gulf of tonkin resolution

Mr. Townson's Top Thirty

Mr. Townson, the wonderful APUSH god who has a history of 100% pass rates, has given the gospel of APUSH to his people. Here are Townson’s top 30 things that will certainly be on the test (some of these are more than one thing, but they’re related topics), followed by his top picks for what the essays will be.

  1. Spanish, French, English Exploration and Settlement
  2. Bacon’s Rebellion
  3. Half-Way Covenant & First Great Awakening
  4. Proclamation of 1763
  5. Articles of Confederation & Shay’s Rebellion
  6. Compromises in the Constitution
  7. Washington’s Farewell Address
  8. Alexander Hamilton’s Financial Plan
  9. Marbury vs. Madison
  10. Missouri Compromise
  11. Nullification Crisis
  12. William Lloyd Garrison
  13. Manifest Destiny
  14. Compromise of 1850
  15. Kansas-Nebraska Act
  16. Radical Reconstruction
  17. The Gilded Age
  18. Populism
  19. Imperialism
  20. Progressivism
  21. The Lost Generation
  22. The New Deal & Court Packing
  23. The Cold War
  24. McCarthyism
  25. Conformity in the 1950s and Levittown, NJ
  26. Civil Rights Leaders
  27. Gulf of Tonkin Resolution
  28. Nixon Doctrine/Vietnamization
  29. Camp David Accords
  30. Reganomics

Townson’s Top Essay Picks

  • Early America (pre-American Revolution)
  • Progressivism
  • Imperialism
  • Jacksonian Democracy
  • Reconstruction

Exam tip: every year there is a question about African Americans or women.

There is 1 DBQ. Everyone does the same one of that. 

There are 4 choices for the FRQs. You write 2. You must write an essay from the first category, which is pre-1900, and you must write an essay from the second category, which will be from the 1900s or later.

It is YOUR job to research and know these topics, their related facts, and their implications. I’m not going to do that for you. It won’t help you in the long run. Study well, study strong. I’m probably going to keep posting a bunch of review questions on here. Look them over, but in general, STAY OFF OF TUMBLR! You should be studying.

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August 2nd 1964: Gulf of Tonkin incident

On this day in 1964, North Vietnamese gunboats allegedly fired on American destroyers in the Gulf of Tonkin. The incident was used by the administration of President Lyndon B. Johnson to demonstrate the aggression of the North Vietnamese communists, and to justify an escalated US military presence in the country. In the wake of the incident, Congress passed the Gulf of Tonkin Joint Resolution which authorised the President to intervene in Vietnam to counter “communist aggression”. Thus, Johnson was authorised - in what was essentially a blank cheque from Congress - to send troops into Vietnam to fight the communist North and aid the South; there was no formal declaration of war by Congress. It was later confirmed that the USS Maddox in fact fired first on the North Vietnamese, and that the incident was twisted for the purposes of the Johnson administration.

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The Fiftieth Anniversary of the Gulf of Tonkin Incident:

Fifty years ago on August 2, 1964, three North Vietnamese patrol boats attacked the USS Maddox in the Gulf of Tonkin. The Maddox and aircraft from the USS Ticonderoga damaged all three hostile boats, almost sinking one. Following reports of a second alleged incident two days later, Congress passed the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution, which gave President Lyndon B. Johnson advance approval to respond to military aggression in Southeast Asia without congressional consultation, and leading to an escalation of U.S. involvement in the Vietnam War.

Read more at Prologue: Pieces of History » On exhibit: Gulf of Tonkin Resolution

The original Gulf of Tonkin Resolution is on display in the East Rotunda Gallery of the National Archives Building from July 15 to August 7, 2014.

The Fiftieth Anniversary of the Gulf of Tonkin Resolultion:

Joint Resolution for the Maintenance of International Peace and Security in Southeast Asia, (Public Law 88-408, House Joint Resolution 1145), also known as the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution, August 10, 1964

National Archives, General Records of the U.S. Government

In a late-night televised address on August 4, 1964, President Johnson announced that he had ordered retaliatory air strikes on the North Vietnamese in response to reports of their attacks earlier on U.S. Navy ships in the Gulf of Tonkin.

He then asked Congress to pass a resolution stressing that “our Government is united in its determination to take all necessary measures in support of freedom and in defense of peace in southeast Asia.”

The resolution stated that “Congress approves and supports the determination of the President, as Commander in Chief, to take all necessary measures to repeal any armed attack against the forces of the United States and to prevent further aggression” in Southeast Asia, thereby providing a legal foundation for President Johnson’s escalation of the war.

The Gulf of Tonkin Resolution passed Congress quickly on August 7, with only two dissenting votes in the Senate. President Johnson signed the resolution on August 10, 1964.

Read more at Prologue: Pieces of History » On exhibit: Gulf of Tonkin Resolution

(The original Gulf of Tonkin Resolution was on display at the National Archives Building from July 15 to August 7, 2014. )

Cable to Joint Chiefs of Staff Reporting First Gulf of Tonkin Attack, 08/02/1964

The Fiftieth Anniversary of the Gulf of Tonkin Incident:

Fifty years ago the USS Maddox was attacked by 3 North Vietnamese patrol boats on August 2, 1964.  The incident would ultimately lead to the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution, which gave President Lyndon B. Johnson advance approval to respond to military aggression in Southeast Asia without congressional consultation, and leading to an escalation of U.S. involvement in the Vietnam War.

Read more at Prologue: Pieces of History » On exhibit: Gulf of Tonkin Resolution

The original Gulf of Tonkin Resolution is on display in the East Rotunda Gallery of the National Archives Building from July 15 to August 7, 2014.

The Fiftieth Anniversary of the Gulf of Tonkin Incident:

Telegram to the United States Embassy in Saigon, 08/03/1964

This message instructed the American Embassy in Saigon to hand a note of protest to the International Control Commission (ICC) concerning the North Vietnamese attack on the USS Maddox in the Gulf of Tonkin. The ICC was requested to pass the protest to the Hanoi regime.

Fifty years ago the USS Maddox was attacked by 3 North Vietnamese patrol boats on August 2, 1964.  The incident would ultimately lead to the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution, which gave President Lyndon B. Johnson advance approval to respond to military aggression in Southeast Asia without congressional consultation, and leading to an escalation of U.S. involvement in the Vietnam War.

Read more at Prologue: Pieces of History » On exhibit: Gulf of Tonkin Resolution

The original Gulf of Tonkin Resolution is on display in the East Rotunda Gallery of the National Archives Building from July 15 to August 7, 2014.

The Fiftieth Anniversary of the Gulf of Tonkin Incident:

Tonkin Gulf Resolution, Senate roll call tally sheet, 08/07/1964

Shown here is the Senate roll call tally sheet for the “Tonkin Gulf Resolution” on August 7, 1964, which gave President Lyndon Johnson authority to increase U.S. involvement in the war between North and South Vietnam. On August 4, 1964, President Lyndon Johnson announced that two days earlier, U.S. ships in the Gulf of Tonkin had been attacked by the North Vietnamese. Johnson dispatched U.S. planes against the attackers and asked Congress to pass a resolution to support his actions. The joint resolution “to promote the maintenance of international peace and security in southeast Asia” passed on August 7, with only two Senators dissenting, and became the subject of great political controversy in the course of the undeclared war that followed.

Read more at Prologue: Pieces of History » On exhibit: Gulf of Tonkin Resolution

The original Gulf of Tonkin Resolution is on display in the East Rotunda Gallery of the National Archives Building from July 15 to August 7, 2014.