 2

This is something I’ve been wanting to do ever since the game was announced - space propaganda location posters for all of the habitable worlds. This is series 2 with Elaaden, Kadara, Habitat-7, and Aya. I know, I know; not a Golden World. But! I do what I want. 

Messed around with some shelesh in there, hopefully didn’t screw up the wording; also had to make up a location for Habitat-7 since nothing’s listed in-canon. Tried to keep it poignant.

I loved working on these so fricking much. Prints are available, for both Series 1 and 2.

See Series 1

Another yay this Friday! *happy dance*

But have nothing to do with worldly fables fit only for old women. On the other hand, discipline yourself for the purpose of godliness; for bodily discipline is only of little profit, but godliness is profitable for all things, since it holds promise for the present life and also for the life to come. It is a trustworthy statement deserving full acceptance. For it is for this we labor and strive, because we have fixed our hope on the living God, who is the Savior of all men, especially of believers. (1 Timothy 4:7-10 NASB)

Stay motivated and carry on with the blessing of the discipline you have :) Have a God-glorifying, fruitful weekend, loved ones!