Writing is prestigious, and our spoken pronunciations are sometimes felt to be imperfect realizations of what is written. […]

In contrast, most linguists feel that spoken language is primary, and that written language is a derived system, which is mostly parasitic off the spoken language and is often rather artificial in character.

Some reasons that support this view are that spoken language is far older than writing, it is acquired first and with greater ease by children, and it is the common property of our species, rather than of just an educated subset of it.


Bruce Hayes, Introductory Phonology

Note that signed languages, like spoken languages, are also considered primary for the same reasons.

What if the Avengers didn't know July 4th was Steve's birthday
  • Bruce:Since its July 4th, do we have to wish America happy birthday?
  • Natasha:Ya hear that Cap? I guess it's your birthday.
  • Steve:Yep! But you guys don't have to do anything, I'm not a fan of surprise parties.
  • Clint:Wait what...?
  • JARVIS:It's actually his birthday, sir.
  • Tony:Dammit JARVIS, you couldn't have told me yesterday?

Watching Porn with DeeFizzy

anonymous asked:

Imagine Steve was born with a perfectly photographic memory. It's part of why he loved to draw.

“I didn’t know you draw.”

Steve looked up to see Bruce hovering over his shoulder. Normally he hated people looking at his sketches, they were something private and intimate. With Bruce however, Steve didn’t mind nearly as much as he might have with someone else.

“Yeah. I went to art school actually, before all…this.” He gestured towards himself and shared a wry smile with Bruce.

“Do you mind if I -?”

“Oh, sure.” Steve passed over the sketchbook with some trepidation, but he needn’t have worried. Bruce held it carefully, looking at the drawing with nothing but admiration.

“Steve, this is incredible. The detail on this…you only saw this place once didn’t you? Did you use any sort of reference picture?”

Steve shook his head in embarrassment, and spoke up when he saw Bruce raise his eyebrows.

“I uh, I have photographic memory. It helps. With art. With…other things, not so much.”

Comprehension dawned across Bruce’s face, and a wave of sympathy played across his expression. Gently, he handed the sketchbook back to Steve.

“Well your art is certainly something to be proud of.”