greek major

Thoughts on Patroclus

Friendly reminder that Patroclus should not be remember simply as “Achilles’ bitch”.

Friendly reminder that Patroclus was a little shit. He had the power, the looks and the skills, and he knew it. Not only he excelled at battle; he did it while taunting his enemies all the fucking time cause he was going to win and he knew it.

Friendly reminder that he was the one guy who got to call out on Achilles, something no one else dared to do. In fact, men went to ask him to call out on Achilles because everyone was scared of him. Except for Patroclus.

Friendly reminder that Patroclus had advanced medical knowledge, something extremly rare at the time. He healed many of his friends and comrades during battle. Hadn’t it been for him, many great warriors would have died.

Friendly reminder that Patroclus was loyal to a fault. He was always by Achilles’ side in battle. He never disobeyed Achilles orders. The one time he did, was the time he died.

Friendly reminder that Patroclus was kind and had a soft heart. He cried because while Achilles’ Rage lasted, he wouldn’t let any of his men enter battle, Patroclus included. And while Achilles’ troops were hiding in their ships, the rest of the Greek army got crushed. Patroclus felt so powerless and helpless because he couldn’t do nothing as he saw his comrades dying.

Friendly reminder that Patroclus had a character crisis. He had to decide whether obeying his Lord’s commands and abandoning his friends in battle, or going against his Lord’s wishes and engaging fight.

Friendly reminder that he refused to stay behind like a coward. He chose to enter battle, but since he was a honourable man he told Achilles about it. Friendly reminder that he managed to sway Achilles’ Rage. Friendly reminder that he managed to convince Achilles to let their troops rejoin the war, thus returning the victory to the Greeks.

Friendly reminder that Patroclus was flawed. He committed hubris. He got so battle drunk and was so excited by the prospect of finally ending the war, that he disobeyed Achilles’ direct command not to fight near the walls of Troy, and chased the Troyans back to the limits of the city. To the place Achilles had specifically told him not to go because it would be too dangerous. Friendly reminder that this one flaw is his downfall.

Friendly reminder that Patroclus doesn’t go down without giving one hell of a fight. Friendly reminder that Patroclus was so strong that Apollo (the God that protected Troy and Hector [Troy’s heir to the throne]) had to face him and repel him four times. Four times. A god. If that ain’t badass, then I don’t know what could be. In the fourth time, Apollo got inside Patroclus’ head and made him dizzy. Patroclus fell and Apollo removed him from his armour- Achilles’ armour. Patroclus ended up unprotected, vulnerable and dizzy in the middle of the battle field; so a random dude saw the opportunity and stabbed his back with a spear. But was that enough to make him go down? Oh heck no. The pain snapped him out of the dizziness. Patroclus realized he was in a very troublesome situation so he decided to fall back… but at that moment Hector engaged him in battle. And Patroclus wouldn’t retire from a direct combat, oh heck he wouldn’t. Even though he knew this was probably the way he would die, he fought with his all.

Friendly reminder that lacking his armor, tired from battle, with a spear wound on his back and only Achilles’ sword left as weapon, Patroclus faced Hector, Troy’s greatest warrior and didn’t fear.

Friendly reminder that when Hector sheathed his spear in Patroclos’ stomach, Patroclus thought about the love of his life.

Friendly reminder that with his last breath Patroclus smiled at Hector and told him “You are a dead man. This will be your downfall”. Friendly reminder that until his last moment, he was a little shit.

Friendly reminder that Patroclus is a flawed, well-rounded, badass character and that he deserves so much more than his current position as “Achilles’s love interest”.

I’m really not okay with the fact that the ship name for Achilles + Patroclus is Patrochilles. I mean, I get it, it sounds really good in English and all, but it messes the Greek roots up so much. Like, it means “father” + “people” with a superfluous chi in the middle. I wish Achicleos didn’t sound so silly in English, because it means “grievous glory,” and that’s just so sad and horrible and appropriate.

Vagina Care post

I’ve gotten a lot of messages on vaginal care, do’s and don’ts etc. so I’m just going to make a general post of how to take care of your vajayjay (feel free to add on). 

 1. Do not shove anything that isn’t supposed to be in your vagina in your vagina. Your vagina practically does all the work for you, all you have to do is wash it with warm water. Stay away from douches, vagina soap, vaginal deodorants, regular soap, (I’ve heard of girls shoving yogurt and fruits directly in their vagina to keep it fresh?) major no no. Save the vagina food storage for when it’s needed during the zombie apocalypse. 

 2. Eating fruits, vegetables, cranberry juice AND GREEK YOGURT are major keys to balancing your ph which is great for vaginal odor and taste. But if your vagina doesn’t smell or taste like a edible arrangement that’s okay! Nothing is wrong with your vagina. Some girls say that their vaginas taste like freshly cut pineapples after eating pineapples and some girls say their vagina tastes and smell just like a vagina even after stuffing up on pineapples. To each is their own vag.

 a. There is no scientific evidence that your vagina taste sweeter because of fruits and veggies (side note: a “sweet” vagina can sometimes mean diabetes) 

b. A vagina with a balanced ph is naturally tasteless. 

 3. If you don’t want to shave your vagina hair you definitely don’t have to by any means. However, a trimmed vagina decreases vaginal odor, it’s easier to clean during your menstruation, decrease in the amount of dirt and bacteria trapped in hairs. But if you think you smell fine and or have found a balance to maintaining the smell and taking care of your hairs, cornrow your vag hair if you like, shit it’s your body. 

 4. Wear cotton underwear, the thinness allows your vagina to breath. For a happier vagina don’t even wear underwear. My gyno recommended going commando after your day is over and you’re relaxing at home so your vagina is free to live and explore the world. 

 5. Kegals. You gotta keep ya thing tight for bladder control and so ya partner can chase ya waterfalls during intercourse if you know what I mean *wink *wink 💦💦💦 

 6. For all my freak a leaks out there do not switch to vaginal inter course after anal (and if you do switch condoms). This increases your chance of a UTI due to the bacteria from your feces (yes bitch your feces) easily traveling to your vagina. Pee after sex and get all those toxins out of your life girl. 

 7. I can’t stress this enough go to your annual check ups and don’t lie to your doctors! They’re not there to judge, they’re there to make sure your ass is being a healthy hoe. That’s all I can think of for now babes. Feel free to add on. Bless up

FML

We’re reading the Odyssey in my world lit class. I wrote a bit in the discussion board on the nature of the interactions between Athena and Odysseus (she’s championing his cause, amused with him/’this is my human and he will be my human’, as patron goddess of warcraft and strategy, he’s kind of uniquely hers, etc.). This post was well informed, based firmly in the text, in Greek mythology as a whole, and in the tropes of the epic genre.



Not one, but two people commented back, fucking told me I was wrong, and tried to strong-arm the text into proving their pet points……….that Athena’s real motivation, from page one, is to try and get in Odysseus’s pants, and that Odysseus is friendzoning her.

Can I say that again? They literally argued with me and tried to prove that Athena (Athena! - you know, vow-of-virginity, spurns the attentions of any man who comes near her, Athena) wants to fuck Odysseus and that’s the central plot of the epic.

Can I crawl under a rock and stay there forever?

Originally posted by happywayfinder

A Guide To Greek Gods and Heroes:
  • Apollo: trash
  • Jason: trash
  • Medea: dubiously evil queen of my heart
  • Agamemnon: dead trash
  • Clytemnestra: takes out the trash
  • Zeus: walk of shame incarnate
  • Hermes: little shit
  • Hestia: literally no one talks about her
  • Artemis: #misandry
  • Hera: woman, scorned
  • Hades: goth wannabe shit baby
  • Persephone: Per-Step-On-Me
  • Ares: God Of War ™
  • Aphrodite: Walk Walk Fashion Baby
  • Cronus: hide yo kids, hide yo wife
  • Athena: i feel like she plays baseball probably
  • Achilles: I Love My Dead Gay Son
  • Patroclus: “Geez Achilles find your chill.” 
  • Orpheus: Gay
  • Hephaestus: allll byyyy myyyyseeEEEeelf
  • Heracles: why does no one talk about him mucking out those stables?
  • Odysseus: total piece of shit
  • Chiron: tired of everyone’s shit
  • Hecate: my wife

    EDITED TO ADD THE FOLLOWING
  • Patroclus (alt.): Oh look at that. I’ve been impaled.
  • Poseidon: I think you mean Broseidon, bro to the fishes and ponies
  • Dionysus: ambiguously queer and perpetually sloshed
  • Oedipus: the loser of every ‘yo momma’ battle
  • Ajax: Stronger than Grease ™ <-soap reference in case it’s too obscure
  • Circe: basically that scene in Monty Python where all the evil ladies wanna bang
  • Tiresias: Bet he didn’t see that one coming.
  • Cassandra: got the short end of every stick
  • Antigone: that play from high school english that everyone sparknoted
  • Cerberus: whozagoodboyden
  • Hyacinth: what kind of asshole gets killed by a discus?
  • Hippolytus: a fedora sporting MRA
  • Romulus: moon
  • Remus: moon
  • Narcissus: Treat Yo Self

Mr D looks really young and hot like he does in old Greek art, and the majority of campers trip over themselves every time he walks past or get distracted and end up getting hit in the face bc they were checking out Mr D instead of focusing on fighting

anonymous asked:

It's more that he takes up so much screentime that no other character has gotten well-paced growth or a backstory arc. Cassandra suddenly had a call from the hospital that her tumor's worse but she hadn't had symptoms all season? Ezekiel is a super empathetic person for one episode then back to snark 24/7? Eve hasn't gotten focus since S1 Christmas, she's always Flynn's SO. I like him, but they're using him too much and we're going into the fourth season barely knowing any details about the cast

Okay I’m sorry but this actually made me laugh

“he takes up too much screentime”

Out of all 30 episodes, over 3 seasons, Flynn has only been in 16. One of them (And the Eternal Question) he about 10 minutes of screentime. Only 2 of those episodes were even focused on Flynn (”And the Hollow Man” and “And the Trial of the Triangle”).

“no other character has gotten well-paced growth or a backstory arc”

This has nothing to do with Flynn being in episodes. This is entirely because The Librarians is a small show with only 10 episodes per season. There are massive time jumps between episodes and we can only get so much story in 40 minutes.

The backstory of every character has been address in multiple occasions at this point. I mean, Jacob had an entire episode, “And What Lies Beneath the Stone (AKA Coyote)”, dedicated to his previous home life, in “And the Rule of Three” we learn that Cassandra’s family was rather controlling as well as her emotions over her tumor in “And the Heart of Darkness”, and in “And the Curse of Cindy” and “And What Lies Beneath the Stone (AKA Coyote)” we learn that Ezekiel once worked for MI6 and grew up impoverished. Jenkins even got backstory points in “And the Apple of Dischord” and “And the Fatal Separation”, as well as sprinkles of his history throughout other episodes.

I would also like to point out, the first show runner and one of the main writers for 1 and 2, John Rogers, was not fond of throwing backstory at the audience, in fact “backstory arc” probably would have made him cringe.

“Eve hasn’t gotten focus since S1 Christmas”

Eve focused episodes: “And Santa’s Midnight Run”, “And the Loom of Fate”, “And the Infernal Contract”, “And the Image of Image”,  and “And the Self-Fulfilling Prophecy”. We get backstory in two of these episodes as well as a little backstory in “And the Fatal Separation”.

“but they’re using him too much and we’re going into the fourth season barely knowing any details about the cast”

Once again, 16 episodes, and we know a lot about these characters for only 30 episodes, I’m not sure what show you’re watching.

Eve Baird:

  • Military parents, born on Christmas Eve
  • Spent most of her life in the military
  • Went through A LOT to get to her position in NATO including sexual harassment from the people she worked with
  • This resulted with her having some issues with self image and the way people interrupt you based on how you look, and does not like having photos taken of her because of this
  • Stays in touch with the people she fought with, even had a mentor
  • Incredibly protective, only wants the best for the Librarians and the Library
  • Also not “always Flynn’s SO” in “And the Hollow Men” she left his bitch ass behind when he wouldn’t stick around, and was prepared to do it again as many times as she needed to in order to protect Cassandra, Jacob, and Ezekiel
  • BEAT DESTINY LIKE TWICE WHO DOES THAT
  • Growth: Over the past 3 season we’ve watched Eve turn from a hardened boss bitch military solider to someone who cares fiercely but is still learning to be a guardian to someone who understands that the people she works with are human and acts in their best interest

Jacob Stone

  • Rural upbringing with a bitch of a father and a most likely absent mother
  • Worked on an oil rigging firm that his father hoped he would run with him one day whether he wanted to or not
  • Had to grow up with a father who thought he was a dumbass as he taught himself to read ancient greek texts at night
  • Has major league trust issues after spending about 30+ years hiding his identity from people
  • Passionate, will fight for what he believes, even if it’s against people he admires
  • Better singer than Ezekiel
  • Probably would’ve been a professor is he had a different life cause honestly he was enjoying himself way to much in “And the Cost of Education”
  • Doesn’t think too highly of himself when it comes to fighting, before “And the Fatal Separation” he only thought of himself as a bar fighter
  • Incredibly loyal once somebody’s earned his trust
  • Growth: Over the past 3 season Jacob as grown from a distrustful man who hides his abilities from the world to someone is unashamed of his passion and fully trusts the people around him

Cassandra Cillian

  • Had a mom and dad who pushed her to be the best in academics, no matter what she wanted
  • Diagnosed with her tumor at 15 years old
  • Her parents threw out all her STEM trophies when she became too sick to compete 
  • Grew up feeling inadequate, constantly reminder of her mortality as well as having to face her synthesis attacks 
  • Couldn’t go to college, despite how badly she wanted to
  • Child-like at heart, because she grew up with parents who never gave her the chance to believe in magic (they told her Santa wasn’t real when she was 3)
  • Picked her own death date when she was diagnosed with her tumor because she wanted to die on her own terms
  • Feels the need to prove herself because before she thought her gift was a curse that made her useless and now struggles with the idea that her gift is the only thing that makes her useful
  • BISEXUAL AS HELL
  • Growth: We’ve watched Cassandra gain control of her abilities gradually over the course of season 1 then gain confidence as she finds something she’s quite good at (combining science and magic) over season 2 to someone who has learned that she does not need magic or her gift to be useful

Ezekiel

  • Grew up impoverished (with someone else, as he says “we” in his monologue)
  • Was made fun of by the other kids, this made him grow to resent other people and just take what he wants
  • Was recruited by MI6 for his skills (and in fact did enough for and against the MI6 that he has 2 separate files)
  • Believes he’s only good at stealing, and is proud of his abilities
  • Met Flynn once while Flynn was the only Librarian
  • In that same time period, made a name for himself among the underground community of thieves
  • Spent a lot of times in night clubs, enough to be able to easily recognize different symptoms of drug use and how to treat them
  • Still cares greatly for the wellbeing of other people, even though he’s constantly egotistical 
  • He was at one point, the worst version of himself, and wasn’t even that bad
  • Growth: Went from literally the worst version of himself, someone who would bail on the people who needed him and would rather run then punch, to someone who would go through the same torture repeatedly to save his friends and not even boast about it, in fact he fakes forgetting everything, who sacrifice himself to help the cause, and would fight side by side with people who once though he was just an egotistical brat

Jenkins

  • Was once the night Galahad of Camelot
  • Fought his own father, who turned to the Serpent Brotherhood and bring chaos to the world
  • Has spent thousands of years working for the Library, tinkering and enhancing magical objects
  • Does not like the first Librarian, Judson, because he fell in love with the first Guardian, Charlene, but Charlene chose Judson over him
  • Is friends with Mrs. Clause apparently?!?
  • Also performed naked on stage at one point?!!?
  • Unfortunately that’s all I can think of because we haven’t had much with Camelot since season 1 and I’m just waiting for the Jenkins focused episode I need in my life
  • Growth: Grew from a grumpy caretaker who wanted nothing more than to be left alone and not bother to someone who cares deeply for the people he’s become friends with and actually charge into dangerous situations to save them after even being told not to (I mean, dude jumped off a cliff to save Eve man like my gosh)

I would list Flynn’s stuff, but I have 3 movies worth of backstory for him and I can’t properly separate it from the show without having to rewatch everything. 

However, I think at this point it should be rather obvious that Flynn being in only half of the series has done very little to actually affect the developing story and the character growth in The Librarians

2

Holby City AU: Greek Mythology

Hades & Persephone

“I had tasted freedom and yet I went back to you, as the world changed shape and slipped into something unfamiliar. I had found, in the days when we were apart, that I missed the darkness - that I had missed the beauty only you could give”.

Odysseus and the cyclops
  • Polyphemus the cyclops: What's your name?
  • Odysseus: My name is, uh, Nobody. Yeah, that's totally my real name and not a lie. *shoves burning stake into Polyphemus's eye like a total douche*
  • Polyphemus: Aaaaargh! Fellow giants, help me! Nobody has hurt me!
  • Giants: Nobody has hurt you?
  • Polyphemus: Yes! A man with the unlikely name of Nobody has hurt me!
  • Giants: What a douche. Let's get the bastard!
  • Odysseus: OH SHI-

anonymous asked:

how effective is a war hound in combat against, say, an armored knight?

Dogs have a long history of being used in warfare, going back further than the Romans and the Greeks. The vast majority of armies prior to the modern era used dogs to some extent, and they still hold important a positions in our military and police force today. The only reason they no longer have a place on our frontlines is the advent of the gun and a primary focus on ranged warfare, in which the dog like the horse has no place. However, they are still used for guarding and in K-9 units. The German Shepherd has no issue bringing down a full size human.

Historically we have the Molossus and the Alaunt which are both now extinct breeds used by the Romans. However, modern compatriots of these various breeds do exist such as the Mastiff, whose males weigh in between 150 to 250 pounds, and the Irish Wolfhound.

We have records of Irish Wolfhounds being used by the Irish to bring down Norman knights on horseback during their invasion and eventual conquest of Ireland. Their role was to catch the horse and drag the knight from the saddle to be killed.

However, it’s worth noting that dogs don’t go into battle alone. They are pack animals and they travel in teams. An armored knight wouldn’t be fighting a singular dog, he’d be fighting multiple armored dogs and possibly also their handler. These dogs when on their hind legs could almost certainly reach his throat and are more than capable of bowling him over or knocking him to the ground.

He’d be battling in melee, with the fight surging around him. So, there would be other humans whether other knights or various soldiers who could potentially finish whatever the dogs start. Or the dogs finish whatever they start.

While versus ideas are always fun to contemplate, it’s important to remember that warfare from melee to modern is not about dueling. It’s team. Like their dogs, soldiers fight together. It’s not about the individual, but the unit.

Those who fight together, survive together.

Much as we romanticize the lone knight, CIA agent, or soldier who sticks it to the man and makes their own decisions, that’s not how warfare works. Even if you choose to go this route in your storytelling, remember that there are many participating actors taking part.

The danger of the dog is the other dogs and the man or woman standing behind them.

The good news if you want to write about war dogs is that dogs haven’t changed much and their training generally revolves around their natural instincts. So, a better understanding of medieval warfare and studying the historical usage of dogs in combat will give you a good idea of what they were used for and how to write them.

-Michi

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References and Resources

Dogs in Warfare - Wikipedia is a great place to go for a cursory look, but it is not the only stop you should make. The links at the bottom of the page are particularly helpful when it comes to establishing a wider scholarly base to work from in your research.

Dogs of War - Rome Across Europe’s article does a run down of the historical uses of various war dog types, with a focus on Rome and up to the present. If you want a focus on particular types of war dogs, you’ll need to do a scholarly dig in when it comes to historical periods.

War dogs among the Early Irish

Quartermaster War Dog Program: this page talks about the different types of dogs used in 1942, just a reminder that the usage of dogs in war extends far beyond their use on the battlefield itself. From detecting snipers, to delivering messages, and sniffing out scouts, the war dog has had many important roles throughout history that shouldn’t be overlooked.

(Some) College Majors and the Gods of Olympus

This is the product of me stressing out about college.

Biochemistry- Apollo
Archaeology- Muse Clio / Athena
Information Technology- Hermes
Computer Science- Athena
Political Science- Athena / Zeus
Chemistry- Athena / Apollo
Aerospace Engineering- Hephaestus
Structural Engineering- Hephaestus
Philosophy- Athena
Communications- Hermes
Criminal Justice- Dike
Statistics- Athena
Anthropology- Athena
Psychology- Dionysus
Premed- Apollo
History- Athena / Muse Clio
English- Apollo
Film- Dionysus
Creative Writing- Apollo / Athena
Astrophysics- Muse Urania / Athena
Physics- Athena / Hephaestus
Nursing- Apollo / Aphrodite
Marine Biology- Poseidon
Accounting- Hermes
Finance- Hermes
Art History- Athena / Muses
Music Performance- Apollo / Muses
Graphic Design- Apollo
Civil Engineering- Athena
Mechanical Engineering- Hephaestus
Economics- Hermes
Architecture- Hestia / Athena
Aviation- Zeus / Athena
Education- Athena
Horticulture- Demeter
Social Work- Aphrodite
Electrical Engineering- Zeus / Hephaestus
Actuarial Science- Hermes
Child Development- Hera
Family studies- Hera
Agriculture- Demeter
Fashion design- Aphrodite
Performing Arts- Apollo / Muses

Feel free to continue the list or correct me if I’m inaccurate

Embracing Greece- Week 2

This week’s theme: Naming!

Last week we embraced Greece via Geography .So this week we embrace Greece via Naming!

Greece is known to have sumbitted many great names originated from Ancient Greece that used to serve brave warriors like Achilles (Αχιλλέας- Ahilléas) or famous philosophers like Socrates (Σωκράτης- Sokrátis). However…in the news everyday we hear names like Alexis Tsipras (Αλέξης Τσίπρας- Current Prime Minister of Greece). How did this happen?

Let’s find out!

Keep reading

Friendly reminder that part of the reason Alexander the Great kicked so much ass in battle was that he and his father both based a lot of their tactics on those of the Theban forces defeated during the solidification of Macedon’s power.

More specifically, The Sacred Band.

An army composed entirely of pairs of lovers.

Just, friendly reminder. Ya know. History.

Hermes Trismegistus (Greek for “Hermes the thrice-greatest” or Mercurius ter Maximus in Latin, is the syncretism of the Greek god Hermes and the Egyptian Thoth. In Hellenistic Egypt, the god Hermes was given as epithet the Greek name of Thoth. He has also been identified with Enoch. Other similar syncretized gods include Serapis and Hermanubis.

Hermes Trismegistus might also be explained in Euhemerist fashion as a man who was the son of the god, and in the Kabbalistic tradition that was inherited by the Renaissance, it could be imagined that such a personage had been contemporary with Moses, communicating to a line of adepts a parallel wisdom. A historian, however, would leave such speculation to the history of alchemy and the nineteenth-century history of occultism.

Both Thoth and Hermes were gods of writing and of magic in their respective cultures. Thus the Greek god of interpretive communication was combined with the Egyptian god of wisdom as a patron of astrology and alchemy. In addition, both gods were psychopomps, guiding souls to the afterlife.

The majority of Greeks, and later Romans, did not accept Hermes Trismegistus in the place of Hermes. The two gods remained distinct from one another.

The Hermetic literature added to the Egyptian concerns with conjuring spirits and animating statues that inform the oldest texts, Hellenistic writings of Greco-Babylonian astrology and the newly developed practice of alchemy. In a parallel tradition, Hermetic philosophy rationalized and systematized religious cult practices and offered the adept a method of personal ascension from the constraints of physical being, which has led to confusion of Hermeticism with Gnosticism, which was developing contemporaneously Dan Merkur, “Stages of Ascension in Hermetic Rebirth”.

As a divine fountain of writing, Hermes Trismegistus was credited with tens of thousands of writings of high standing, reputed to be of immense antiquity. Plato’s Timaeus and Critias state that in the temple of Neith at Sais, there were secret halls containing historical records which had been kept for 9,000 years. Clement of Alexandria was under the impression that the Egyptians had forty-two sacred writings by Hermes, encapsulating all the training of Egyptian priests. Siegfried Morenz has suggested (Egyptian Religion) “The reference to Thoth’s authorship…is based on ancient tradition; the figure forty-two probably stems from the number of Egyptian nomes, and thus conveys the notion of completeness.” The Neo-Platonic writers took up Clement’s “forty-two essential texts”.

The so-called “Hermetic literature”, the Hermetica, is a category of papyri containing spells and induction procedures. In the dialogue called the Asclepius (after the Greek god of healing) the art of imprisoning the souls of demons or of angels in statues with the help of herbs, gems and odors, is described, such that the statue could speak and prophesy. In other papyri, there are other recipes for constructing such images and animating them, such as when images are to be fashioned hollow so as to enclose a magic name inscribed on gold leaf.

During the Middle Ages and the Renaissance, the writings attributed to Hermes Trismegistus known as Hermetica enjoyed great credit and were popular among alchemists. The “hermetic tradition” therefore refers to alchemy, magic, astrology and related subjects. The texts are usually distinguished in two categories the “philosophical” and “technical” hermetica. The former deals mainly with issues of philosophy, and the latter with magic, potions and alchemy. Among other things there are spells to magically protect objects, hence the origin of the term “Hermetically sealed”.

The classical scholar Isaac Casaubon in De Rebus sacris et ecclesiaticis exercitiones XVI (1614) showed, by the character of the Greek, the texts that were traditionally written at the dawn of time, to be more recent: most of the “philosophical” Corpus Hermeticum can be dated to around AD 300. However, flaws in this identification were uncovered by the 17th century scholar Ralph Cudworth, who argued that Casaubon’s allegation of forgery could only be applied to three of the seventeen treatises contained within the Corpus Hermeticum. Moreover, Cudworth noted Casaubon’s failure to acknowledge the codification of these treatises as a late formulation of a pre-existing (possibly oral) tradition. According to Cudworth, the text must be viewed as a terminus ad quem and not a quo.

Modern occultists continue to suggest that some of these texts may be of Pharaonic origin, and that “the forty two essential texts” that contained the core work of his religious beliefs and his life philosophy remain hidden away in a secret library.