What Are The Most Energetic Particles In The Universe?

“The fastest protons — the ones just at the GZK cutoff — move at 299,792,457.999999999999918 meters-per-second, or if you raced a photon and one of these protons to the Andromeda galaxy and back, the photon would arrive a measly six seconds sooner than the proton would… after a journey of more than five million years! But these ultra-high-energy cosmic rays don’t come from Andromeda (we believe); they come from active galaxies with supermassive black holes like NGC 1275, which tend to be hundreds of millions or even billions of light years away.”

When it comes to the Universe, you might think that energy really is only limited by rarity: get enough particles accelerated by enough supermassive, super-energetic sources, and it’s only a matter of time (and flux) before you get one that reaches any arbitrary energy threshold. After all, we’ve got no shortage of, say, supermassive black holes at the hearts of active galaxies. And yes, we do find cosmic rays hundreds, thousands or even millions of times the energy that the LHC can achieve. But when we think about the Universe in detail, these cosmic rays aren’t unlimited in their energy, but are rather stopped in their tracks by the most unlikely of sources: the ultra-low-energy cosmic microwave background, left over some 13.8 billion years after the Big Bang.

Come get the full story on the most energetic particles in the Universe, and learn why we have those limits at all!

It has come to my attention that it is very likely that our universe (and others beyond that, for that matter), are all simply a part of a computer simulation. Not only does this just make sense to me in its entirety, as I used to think this prior to finding the study, but physicists have also been able to somewhat prove it. Any civilization intelligent enough to create a simulation like the one that we’re likely living in, would. There would likely be many more simulations other than ours, simulations within simulations, within simulations. It is more likely than not that our world is artificial. The reason we believe this theory? Physicists created a computer stimulation of the universe. It looks sort of like us. Current simulations of the universe are small and weak, but not necessarily insignificant. They naturally put limits on physical laws. The issue that we have come across, though, is that “with all simulations is that the laws of physics, which appear continuous, have to be superimposed onto a discrete three dimensional lattice which advances in steps of time.” This means that just by being a simulation, there would be limits on things. For example, limits on the energy that particles can have within the program. These limits would be experienced by those living within the simulation - us. And guess what? Something that looks just like these limits do indeed exist. The GZK cut off is a boundary of the energy that cosmic ray particles can have. This is caused by interactions with cosmic background radiation. The pattern of this rule mirrors what you would expect from a computer simulation. I have conceived a few reasons as to why this is likely true:

  1. In order for humans to even exist, everything has to be perfect. The distance from the sun has to be perfect, the composition of the atmosphere has to be just right, gravity has to be strong enough to keep us from floating off, but weak enough as well, so we have the ability to move. Why is it so perfect? Because it was created that way. It was deliberately planned to sustain life. 
  2. Almost every problem relating to the universe and physics (and even beyond that) can be solved with math. Do you understand? Computers are coded with a series of 1’s and 0’s, in a system called binary code. Perhaps our entire world is created through binary code inside of a computer. Physicists are now examining the math that makes up our universe.
  3. God could be real. Not necessarily as a “bearded man up in the sky somewhere with a great sense of omniscience”, but as an entire race of something. A more intelligent something. Humans see themselves as the most intelligent species, which I suppose is true, but in truthfully we are just another animal in a series of “levels”, if you will, of animals. 
  4. Finally, as you may or may not know, Albert Einstein’s theory of gravity clashes with quantum physics. Guess what? The theory of a simulated environment solves the conflict. Our universe is just one big projection. The string theory was composed in the late 1990’s; basically, it’s a theory that everything in the universe, atoms and energy, are composed of little tiny vibrating “strings”. Each string makes up one fundamental particle. This theory is very mathematically intricate, but it creates a universe that is merely a hologram.

Think about it, if the beings that could possibly be conducting a simulation located within our universe are running other simulations as well, this would create (and therefore prove) parallel universes. 

We are merely Sims within a game of Sims.