gun carriage

Ch126: wrong carriage, wrong gun

An anon pointed out that the carriage that arrives at the manor looks more like Undertaker’s carriage than the earl’s….

To add to this, here is the earl’s carriage in ch126:

The carriage that arrives at the manor in ch126 (that even looks like Undertaker’s hat on the driver)… and the gun aimed at Soma:

Here’s Undertaker’s carriage in ch82 and the earl’s gun at the Midnight Tea Party

These are obviously different guns…. The one aimed at Soma is labeled as a “BULLPUP” model, but it’s actually a Nagant-style revolver, like the M1895. It was designed in 1886 but not put into production until 1895, hence the name. These were used by the Russian Empire from 1895 throughout the 1950′s….

Whereas the earl’s gun of choice is an early semi-automatic pocket pistol, like this Colt (an American company. Recall that Bardroy special-orders firearms from America….):

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Atomic Annie — The M65 Atomic Cannon,

Designed in 1949 by the American Engineer Robert Schwarz, the M65 “Atomic Annie” was inspired by German railway guns used during World War II.  The M65 however, was designed to deliver a nuclear payload to its target.  The gun and carriage itself weighed around 85 tons, was manned by a crew of 5-7, and was transported by two specially designed towing tractors.  At 280mm in caliber and capable of firing a projectile over 20 miles, the gun was certainly powerful enough as a conventional weapon, but the Atomic Annie was certainly no conventional weapon.  In 1953 it was tested for the first time at the Nevada Test Site, where it fired a 15 kiloton nuclear warhead, creating a blast similar in size to the bombs dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki.  

After the successful test, 20 M65 cannons were produced for the US Army and deployed in Europe and Korea.  They were almost always in constant motion so the Soviets never knew where they were and could not target them.  While an interesting weapon, the Atomic Annie suffered from limited range, especially after the development of ballistic missiles which could strike a target from thousands of miles away.  The last M65 Atomic Cannon was retired in 1963.  Today only 8 survive, and are displayed in museums across the country.

The sky lay over the city like a map showing the strata of things and the big full moon toppled over in a furrow like the abandoned wheel of a gun carriage on a sunset field of battle and the shadows walked like cats and I looked into the white and ghostly interior of things and thought of you and I looked on their structural outsides and thought of you and was lonesome.
—  Zelda Fitzgerald
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The T28 Super Heavy Tank was an American heavily armored tank self-propelled gun designed for the United States Army during World War II. It was originally designed to be used to break through German defenses of the Siegfried Line, and was later considered as a possible participant in the planned invasion of the Japanese mainland. The 100-ton vehicle was initially designated a heavy tank, it was re-designated as the 105 mm Gun Motor Carriage T95 in 1945, and then renamed in 1946 as the Super Heavy Tank T28. Only 2 were built, and neither of them saw action.

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15 cm SK L/45 “Nathan” Railroad Gun

Desperate for long-range artillery in the early part of World War I, Germany resorted to mounting naval guns on wheeled carriages as well as rail cars. The wheeled carriages were less than successful due to their great weight, but the rail-mounted guns rather more so. All of the naval guns received nicknames and were crewed by sailors. They first saw service in 1918.

The 15 cm SK L/45 fired a 97 lb shell with 11 lbs of HE a distance of 22,675 m or 14 miles.

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“On the day of the funeral of Diana, Princess of Wales—a sunny Saturday in September 1997—there was one small item that broke a million hearts in a city, and a nation, already awash in grief. A bouquet of white freesias sat atop her coffin as it rode on a gun carriage to Westminster Abbey. Nestled in the flowers was an envelope with a single word“MUMMY”— printed in a child’s hand. Walking behind were its authors, princes William, 15, and Harry, 12, accompanied by their father, Prince Charles, their grandfather, Prince Philip, and their embittered uncle, Charles Spencer, Diana’s brother. At the time, those of us covering the funeral, and millions more watching on London’s streets and on televisions around the world, wondered what these wounded young lads could possibly have said to make sense of the tragedy that befell their mother, and the circus of grief it spawned.”

— Rest in Peace, Princess Diana.  (July 1, 1961 - August 31, 1997) ♡

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TODAY IN HISTORY, death of Eugénie, Empress of the French ♔ July, 11th 1920.

On 10 July she suddenly felt exhausted and in pain, and had to be put to bed without undressing. It quickly became apparent that she was failing. Having received the last sacraments, she died very peacefully at 8.30 the following morning – in a room that had once been her sister Paca’s bedroom, and in Paca’s old bed. Her last words were, ‘I am tired – it is time that I went on my way.’ The coffin was taken to the station in the king of Spain’s state coach, with an escort of halberdiers and footmen carrying tapers. Accompanied by the Duke of Alba and another great nephew, the Duke of Peñaranda, the body of the last empress of the French travelled back by train and ferry to her English home. If unacclaimed by her former subjects, it was received with fitting pomp at Farnborough, drawn from the station on a gun-carriage escorted by cavalry to the abbey church. 
The congregation at the funeral on 20 July included George V and Queen Mary, deeply affected, Alfonso XIII and Queen Ena of Spain, and Manuel II of Portugal and the Portuguese queen mother, together with Prince Victor Napoleon, the Bonapartist pretender, and his wife. The Third Republic had protested on learning that the empress would be given a twenty-one gun salute, and, while it did not fire the salute, a battery of Royal Horse Artillery remained drawn up outside the abbey throughout the service. Although the band played the ‘Marseillaise’ instead of ‘Partant pour la Syrie’ (no one remembered how to play it), many people in the packed church bore famous Second Empire names, as the children or grandchildren of her courtiers. Cardinal Bourne, archbishop of Westminster, celebrated the Mass for the Dead. Finally, wearing a nun’s habit, she was laid to rest. 

In parallel with the developments in space flight, the years after the abortive Martian invasion also saw an exploration of the weapons and tactics needed to defeat a second invasion should it come.

The Antaeus class was the product of a joint Anglo-American project to create seaborne artillery capable of operating at extreme ranges. Thinking at the time was dominated by the need to defeat tripods and their line-of-sight energy weapons. A heavy gun, properly sited, would enable targets to be engaged over the horizon. To this end the bomb ship was reborn.

Based upon extant hulls of the Zebra class destroyer, the new ships mated hypervelocity guns to an innovative carriage and set of defensive systems. Rather than directly mounting to a reinforced hull, the main battery reduced the shock load upon the keel by being mounted to a damped platform that was in turn mounted to the hull. Certain features of the arrangement spread the force of recoil along a longer period of time, reducing the stress upon both ship and gun.

The blisters on the side contain tanks which may be flooded in combat. This both reduces the freeboard and subsequent silhouette of the vessel, and serves as protection against energy weapons for the magazine and machinery spaces.

With the improvements in metallurgy and propulsion that came in time, experiments were undertaken to use rocket boosted sub-caliber shells to try and hit targets in low orbit. While accuracy did not permit targeting of a maneuvering ship, it did provide a deterrent that prevented sky fortresses from ever being the menace above Earth that they were above Mars.

While never as glamorous as the space vessels they guarded against, the surface navies of the world saw their roles and shapes changed as well. Most sky monitors survived the subsequent conflict, bypassed and bottled up battles above.

(Another illustration for Spacecraft of the First World War! More to come.)

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The M42 Duster Appreciation Post

During the course of the Korean War, the U.S. Army decided to phase out all vehicles based on the M24 Chaffee chassis, such as the M19 Gun Motor Carriage 40 mm Anti-Aircraft, in favor of designs that utilized the chassis of the M41. Since the 40 mm guns were still seen as an effective anti-aircraft weapon, the turret of the M19 was simply mounted to the M41 chassis with few changes except a partial redesign to accommodate the larger turret ring of the M41 and designated as the M42.

Production of the M42 began in early 1952 at GM’s Cleveland Tank Plant. It entered service in 1953 and replaced a variety of different anti-aircraft systems in armored divisions. In 1956, the M42 received a new engine and other upgrades along with other M41 based vehicles, becoming the M42A1. Production was halted in Dec. 1959 with 3,700 examples made during its production run.

Sometime in the late 50s, the U.S. Army reached the conclusion that anti-aircraft guns were no longer viable in the jet age and began fielding a self-propelled version of the HAWK SAM instead. Accordingly, the M42 was retired from front line service and passed to the National Guard with the last M42s leaving the regular Army by 1963, except for the 4th Bn, 517th Air Defense Artillery Regiment in the Panama Canal Zone, which operated two batteries of M42s into the 1970s.

The HAWK missile system performed poorly in low altitude defense. To ensure some low altitude anti-aircraft capability for the ever increasing amount of forces fielded in Vietnam, the Army began recalling M42A1s back into active service and organizing them into air defense artillery (ADA) battalions. Starting in the fall of 1966, the U.S. Army deployed three battalions of Dusters to the Republic of Vietnam, each battalion consisting of a headquarters battery and four Duster batteries, and each augmented by one attached Quad-50 battery and an artillery searchlight battery.

Despite a few early air kills, the air threat posed by North Vietnam never materialized and ADA crews found themselves increasingly involved in ground support missions. Most often the M42 was on point security, convoy escort or perimeter defense. The “Duster” (as it was called by U.S. troops in Vietnam) was soon found to excel in ground support. The 40 mm guns proved to be effective against massed infantry attacks.

Most of the Duster crew members had their AIT training in the 1st. Advanced Individual Training Brigade (Air Defense) at Fort Bliss, Texas. Some of the Duster NCOs had received training at the Non Commissioned Offices Candidate School which was also held at Fort Bliss, Texas.

The 1st Battalion, 44th Artillery was the first ADA battalion to arrive in Vietnam on November 1966. A self-propelled M42A1 Duster unit the 1st of the 44th supported the Marines at places like Con Thien and Khe Sanh Combat Base as well as Army divisions in South Vietnam’s rugged I Corps region. The battalion was assigned to First Field Force Vietnam (IFFV) and was located at Đông Hà. In 1968 it was attached to the 108th Artillery Group (Field Artillery). Attached to the 1/44th was G Battery 65th Air Defense Artillery equipped with Quad-50s and G Battery 29th Artillery Searchlights. The 1/44th served alongside the 3rd Marine Division along the Vietnamese Demilitarized Zone (DMZ) in I Corps thru December 1971.

The second Duster battalion to arrive in Vietnam was the 5th Battalion, 2nd Air Defense Artillery. Activated in June 1966 it arrived in Vietnam in November 1966 and was diverted to III Corps, Second Field Force (IIFFV) and set up around Bien Hoa Air Base. Attached units were D Batter y71st Air Defense Artillery equipped with Quad-50s and I Battery 29th Artillery Searchlights. The “Second First” served the southern Saigon region through mid 1971. D-71st Quads remained active through March 1972.

The third Duster battalion to arrive was the 4th Battalion, 60th Air Defense Artillery. Activated in June 1966 it arrived in Vietnam in June 1967 and set up operations in the Central Highlands, based out of An Khê (1967-70) and later Tuy Hoa (1970-71). Attached units were E Battery 41st Artillery equipped with Quad-50s and B Battery 29th Artillery Searchlights (which were already in country since October 1965). Members of these units not only covered the entire Central Highlands, but assets also supported firebases and operations along the DMZ to the north and Saigon to the south.

Each Duster Battalion had four line batteries (A,B,C,D) and a headquarters battery. Each battery had two platoons (1st, 2nd) which contained four sections each containing a pair of M42A1 Dusters. At full deployment there were roughly 200 M42 Dusters under command throughout the entire war. The Duster and Quads largely operated in pairs at firebases, strong points and in support of engineers building roads and transportation groups protecting convoys. At night they protected the firebases from attack and were often the first targets of enemy sappers, rockets and mortars. Searchlight jeeps operated singularly but often in support of a Duster or Quad section at a firebase.

Between the three Duster battalions and the attached Quad-50 and Searchlight batteries over 200 fatalities were recorded.

The three M42A1 equipped ADA units (1/44th, 4/60th & 5/2d) deactivated and left Vietnam in late December 1971. Most if not all of the in-country Dusters were turned over to ARVN forces. Most of the training Dusters at Ft.Bliss were returned to various National Guard units. The U.S. Army maintained multiple National Guard M42 battalions as a corps level ADA asset. 2nd Battalion/263 ADA headquartered in Anderson SC was the last unit to operate the M42 when the system was retired in 1988.

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Mountbatten usually holidayed at his summer home, Classiebawn Castle, in Mullaghmore, a small seaside village in County Sligo, Ireland. The village was only 12 miles (19 km) from the border with Northern Ireland and near an area known to be used as a cross-border refuge by IRA members

Mountbatten went lobster-potting and tuna fishing in his 30-foot (9.1 m) wooden boat, the Shadow V, which had been moored in the harbour at Mullaghmore. IRA member Thomas McMahon had slipped onto the unguarded boat that night and attached a radio-controlled bomb weighing 50 pounds (23 kg). When Mountbatten was aboard, just a few hundred yards from the shore, the bomb was detonated. The boat was destroyed by the force of the blast, and Mountbatten’s legs were almost blown off. Mountbatten, then aged 79, was pulled alive from the water by nearby fishermen, but died from his injuries before being brought to the shore. Also aboard the boat were his eldest daughter Patricia (Lady Brabourne), her husband John (Lord Brabourne), their twin sons Nicholas and Timothy Knatchbull, John’s mother Doreen (Baroness Brabourne), and Paul Maxwell, a young crew member from County Fermanagh. Nicholas (aged 14) and Paul (aged 15) were killed by the blast and the others were seriously injured. Baroness Brabourne (aged 83) died from her injuries the following day

On 5 September 1979 Lord Mountbatten received a ceremonial funeral at Westminster Abbey, which was attended by the Queen, the Royal Family and members of the European royal houses. Watched by thousands of people, the funeral procession, which started at Wellington Barracks, included representatives of all three British Armed Services, and military contingents from Burma, India, the United States, France and Canada. His coffin was drawn on a gun carriage by 118 Royal Navy ratings. During the televised service, the Prince of Wales read the lesson from Psalm 107. In an address, the Archbishop of Canterbury, Donald Coggan, highlighted his various achievements and his “lifelong devotion to the Royal Navy”.

3

The Paris Gun of World War I,

On the morning of March 21st, 1918 a explosion was heard across Paris.  There was neither the report of a gun nor the sight of enemy aircraft.  Over the course of the day another 20 shells exploded around Paris, with no clues left as to what had fired or dropped the explosive weapons.  At first, it was thought that the explosions were from bombs dropped from an advanced high altitude zeppelin.  However, Allied air reconnaissance plains quickly discovered what was assaulting the City of Paris.

81 miles east of Paris, a monstrous rail gun was sighted firing west.  Nicknamed the “Paris Gun”, the rail gun was a creation of the Krupp factory, famous for making big artillery pieces for the German Empire since the 1860’s.  The Paris gun originally started its existence as a worn out 15 inch naval gun mounted on a battleship, which was refurbished with inserts that reduced the caliber to 8 inches (later rebored to 10 inches).  Germany had much bigger guns in it’s arsenal, however the purpose of the Paris gun was not to have overwhelming power, but extraordinary range.  To enhance the guns range, the barrel was lengthened from 16 meters to over 34 meters.  In fact the barrel was so long that the Paris gun had to be rigged with a crane for support, lest the barrel kink under its own weight.

The performance of the Paris gun was impressive, bombarding Paris 81 miles away with 234 lb explosive shells. Its range was so great that gunners had to compensate for the Earth’s rotation (Coriolis effect) in order to fire it accurately. The maximum height of a shell’s ballistic arc reached 25 miles, thus the Paris gun holds the record for launching the first man made object into the stratosphere. Because of its lengthy barrel, the Paris gun achieved a muzzle velocity of 1,640 meters per second, or 5,400 feet per second.  Muzzle velocity was so great that the fired shells would wear away the inside of the barrel.  Gunners noticed that the Paris gun slowly increased in caliber as they were firing it.  The Germans were even able to calculate the rate at which the barrel was being worn, and to compensate, Krupp issued the gun with progressively larger caliber shells to be fired in a specific order. Krupp also supplied 7 replacement barrels as well. Altogether than gun and railway carriage weight around 256 tons.

Since it was originally a naval gun, the Paris gun was manned 80 German Imperial Navy sailors who were experienced in operating similar naval guns.  Between March 21st and August of 1918, the Paris gun fired 367 shells at a rate of roughly 20 a day.  As a result of the shelling 250 Parisians were killed and another 620 wounded.  The worst of the shelling occurred on March 31st when a shell hit the St-Gervais-et-St-Protais Church, collapsing the roof and killing 91.  While the Paris gun had a long range, it was not very accurate, firing shells at random places all over Paris.  Thus, the Paris gun was employed as a terror weapon.  In terms of its effectiveness, the Paris gun was found wanting. Excessive amounts of resources and time were needed for the gun’s maintenance. In addition, the Paris gun’s 234 lb shell was not that powerful, there were many guns in German and Allied arsenal’s which were much more destructive.  Of the 234 lb projectile, only 15 lbs of explosives could be fitted into the shell.  Thus the explosive power of the shell was minuscule compared to its weight.  While the Paris gun was a wonder to behold, or a terror weapon to be scorned, it did little to turn the tide of the war.  In August the Paris gun was withdrawn as Allied forces advanced towards Germany.  After the war the gun disappeared, although it is thought to have been destroyed for scrap metal.  

Spanish Armada cannon recovered from sea off Sligo

The first of six bronze cannon from the Spanish Armada fleet has been raised from the sea off County Sligo.

The artefacts are from La Juliana - one of three galleons shipwrecked off the Irish coast at Streedagh in 1588.

Severe winter storms over the past two years uncovered the treasure from the seabed.

Six bronze cannon, a gun carriage wheel, cannon balls and a ship’s cauldron have been recovered.

Senior archaeologist Finbar Moore told BBC NI’s Good Morning Ulster that the cannon were “in beautiful condition”.

“The Juliana was a Catalan ship, built near Barcelona. It features a lot of the Catalonian traditions of ship building,” he said. Read more.

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The T28 Super Heavy Tank was an American heavily armored tank self-propelled gun designed for the United States Army during World War II. It was originally designed to be used to break through German defenses of the Siegfried Line, and was later considered as a possible participant in the planned invasion of the Japanese mainland. The 100-ton vehicle was initially designated a heavy tank, it was re-designated as the 105 mm Gun Motor Carriage T95 in 1945, and then renamed in 1946 as the Super Heavy Tank T28.

3

Superb 1/3 scale, .22 cal., working model of the 1874 Carriage Gatling Gun manufactured by Furr Arms Company. Chambered for the .22 short rim fire cartridge and fully functioning, this particular specimen is in absolutely brilliant mint condition throughout. Solid brass and steel construction with walnut carriage and spoked wheels. Absolutely one of the most visually stunning display pieces you can possibly imagine.